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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(43): 7497-7508, 2021 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34887645

RESUMO

New hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are decreasing owing to improved antiviral therapy and increased HBV vaccination worldwide; however, the number of HBV infections remains a major cause of liver carcinogenesis. HBV triggers cytotoxic immunity to eliminate HBV-infected cells. Therefore, the HBV pathophysiology changes in persistently infected individuals depending on host immune responses and HBV DNA proliferation state. To prevent liver cirrhosis and carcinogenesis caused by HBV, it is important to treat HBV infection at an early stage. Active treatment is recommended for the immunoactive hepatitis B surface-antigen-positive and -negative phase, but not during the immune-inactive phase or immune-tolerant phase; instead, follow-up is recommended. However, these patients should be monitored through regular blood tests to accurately diagnose the immune-inactive or -tolerant phases. The treatment regimen should be determined based on the age, sex, family history of liver cancer, and liver fibrosis status of patients. Early treatment is often recommended due to various problems during the immune-tolerant phase. This review compares the four major international practice guidelines, including those from the Japanese Society of Hepatology, and discusses strategies for chronic hepatitis B treatment during the immune-tolerant, immune-inactive, and resolved phases. Finally, recommended hepatitis B antiviral therapy and follow-up protocols are discussed.

2.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558835

RESUMO

Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are now widely used to treat diabetes, but their effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain to be determined. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SGLT2is on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes with NAFLD. The changes in glycemic control, obesity, and liver pathology were compared between participants taking ipragliflozin (50 mg/day for 72 weeks; IPR group) and participants being managed without SGLT2is, pioglitazone, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, or insulin (CTR group). In the IPR group (n = 25), there were significant decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body mass index (BMI) during the study (HbA1c, -0.41%, P < 0.01; BMI, -1.06 kg/m2 , P < 0.01), whereas these did not change in the CTR group (n = 26). Liver pathology was evaluated in 21/25 participants in the IPR/CTR groups, and hepatic fibrosis was found in 17 (81%) and 18 (72%) participants in the IPR and CTR groups at baseline. This was ameliorated in 70.6% (12 of 17) of participants in the IPR group and 22.2 % (4 of 18) of those in the CTR group (P < 0.01). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) resolved in 66.7% of IPR-treated participants and 27.3% of CTR participants. None of the participants in the IPR group developed NASH, whereas 33.3% of the CTR group developed NASH. Conclusion: Long-term ipragliflozin treatment ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Thus, ipragliflozin might be effective for the treatment and prevention of NASH in patients with diabetes, as well as improving glycemic control and obesity. Therefore, SGLT2is may represent a therapeutic choice for patients with diabetes with NAFLD, but further larger studies are required to confirm these effects.

3.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(11): 1451-1458, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several noninvasive markers have been developed to predict nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated the predictive value of the cytokeratin-18 fragment (CK18-F) level and FIB-4 index for diagnosing NASH in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 246 patients histologically diagnosed with NASH (n = 185) or nonalcoholic fatty liver (n = 61) were enrolled. We analyzed weighted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the prediction of NASH and determined the relationship between the CK18-F level and the histological features of NASH. In addition, we investigated the predictive value of the combination of the CK18-F level and FIB-4 index for diagnosing NASH. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve (AUROC) value of the CK18-F level was 0.77. With a CK18-F cutoff level of 260 U/L, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing NASH were 82.7 and 57.4%, respectively. Multiple comparisons showed that the CK18-F level did not differ among fibrosis stages but did significantly differ among hepatocyte ballooning grades. Overall, 95.7% (66/69) of patients with a FIB-4 index of ≥2.67 had NASH. In patients with a FIB-4 index of <2.67, the AUROC value of the CK18-F level for predicting NASH was 0.77 and a CK18-F cutoff level of 260 U/L resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 82.4 and 56.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The CK18-F level had a good predictive ability for diagnosing NASH in patients with NAFLD. Additionally, the combination of the CK18-F level and FIB-4 index accurately and noninvasively predicted NASH, even those with a low FIB-4 index.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Humanos , Queratina-18 , Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
World J Hepatol ; 13(5): 571-583, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and affects approximately 25% of the general global adult population. The prognosis of NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis is known to be poor. It is difficult to assess disease progression in all patients with NAFLD; thus, it is necessary to identify patients who will show poor prognosis. AIM: To investigate the efficacy of non-invasive biomarkers for predicting disease progression in patients with NAFLD. METHODS: We investigated biomarkers associated with mortality in patients with NAFLD who visited the Kawasaki Medical School General Medical Center from 1996 to 2018 and underwent liver biopsy and had been followed-up for > 1 year. Cumulative overall mortality and liver-related events during follow-up were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using log-rank testing. We calculated the odds ratio and performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with logistic regression analysis to determine the optimal cut-off value with the highest prognostic ability. RESULTS: We enrolled 489 patients who were followed-up for a period of 1-22.2 years. In total, 13 patients died (2.7% of total patients enrolled); 7 patients died due to liver-related causes. Poor prognosis was associated with liver fibrosis on histological examination but not with inflammation or steatosis. Blood biomarkers associated with mortality were platelet counts, albumin levels, and type IV collagen 7S levels. The optimal cutoff index for predicting total mortality was a platelet count of 15 × 104/µL, albumin level of 3.5 g/dL, and type IV collagen 7S level of 5 mg/dL. In particular, only one-factor patients with NAFLD presenting with platelet counts ≤ 15 × 104/µL, albumin levels ≤ 3.5 g/dL, or type IV collagen 7S ≥ 5 mg/dL showed 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year survival rates of 99.7%, 98.3%, and 94%, respectively. However, patients with two factors had lower 5-year and 10-year survival rates of 98% and 43%, respectively. Similarly, patients with all three factors showed the lowest 5-year and 10-year survival rates of 53% and 26%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A combination of the three non-invasive biomarkers is a useful predictor of NAFLD prognosis and can help identify patients with NAFLD who are at a high risk of all-cause mortality.

