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3.
Am Heart J ; 220: 253-263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery induces hemodynamic stress on the myocardium, and this process can be associated with significant post-operative morbidity and mortality. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and galectin-3 (gal-3) are biomarkers of myocardial remodeling and fibrosis; however, their potential association with post-operative changes is unknown. METHODS: We measured peri-operative plasma sST2 and gal-3 levels in two prospective cohorts (TRIBE-AKI and NNE) of over 1800 patients who underwent cardiac surgery. sST2 and gal-3 levels were evaluated for association with a composite primary outcome of cardiovascular event or mortality over median follow-up periods of 3.4 and 6.0 years, respectively, for the two cohorts. Meta-analysis of hazard ratio estimates from the cohorts was performed using random effects models. RESULTS: Cohorts demonstrated event rates of 70.2 and 66.8 per 1000 person-years for the primary composite outcome. After adjustment for clinical covariates, higher post-operative sST2 and gal-3 levels were significantly associated with cardiovascular event or mortality [pooled estimate HRs: sST2 1.29 (95% CI 1.16, 1.44); gal-3 1.26 (95% CI 1.09, 1.46)]. These associations were not significantly modified by pre-operative congestive heart failure or AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Higher post-operative sST2 and gal-3 values were associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular event or mortality. These two biomarkers should be further studied for potential clinical utility for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

4.
Am Heart J ; 221: 84-94, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays enhance detection of lower circulating troponin concentrations, but the impact on outcomes in clinical practice is unclear. Our objective was to compare outcomes of chest pain patients discharged from emergency departments (EDs) using hs-cTn and conventional troponin (cTn) assays. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of chest pain patients aged 40-105 years who presented to an ED from April 1, 2013, to March 31, 2017, and were discharged home. We compared 30-day and 1-year outcomes of EDs that used hs-cTn versus cTn assays. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or unstable angina. Comparisons were conducted with (1) no adjustment; (2) adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and hospital characteristics; and (3) full clinical adjustment. RESULTS: Among the 394,910 patients, 62,138 (15.7%) were evaluated at hs-cTn EDs and 332,772 (84.3%) were evaluated at cTn EDs. Patients discharged from hs-cTn EDs were less likely to have diabetes, hypertension, or prior heart disease. At 30 days, the unadjusted primary outcome rate was lower in hs-cTn EDs (0.9% vs 1.0%, P < .001). The 30-day hazard ratios for the primary outcome were 0.84 (95% CI 0.77-0.92) for no adjustment and 0.98 (95% CI 0.88-1.08) for full adjustment. Over 1 year, patients discharged from hs-cTn EDs had significantly fewer primary outcomes (3.7% vs 4.1%, P < .001) and lower hazard ratio (0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.98) even after full adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Hs-cTn testing was associated with a significantly lower adjusted hazard of myocardial infarction, angina, and all-cause hospitalization at 1 year but not 30 days.

5.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 57(1): 168-175, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using data from the CORONARY trial (n = 4752), we evaluated the incidence and prognostic significance of myocardial infarction (MI) applying different definitions based on peak postoperative creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme and cardiac troponin levels. We then aimed to identify the peak cardiac troponin during the first 3 postoperative days that was independently associated with a 2-fold increase in 30-day mortality. METHODS: To combine different assays, we analysed cardiac troponins in multiples of their respective upper limit of normal (ULN). We identified the lowest threshold with a hazard ratio (HR) >2 for 30-day mortality independent of EuroSCORE and on- versus off-pump surgery. RESULTS: Depending on the definition used based on creatine kinase-MB, the incidence of MI after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) ranged from 0.6% to 19% and the associated HRs for 30-day mortality ranged from 2.7 to 6.9. Using cardiac troponin (1528 patients), the incidence of MI ranged from 1.7% to 13% depending on the definition used with HRs for 30-day mortality ranging from 5.1 to 7.2. The first cardiac troponin threshold we evaluated, 180xULN, was associated with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-17.1] when compared to <130xULN. The next independent threshold was 130xULN with an adjusted HR for 30-day mortality of 7.8 (95% CI 2.3-26.1). The next cardiac troponin tested threshold (70xULN) did not meet criteria for significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate that the incidence and prognosis of a post-CABG MI varies based on the definition used. Validated post-CABG MI diagnostic criteria formulated from their independent association with important clinical outcomes are needed.

