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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833419

RESUMO

While the advent of GWAS more than a decade ago has ushered in remarkable advances in our understanding of complex traits, the limitations of single-SNP analysis have also led to the development of several other approaches. Simulation studies have shown that the regional heritability mapping (RHM) method, which makes use of multiple adjacent SNPs jointly to estimate the genetic effect of a given region of the genome, generally has higher detection power than single-SNP GWAS. However, thus far its use has been mostly limited to agricultural settings, and its potential for the discovery of new genes in human diseases is yet to be fully exploited. In this study, by applying the RHM method to primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in the Japanese population, we identified three novel loci (STAT4, ULK4, and KCNH5) at the genome-wide significance level, two of which (ULK4 and KCNH5) have not been found associated with PBC in any population previously. Notably, these genes could not be detected by using conventional single-SNP GWAS, highlighting the potential of the RHM method for the detection of new susceptibility loci in human diseases. These findings thereby provide strong empirical evidence that RHM is an effective and practical complementary approach to GWAS in this context. Also, liver tissue mRNA microarray analysis revealed higher gene expression levels in ULK4 in PBC patients (P < 0.01). Lastly, we estimated the common SNP heritability of PBC in the Japanese population (0.210 ± 0.026).

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3703, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654122

RESUMO

Hepatitis B (HB) vaccines (Heptavax-II and Bimmugen) designed based on HBV genotypes A and C are mainly used for vaccination against HB in Japan. To determine whether there are differences in the genetic background associated with vaccine responsiveness, genome-wide association studies were performed on 555 Heptavax-II and 1193 Bimmugen recipients. Further HLA imputation and detailed analysis of the association with HLA genes showed that two haplotypes, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 and DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01, were significantly associated in comparison with high-responders (HBsAb > 100 mIU/mL) for the two HB vaccines. In particular, HLA-DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 haplotype is of great interest in the sense that it could only be detected by direct analysis of the high-responders in vaccination with Heptavax-II or Bimmugen. Compared with healthy controls, DRB1*13:02-DQB1*06:04 was significantly less frequent in high-responders when vaccinated with Heptavax-II, indicating that high antibody titers were less likely to be obtained with Heptavax-II. As Bimmugen and Heptavax-II tended to have high and low vaccine responses to DRB1*13:02, 15 residues were found in the Heptavax-II-derived antigenic peptide predicted to have the most unstable HLA-peptide binding. Further functional analysis of selected hepatitis B patients with HLA haplotypes identified in this study is expected to lead to an understanding of the mechanisms underlying liver disease.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4557, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633225

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive cholestatic liver disease in which intrahepatic bile ducts are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction. Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified chromosome 11q23.1 as a susceptibility gene locus for PBC in the Japanese population. Here, high-density association mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation and in silico/in vitro functional analyses identified rs1944919 as the primary functional variant. Expression-quantitative trait loci analyses showed that the PBC susceptibility allele of rs1944919 was significantly associated with increased COLCA1/COLCA2 expression levels. Additionally, the effects of rs1944919 on COLCA1/COLCA2 expression levels were confirmed using genotype knock-in versions of cell lines constructed using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and differed between rs1944919-G/G clones and -T/T clones. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the contribution of COLCA1/COLCA2 to PBC susceptibility.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542050

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental mycobacteria that can cause a chronic progressive lung disease. Although epidemiological data indicate potential genetic predisposition, its nature remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify host susceptibility loci for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), the most common NTM pathogen. METHODS: This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted in Japanese patients with pulmonary MAC and healthy controls, followed by genotyping of candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in another Japanese cohort. For verification by Korean and European ancestry, we performed SNP genotyping. RESULTS: The GWAS discovery set included 475 pulmonary MAC cases and 417 controls. Both GWAS and replication analysis of 591 pulmonary MAC cases and 718 controls revealed the strongest association with chromosome 16p21, particularly with rs109592 (p=1.64E-13, odds ratio=0.54), which is in an intronic region of the calcineurin like EF-hand protein 2 (CHP2). Expression quantitative trait loci analysis demonstrated an association with lung CHP2 expression. CHP2 was expressed in the lung tissue in pulmonary MAC disease. This SNP was associated with the nodular bronchiectasis subtype. This SNP was also significantly associated with the disease in patients of Korean (p=2.18E-12, odds ratio=0.54) and European (p=5.12E-03, odds ratio=0.63) ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: We identified rs109592 in the CHP2 locus as a susceptibility marker for pulmonary MAC disease.