5.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 257, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis (IM) and mononucleosis-like illnesses are common viral infectious diseases which are often accompanied by a high fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy in adults, although such infection in childhood is generally subclinical. Most cases of IM are caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or Cytomegalovirus (CMV). However, it is difficult to diagnose IM only with subjective symptoms, and thus EBV and CMV are nearly indistinguishable in clinical practice. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old healthy Japanese woman had a 2-day history of high fever and consulted us. She had sex for the first time 6 months earlier. Her virus antibodies showed that she was infected with primary CMV. About 5 months later, she again experienced high fever and lymph node enlargement at the posterior cervical region. Her virus antibodies showed that she was infected with primary EBV at that time. CONCLUSION: Herein, we report a healthy adult Japanese woman with primary EBV infection relatively soon after primary CMV infection. It is very interesting to compare the symptoms and/or clinical data after EBV and CMV infection in the same patient within a short period of time. Our patient was diagnosed based only on subjective symptoms, physical examination and laboratory data, without tests of such virus-related antibodies. Therefore, clinicians should bear in mind that primary EBV infection and/or primary CMV infection is possible when patients have symptoms such as high fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy, even in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Mononucleose Infecciosa , Adulto , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Mononucleose Infecciosa/complicações , Mononucleose Infecciosa/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 15(1): 202-209, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790706

RESUMO

Here, we report on a rare case of gastric hyperplastic polyps which disappeared after the discontinuation of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The patient was an 83-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension, along with gastroesophageal reflux disease treated by PPI. An initial upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed unique polypoid lesions in the greater curvature of the stomach. Biopsy specimens of the lesions were diagnosed as hyperplastic polyps and she was followed. One year later, a second endoscopy showed that the lesions had increased in number and size, and an endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) was performed for the main polyps. The resected specimens indicated a proliferation of foveolar epithelium cells with an increase of capillary ectasia and parietal cell hyperplasia, which was thought to be induced by hypergastrinemia from the PPI. Three months after the EMR, she was admitted because of bleeding from the remaining polyps along with an increase in new polyps. After conservative treatment, PPI was stopped and rebamipide was used. One year and 6 months later, an endoscopy showed the complete disappearance of all gastric polyps.

7.
Life (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672864

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity or metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide (globally metabodemic). Approximately 25% of the adult general population is suffering from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has become a serious health problem. In 2020, global experts suggested that the nomenclature of NAFLD should be updated to metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Hepatic fibrosis is the most significant determinant of all cause- and liver -related mortality in MAFLD. The non-invasive test (NIT) is urgently required to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in MAFLD. The fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index is the first triaging tool for excluding advanced fibrosis because of its accuracy, simplicity, and cheapness, especially for general physicians or endocrinologists, although the FIB-4 index has several drawbacks. Accumulating evidence has suggested that vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE) and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test may become useful as the second step after triaging by the FIB-4 index. The leading cause of mortality in MAFLD is cardiovascular disease (CVD), extrahepatic malignancy, and liver-related diseases. MAFLD often complicates chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in increased simultaneous liver kidney transplantation. The FIB-4 index could be a predictor of not only liver-related mortality and incident hepatocellular carcinoma, but also prevalent and incident CKD, CVD, and extrahepatic malignancy. Although NITs as milestones for evaluating treatment efficacy have never been established, the FIB-4 index is expected to reflect histological hepatic fibrosis after treatment in several longitudinal studies. We here review the role of the FIB-4 index in the management of MAFLD.