6.
Ann Intern Med ; 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

7.
Semin Thromb Hemost ; 45(8): 784-792, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622992

RESUMO

The ability to predict death or other unfavorable outcomes after an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is challenging, with current available risk score models having relatively unsatisfactory prognostic performance in this area. For example, the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI), the most frequently used stratification tool, misclassifies a significant percentage of low- and high-risk patients. This gap in care, along with the increasing clinical availability of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) laboratory tests and the recent emphasis on detecting myocardial injury, may foster further evaluation of hs-cTn testing in patients with acute PE. Our analysis of the current scientific literature on hs-cTn in patients with acute PE identified that hs-cTn testing may provide valuable information for predicting future adverse outcomes and mortality, independently from baseline clinical risk assessment. Although the risk of an adverse event is indeed higher in patients with higher sPESI scores, cTns retain their prognostic value also in those at low risk, suggesting that a combination of hs-cTn with sPESI may provide an incremental value over assessment of either variable alone. Accordingly, the future development of updated risk stratification models, with the inclusion of laboratory tests such as hs-cTn, may represent an enhanced approach for risk stratification in patients with acute PE. Additional research, however, is needed to verify whether the combination of cTns, specifically as measured with hs-cTn assays, with other biomarkers may further improve the current capacity to efficiently manage patients with acute PE.

9.
J Appl Lab Med ; 4(2): 170-179, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have illustrated how a low or undetectable high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) concentration at emergency department (ED) presentation can rule out myocardial infarction (MI). A problem with using an undetectable hs-cTn cutoff is that this value may be defined differently among hospitals and is also difficult to monitor. In the present study, we assess the diagnostic performance of a clinical chemistry score (CCS) vs hs-cTn alone in the presentation blood sample in the ED for patient hospital admission in a multicenter setting. METHODS: From January 1 to June 30, 2018, consecutive patients with random glucose, creatinine (for an estimated glomerular filtration rate calculation), and hs-cTnI (Abbott, 2 hospitals, Hamilton, Ontario, n = 10496) or hs-cTnT (Roche, 4 hospitals, Calgary, Alberta, n = 25177) were assessed for hospital admission with the CCS (range of scores, 0-5) or hs-cTn alone. Sensitivity, specificity, predicative values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for a CCS of 0 and 5 and for hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI cutoffs, 5 and 26 ng/L; hs-cTnT cutoffs, 6 and 14 ng/L). RESULTS: The CCS of 0 (CCS <1) identified approximately 10% of all patients as low risk and had a sensitivity for hospital admission of nearly 98% as compared to <93% when hs-cTnT (<6 ng/L) or hs-cTnI (<5 ng/L) cutoffs alone were used. A CCS ≥5 had a specificity for hospital admission >95%, with approximately 14% of patients at high risk. CONCLUSIONS: An ED disposition (admit or send home) using the presentation blood sample could occur in nearly 25% of all patients by use of the CCS.

14.
Clin Chem ; 65(10): 1221-1227, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387884

RESUMO

The IFCC Committee on Clinical Applications of Cardiac Bio-Markers (C-CB) has directives and initiatives focused on providing evidence-based educational resources to aid and improve understanding around key analytical and clinical aspects of cardiac biomarkers used in clinical practice and the research setting. As a task force, we have previously published position statements and recommendations focused on use and analytical aspects of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. The current educational document is the first from the C-CB highlighting important biochemical, analytical, and clinical aspects as they relate to the natriuretic peptides (NPs), including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), with a focus on heart failure.