5.
J Hum Genet ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495571

RESUMO

The "Dual Structure" model on the formation of the modern Japanese population assumes that the indigenous hunter-gathering population (symbolized as Jomon people) admixed with rice-farming population (symbolized as Yayoi people) who migrated from the Asian continent after the Yayoi period started. The Jomon component remained high both in Ainu and Okinawa people who mainly reside in northern and southern Japan, respectively, while the Yayoi component is higher in the mainland Japanese (Yamato people). The model has been well supported by genetic data, but the Yamato population was mostly represented by people from Tokyo area. We generated new genome-wide SNP data using Japonica Array for 45 individuals in Izumo City of Shimane Prefecture and for 72 individuals in Makurazaki City of Kagoshima Prefecture in Southern Kyushu, and compared these data with those of other human populations in East Asia, including BioBank Japan data. Using principal component analysis, phylogenetic network, and f4 tests, we found that Izumo, Makurazaki, and Tohoku populations are slightly differentiated from Kanto (including Tokyo), Tokai, and Kinki regions. These results suggest the substructure within Mainland Japanese maybe caused by multiple migration events from the Asian continent following the Jomon period, and we propose a modified version of "Dual Structure" model called the "Inner-Dual Structure" model.

6.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were under mesalamine treatment develop adverse reactions called "mesalamine allergy," which includes high fever and worsening diarrhea. Currently, there is no method to predict mesalamine allergy. Pharmacogenomic approaches may help identify these patients. Here we analyzed the genetic background of mesalamine intolerance in the first genome-wide association study of Japanese patients with IBD. METHODS: Two independent pharmacogenetic IBD cohorts were analyzed: the MENDEL (n = 1523; as a discovery set) and the Tohoku (n = 788; as a replication set) cohorts. Genome-wide association studies were performed in each population, followed by a meta-analysis. In addition, we constructed a polygenic risk score model and combined genetic and clinical factors to model mesalamine intolerance. RESULTS: In the combined cohort, mesalamine-induced fever and/or diarrhea was significantly more frequent in ulcerative colitis vs Crohn's disease. The genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis identified one significant association between rs144384547 (upstream of RGS17) and mesalamine-induced fever and diarrhea (P = 7.21e-09; odds ratio = 11.2). The estimated heritability of mesalamine allergy was 25.4%, suggesting a significant correlation with the genetic background. Furthermore, a polygenic risk score model was built to predict mesalamine allergy (P = 2.95e-2). The combined genetic/clinical prediction model yielded a higher area under the curve than did the polygenic risk score or clinical model alone (area under the curve, 0.89; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 90.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mesalamine allergy was more common in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease. We identified a novel genetic association with and developed a combined clinical/genetic model for this adverse event.

7.
J Hum Genet ; 66(1): 39-52, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097812

RESUMO

Studies in human genetics deal with a plethora of human genome sequencing data that are generated from specimens as well as available on public domains. With the development of various bioinformatics applications, maintaining the productivity of research, managing human genome data, and analyzing downstream data is essential. This review aims to guide struggling researchers to process and analyze these large-scale genomic data to extract relevant information for improved downstream analyses. Here, we discuss worldwide human genome projects that could be integrated into any data for improved analysis. Obtaining human whole-genome sequencing data from both data stores and processes is costly; therefore, we focus on the development of data format and software that manipulate whole-genome sequencing. Once the sequencing is complete and its format and data processing tools are selected, a computational platform is required. For the platform, we describe a multi-cloud strategy that balances between cost, performance, and customizability. A good quality published research relies on data reproducibility to ensure quality results, reusability for applications to other datasets, as well as scalability for the future increase of datasets. To solve these, we describe several key technologies developed in computer science, including workflow engine. We also discuss the ethical guidelines inevitable for human genomic data analysis that differ from model organisms. Finally, the future ideal perspective of data processing and analysis is summarized.

8.
Sci Adv ; 6(51)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355142

RESUMO

Rs671 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (ALDH2) is the cause of Asian alcohol flushing response after drinking. ALDH2 detoxifies endogenous aldehydes, which are the major source of DNA damage repaired by the Fanconi anemia pathway. Here, we show that the rs671 defective allele in combination with mutations in the alcohol dehydrogenase 5 gene, which encodes formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH5FDH ), causes a previously unidentified disorder, AMeD (aplastic anemia, mental retardation, and dwarfism) syndrome. Cellular studies revealed that a decrease in the formaldehyde tolerance underlies a loss of differentiation and proliferation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells. Moreover, Adh5-/-Aldh2 E506K/E506K double-deficient mice recapitulated key clinical features of AMeDS, showing short life span, dwarfism, and hematopoietic failure. Collectively, our results suggest that the combined deficiency of formaldehyde clearance mechanisms leads to the complex clinical features due to overload of formaldehyde-induced DNA damage, thereby saturation of DNA repair processes.

9.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2020(11): rjaa359, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214863

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC) are rare primary liver tumors. In few cases, they may invade nearby organs and present as extrahepatic growths, leading to poor prognosis. We report a case of a 78-year-old man who presented with fatigue. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to find a cause for his anemia, which showed a submucosal tumor with delle at the lesser curvature of the gastric cardia. A computed tomography revealed a low-density tumor of diameter 70 mm at the cardia. It appeared to infiltrate the liver directly. We performed lateral hepatectomy, proximal gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy. The pathological findings revealed an ICC with gastric infiltration. Although adjuvant chemotherapy was administered, 12 months postoperatively, the patient developed pain and multiple bone metastases for which palliative radiation was initiated. The guidelines for lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy in such cases are unclear. Appropriate regional lymphadenectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of such patients.

10.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 31, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a key role in the development of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, previous findings are not widely applicable to different populations because of population-specific genetic variation. We developed a Japanese-specific DNA microarray for high-throughput genotyping. The aim of the current study was to identify SNPs associated with PONV on a genome-wide scale using this microarray in a sample of Japanese surgical patients. METHODS: Associations between 659,636 SNPs and the incidence of PONV 24 h after surgery in a limited sample of 24 female patients were assessed using the microarray. After imputation of genotypes at 24,330,529 SNPs, 78 SNPs were found to be associated with the incidence of PONV. We chose 4 of the 78 SNPs to focus on by in silico functional annotation. Finally, we genotyped these 4 candidate SNPs in 255 patients using real-time PCR to verify association with the incidence of PONV. RESULTS: The T > C variant of rs11232965 in the long non-coding RNA MIR4300HG was significantly associated with reduced incidence of PONV among genotypes and between alleles (p = 0.01 and 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel SNP (rs11232965) in the long non-coding RNA MIR4300HG that is associated with PONV. The rs11232965-SNP variant (T > C) is protective against the incidence of PONV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (Identifier: UMIN000022903 , date of registration: June 27, 2016, retrospectively registered.

11.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934361

RESUMO

The Eurasian house mouse Mus musculus is useful for tracing prehistorical human movement related to the spread of farming. We determined whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences (ca. 16,000 bp) of 98 wild-derived individuals of two subspecies, M. m. musculus (MUS) and M. m. castaneus (CAS). We revealed directional dispersals reaching as far as the Japanese Archipelago from their homelands. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that the eastward movement of MUS was characterised by five step-wise regional extension events: (1) broad spatial expansion into eastern Europe and the western part of western China, (2) dispersal to the eastern part of western China, (3) dispersal to northern China, (4) dispersal to the Korean Peninsula and (5) colonisation and expansion in the Japanese Archipelago. These events were estimated to have occurred during the last 2000-18,000 years. The dispersal of CAS was characterised by three events: initial divergences (ca. 7000-9000 years ago) of haplogroups in northernmost China and the eastern coast of India, followed by two population expansion events that likely originated from the Yangtze River basin to broad areas of South and Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Indonesia (ca. 4000-6000 years ago) and to Yunnan, southern China and the Japanese Archipelago (ca. 2000-3500). This study provides a solid framework for the spatiotemporal movement of the human-associated organisms in Holocene Eastern Eurasia using whole mtDNA sequences, reliable evolutionary rates and accurate branching patterns. The information obtained here contributes to the analysis of a variety of animals and plants associated with prehistoric human migration.