15.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(5): 1070-1082, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is a systemic catabolic condition affecting skeletal muscle and fat. We aimed to determine whether cardiac atrophy occurs in this condition and assess its association with cardiac function, symptoms, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Treatment naïve metastatic non-small cell lung cancer patients (n = 50) were assessed prior to and 4 months after commencement of carboplatin-based palliative chemotherapy. Methods included echocardiography for left ventricular mass (LVM) and LV function [LV ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain (GLS), diastolic function], computed tomography to quantify skeletal muscle and total adipose tissue, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS), validated questionnaires for dyspnoea and fatigue, plasma biomarkers, tumour response to therapy, and overall survival. RESULTS: During 112 ± 6 days, the median change in LVM was -8.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -10.8 to -4.8, P < 0.001]. Quartiles of LVM loss were -20.1%, -12.9%, -4.8%, and +5.5%. Losses of muscle, adipose tissue, and LVM were frequently concurrent; LVM loss > median value was associated with loss of skeletal muscle [odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.4-14.8, P=0.01] and loss of total adipose tissue (OR = 10.0, 95% CI: 2.7-36.7, P < 0.001). LVM loss was associated with decreased GLS (OR = 6.6, 95% CI: 1.9-22.7, P=0.003) but not with LV ejection fraction or diastolic function. In the population overall, plasma levels of C-reactive protein (P=0.008), high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) (P=0.03), and galectin-3 (P=0.02) increased over time, while N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide and hs-cTnI did not change over time. C-reactive protein was the only biomarker associated with LVM loss but at the univariate level only. Independent predictors of LVM loss were prior weight loss (adjusted OR = 10.2, 95% CI: 2.2-46.9, P=0.003) and tumour progression (adjusted OR = 14.6, 95% CI: 1.4-153.9, P=0.02). LVM loss was associated with exacerbations of fatigue (OR = 6.6, 95% CI: 1.9-22.7, P=0.003), dyspnoea (OR = 9.3, 95% CI: 2.4-35.8, P<0.001), and deterioration of performance status (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.3-18.3,P=0.02). Patients with concurrent loss of LVM, skeletal muscle, and fat were more likely to deteriorate in all three symptom domains and to have reduced survival (P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intense LVM atrophy is associated with non-small cell lung cancer-induced cachexia. Loss of LVM was associated with emerging alterations of GLS, indicating subtle changes in left ventricular function. Longer term studies are needed to assess the full scope of cardiac atrophy and its impact. LVM atrophy arises in conjunction with losses of fat and skeletal muscle and is temporally associated with meaningful declines in performance status, worsening of fatigue, and dyspnoea, as well as poorer tumour response and decreased survival. The specific contribution of LVM atrophy to these outcomes requires further study.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
20.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(6): 648-657, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037586

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elevated cardiac troponin concentrations in people with critical illness are associated with an increased risk of death. We aimed to assess the feasibility of a larger study to ascertain the utility of cardiac troponin as a prognostic tool for mortality in critically ill patients. METHODS: Patients admitted to participating intensive care units during the one-month enrolment period were eligible. We excluded cardiac surgical patients and patients who were admitted and either died or were discharged within 12 hr. In enrolled patients, we measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and obtained electrocardiograms to ascertain the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and isolated troponin elevation. Our feasibility objectives were to measure recruitment rate, the proportion of patients who consented under a deferred consent model, and time required for data collection and study procedures. RESULTS: Over a four-week enrolment period, 280 patients were enrolled using a deferred consent model. We obtained subsequent consent from 81% of patients. Study procedures and data collection required 1.7 hr per participant. Overall, 86 (38%) suffered a MI, 23 (10%) had an isolated hs-cTnI elevation, and 117 (52%) had no hs-cTnI elevation. The crude hospital mortality rate was 10% without an hs-cTnI elevation, 29% with an isolated hs-cTnl elevation (relative risk [RR]) 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 6.0) and 29% with an MI (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1). CONCLUSION: Myocardial injury with elevated hs-cTnI concentrations and MIs occur frequently during critical illness. This pilot study has established the feasibility of conducting a large-scale investigation addressing this issue.

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