12.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(8): 1124-1135, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766473

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is supposed to manifest its metabolic phenotype in the liver, but it is common to have lean individuals diagnosed with NAFLD, known as lean NAFLD. We conducted a two-stage analysis to identify NAFLD-associated loci in Japanese patients. In stage I, 275 metabolically healthy normal-weight patients with NAFLD were compared with 1,411 non-NAFLD controls adjusted for age, sex, and alcohol consumption by a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In stage II, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in chromosome 6 (chr6) (P = 6.73E-08), microRNA (MIR) MIR548F3 in chr7 (P = 4.25E-07), myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) in chr12 (P = 4.39E-07), and glycoprotein precursor (GPC)6 in chr13 (P = 5.43E-07), as suggested by the GWAS, were assessed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association analysis of whole NAFLD against non-NAFLD in 9,726 members of the general population. A minor allele of the secondary lead SNP in chr6, rs2076529, was significantly associated (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-1.28; P = 2.10E-06) and the lead SNP in chr7 was weakly associated (OR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.27; P = 6.19E-03) with increased NAFLD risk. Imputation-based typing of HLA showed a significant difference in the distribution of HLA-B, HLA-DR-beta chain 1 (DRB1), and HLA-DQ-beta chain 1 (DQB1) alleles in lean NAFLD GWAS. Next-generation sequence-based typing of HLA in 5,649 members of the general population replicated the significant difference of HLA-B allele distribution and the significant increase of the HLA-B*54:01 allele in whole NAFLD. Fecal metagenomic analysis of 3,420 members of the general population showed significant dissimilarity in beta-diversity analysis of rs2076529 and HLA-B*54:01 allele carriers from noncarriers. Veillonellaceae was increased but Verrucomicrobia was decreased in rs2076529 minor allele and HLA-B*54:01 allele carriers as in NAFLD. Conclusion: HLA was identified as a novel locus associated with NAFLD susceptibility, which might be affected by the alteration of gut microbiota.

13.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(7)2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664326

RESUMO

A genome wide association study reported that the T allele of rs2294008 in a cancer-related gene, PSCA, is a risk allele for diffuse-type gastric cancer. This allele has the highest frequency (0.63) in Japanese in Tokyo (JPT) among 26 populations in the 1000 Genomes Project database. FST ≈ 0.26 at this single nucleotide polymorphism is one of the highest between JPT and the genetically close Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB). To understand the evolutionary history of the alleles in PSCA, we addressed: (i) whether the C non-risk allele at rs2294008 is under positive selection, and (ii) why the mainland Japanese population has a higher T allele frequency than other populations. We found that haplotypes harboring the C allele are composed of two subhaplotypes. We detected that positive selection on both subhaplotypes has occurred in the East Asian lineage. However, the selection on one of the subhaplotypes in JPT seems to have been relaxed or ceased after divergence from the continental population; this may have caused the elevation of T allele frequency. Based on simulations under the dual structure model (a specific demography for the Japanese) and phylogenetic analysis with ancient DNA, the T allele at rs2294008 might have had high frequency in the Jomon people (one of the ancestral populations of the modern Japanese); this may explain the high T allele frequency in the extant Japanese.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10236, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581322

RESUMO

Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses have enabled us to predict the function of disease susceptibility SNPs. However, eQTL for the effector memory T cells (TEM) located in the lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs), which play an important role in Crohn's disease (CD), are not yet available. Thus, we conducted RNA sequencing and eQTL analyses of TEM cells located in the LPMCs from IBD patients (n = 20). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using genotyping data of 713 Japanese CD patients and 2,063 controls. We compared the results of GWAS and eQTL of TEM, and also performed a transcriptome-wide association study using eQTL from Genotype Tissue Expression project. By eQTL analyses of TEM, correlations of possible candidates were confirmed in 22,632 pairs and 2,463 genes. Among these candidates, 19 SNPs which showed significant correlation with tenascin-XA (TNXA) expression were significantly associated with CD in GWAS. By TWAS, TNFSF15 (FDR = 1.35e-13) in whole blood, ERV3-1 (FDR = 2.18e-2) in lymphocytes, and ZNF713 (FDR = 3.04e-2) in the sigmoid colon was significantly associated with CD. By conducting integration analyses using GWAS and eQTL data, we confirmed multiple gene transcripts are involved in the development of CD.

15.
Kidney Int ; 98(5): 1308-1322, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554042

RESUMO

To understand the genetics of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), we conducted a genome-wide association study in 987 childhood SSNS patients and 3,206 healthy controls with Japanese ancestry. Beyond known associations in the HLA-DR/DQ region, common variants in NPHS1-KIRREL2 (rs56117924, P=4.94E-20, odds ratio (OR) =1.90) and TNFSF15 (rs6478109, P=2.54E-8, OR=0.72) regions achieved genome-wide significance and were replicated in Korean, South Asian and African populations. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses including Japanese, Korean, South Asian, African, European, Hispanic and Maghrebian populations confirmed the significant associations of variants in NPHS1-KIRREL2 (Pmeta=6.71E-28, OR=1.88) and TNFSF15 (Pmeta=5.40E-11, OR=1.33) loci. Analysis of the NPHS1 risk alleles with glomerular NPHS1 mRNA expression from the same person revealed allele specific expression with significantly lower expression of the transcript derived from the risk haplotype (Wilcox test p=9.3E-4). Because rare pathogenic variants in NPHS1 cause congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNSF), the present study provides further evidence that variation along the allele frequency spectrum in the same gene can cause or contribute to both a rare monogenic disease (CNSF) and a more complex, polygenic disease (SSNS).

16.
Hepatol Commun ; 4(5): 724-738, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363322

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European and East Asian populations have identified more than 40 disease-susceptibility genes in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). The aim of this study is to computationally identify disease pathways, upstream regulators, and therapeutic targets in PBC through integrated GWAS and messenger RNA (mRNA) microarray analysis. Disease pathways and upstream regulators were analyzed with ingenuity pathway analysis in data set 1 for GWASs (1,920 patients with PBC and 1,770 controls), which included 261 annotated genes derived from 6,760 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (P < 0.00001), and data set 2 for mRNA microarray analysis of liver biopsy specimens (36 patients with PBC and 5 normal controls), which included 1,574 genes with fold change >2 versus controls (P < 0.05). Hierarchical cluster analysis and categorization of cell type-specific genes were performed for data set 2. There were 27 genes, 10 pathways, and 149 upstream regulators that overlapped between data sets 1 and 2. All 10 pathways were immune-related. The most significant common upstream regulators associated with PBC disease susceptibility identified were interferon-gamma (IFNG) and CD40 ligand (CD40L). Hierarchical cluster analysis of data set 2 revealed two distinct groups of patients with PBC by disease activity. The most significant upstream regulators associated with disease activity were IFNG and CD40L. Several molecules expressed in B cells, T cells, Kupffer cells, and natural killer-like cells were identified as potential therapeutic targets in PBC with reference to a recently reported list of cell type-specific gene expression in the liver. Conclusion: Our integrated analysis using GWAS and mRNA microarray data sets predicted that IFNG and CD40L are the central upstream regulators in both disease susceptibility and activity of PBC and identified potential downstream therapeutic targets.

17.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 10(7): 2221-2228, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345703

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, obesity has become a public health issue of global concern. Even though disparities exist between human populations, e.g., the higher liver fat content of the Japanese despite a lower body mass index (BMI), studies on the genetics of obesity still largely focus on populations of European descent, leading to a dearth of genetic data on non-European populations. In this context, this study aimed to establish a broad picture of the genetic attributes of the Japanese population, by examining a representative sample of 18,889 individuals participating in the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project cohort. We applied linear mixed model methods to 17 traits related to obesity and associated diseases to estimate the heritabilities explained by common genetic variants and the genetic correlations between each pair of traits. These analyses allowed us to quantify the SNP heritability of health indicators such as BMI (0.248 ± 0.032) and HDL cholesterol (0.324 ± 0.031), and to provide one of the few estimates of the SNP heritability of cystatin C in unrelated individuals (0.260 ± 0.025). We discuss potential differences between the Japanese and people of European ancestry with respect to the genetic correlations between urinary biomarkers and adiposity traits, for which large estimates were obtained. For instance, the genetic correlations between urine potassium level and the values for weight, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio ranged from 0.290 to 0.559, much higher than the corresponding estimates in the UK Biobank.

18.
Anal Chem ; 92(9): 6579-6586, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233430

RESUMO

Simultaneous ion counting and waveform averaging implemented on a field-programmable gate array compiled with a high-speed digitizer was applied to ultraperformance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of sulfa drugs. Ion counting was carried out by a "Peak Detection" (PKD) function that works together with signal averaging (AVG). Sulfadimidine (SDD) and sulfadimethoxine (SDMX) were measured in human serum (HS) model sample matrix. By using simultaneous PKD and AVG acquisition, we observed a unified calibration curve for more than 3 orders of magnitude of sample amounts (0.010-100.0 pmol). The ion count rate for the "practical" sample amounts, such as less than 1 pmol, was below 30%, which is suitable for PKD-based ion counting for quantitative accuracy and excellent peak identification performance. Samples containing 200 fmol or less could not be identified from the AVG waveform. Adding HS treated with acetonitrile severely suppressed the SDMX ion to less than one-half (58.1%). However, a linear response was observed for chromatographic peak area for analytes calculated from PKD waveforms. Also, the mass-resolving power calculated from the peak on the PKD waveform was 24% better than the corresponding AVG waveform, which also improves performance for analyte identification.

19.
HLA ; 96(1): 24-42, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222025

RESUMO

Japan is an island country, and the Japanese people have had minimal genetic exchange with other ethnolinguistic groups. Consequently, the population is highly uniform and has limited HLA diversity relative to people from other countries. However, Japan has three ethnolinguistic groups, and HLA distributions differ depending on geographic region. To collect an HLA-rich variety of bone marrow bank donor registrants, it is essential to know the precise distribution of HLA in Japan. We analyzed HLA alleles and haplotypes based on HLA information of 177 041 bone marrow donor registrants. Registrants were grouped depending on the prefecture and region (a group of prefectures) as commonly used in Japan. The prefectures did not show the same distributions, but the tendency was similar for each region. We found that Okinawa Prefecture and the mainland can be clearly divided as haplotypes: [A*24:02-C*01:02-B*54:01-DRB1*04:05] and [A*24:02-C*01:02-B*59:01-DRB1*04:05] were typically found in Okinawa (P = .02, P < .001). Moreover, these types were found almost exclusively in Japan and Korea. Donor registration centers of the Japan Marrow Donor Program are currently located in all prefectures. It is essential to deploy registration centers to collect registrants with a large variety of HLA types covering all of Japan.

20.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 26(8): 1177-1187, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To clarify the genetic background of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Japanese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a population-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. METHODS: We performed a GWAS and replication study including 1676 UC patients and 2381 healthy controls. The probability of colectomy was compared between genotypes of rs117506082, the top hit SNP at HLA loci, by the Kaplan-Meier method. We studied serum expression of miR-622, a newly identified candidate gene, from 32 UC patients and 8 healthy controls by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: In the GWAS, only the HLA loci showed genome-wide significant associations with UC (rs117506082, P = 6.69E-28). Seven nominally significant regions included 2 known loci, IL23R (rs76418789, P = 6.29E-7) and IRF8 (rs16940202, P = 1.03E-6), and 5 novel loci: MIR622 (rs9560575, P = 8.23E-7), 14q31 (rs117618617, P = 1.53E-6), KAT6B (rs12260609, P = 1.81E-6), PAX3-CCDC140-SGPP2 (rs7589797, P = 2.87E-6), and KCNA2 (rs118020656, P = 4.01E-6). Combined analysis revealed that IL23R p.G149R (rs76418789, P = 9.03E-11; odds ratio [OR], 0.51) had genome-wide significant association with UC. Patients with GG genotype of rs117506082 had a significantly lower probability of total colectomy than those with the GA+AA genotype (P = 1.72E-2). Serum expression of miR-622 in patients with inactive UC tended to be higher than in healthy controls and patients with active UC (inactive UC vs healthy controls, P = 3.03E-02; inactive UC vs active UC, P = 6.44E-02). CONCLUSIONS: IL23R p.G149R is a susceptibility locus for UC in Japanese individuals. The GG genotype of rs117506082 at HLA loci may predict a better clinical course.

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