8.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(8): 2275-2284, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gut microbiota composition is associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the association between gut microbiota composition and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in non-obese patients remains unclear. We compared clinical parameters and gut microbiota profiles of healthy controls and non-obese and obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: We examined the clinical parameters and gut microbiota profiles by 16S rRNA sequences and short-chain fatty acid levels in fecal samples from 51 non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (body mass index <25 kg/m2 ) and 51 obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 ) who underwent pathological examination and 87 controls at five hospitals in Japan. RESULTS: Although no significant differences between the non-obese and other groups were observed in alpha diversity, a significant difference was found in beta diversity. We observed a significant decrease in serum alanine aminotransferase levels, Eubacterium population, and butyric acid levels in non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease compared with those in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A significant negative correlation was found between the stage of hepatic fibrosis and Eubacterium abundance in non-obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the abundance of Eubacterium that produces butyric acid may play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in non-obese individuals. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trial registration system (UMIN000020917).

9.
JGH Open ; 5(2): 228-234, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553660

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes insulin resistance and diabetes as extrahepatic manifestations. We aimed to analyze the effect of HCV eradication by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents on glucose tolerance. Methods: The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 272 patients with HCV infection who achieved a sustained virologic response (SVR) was analyzed at baseline before DAA treatment, at the end of DAA therapy (ETR), and 12 weeks after therapy (Post12W). Results: There were no significant differences in HbA1c between baseline, ETR, and Post12W in the overall patients. When the data were stratified according to the presence or absence of diabetes, median HbA1c significantly decreased from baseline (7.2%) to ETR (6.8%) and Post12W (6.8%) in the 55 patients with diabetes, whereas there were no significant changes in the patients without diabetes. Basal HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and age were independently associated with the changes in HbA1c according to multivariate analysis, and the predictive formula for changes in HbA1c was found to be ΔHbA1c (%) = 1.449-0.4* HbA1c (%) + 0.012 × Age (year). There were no changes in body mass in diabetic or nondiabetic patients. In diabetic patients taking medication, 63.4% of patients needed less medication. Conclusions: Eradication of HCV improves glycemic control, indicated by a 0.4% decrease in HbA1c in diabetes.

10.
Hepatol Int ; 15(2): 366-379, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NAFLD is increasing in Asia including Japan, despite its lower obesity rate than the West. However, NAFLD can occur in lean people, but data are limited. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of NAFLD in Japan with a focus on lean NAFLD. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (inception to 5/15/2019) and included 73 eligible full-text original research studies (n = 258,531). We used random-effects model for pooled estimates, Bayesian modeling for trend and forecasting, contacted authors for individual patient data and analyzed 14,887 (7752 NAFLD; 7135 non-NAFLD-8 studies) patients. RESULTS: The overall NAFLD prevalence was 25.5%, higher in males (p < 0.001), varied by regions (p < 0.001), and increased over time (p = 0.015), but not by per-person income or gross prefectural productivity, which increased by 0.64% per year (1983-2012) and is forecasted to reach 39.3% in 2030 and 44.8% in 2040. The incidence of NAFLD, HCC, and overall mortality were 23.5, 7.6 and 5.9 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Individual patient-level data showed a lean NAFLD prevalence of 20.7% among the NAFLD population, with lean NAFLD persons being older and with a higher all-cause mortality rate (8.3 vs. 5.6 per 1000 person-years for non-lean NAFLD, p = 0.02). Older age, male sex, diabetes, and FIB-4 were independent predictors of mortality, but not lean NAFLD. CONCLUSION: NAFLD prevalence has increased in Japan and may affect half of the population by 2040. Lean NAFLD individuals makeup 20% of the NAFLD population, were older, and had higher mortality.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
Hepatol Res ; 51(5): 548-553, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596344

RESUMO

AIM: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for nonvirus-related hepatocellular carcinoma, which is increasing in prevalence. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical application of fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) in the process of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) disease development. METHODS: Serum samples from 115 diabetes mellitus (DM), 36 NAFL, and 119 NASH patients were analyzed for AFP-L3 expression using raw data of a micro total analysis system. These data were then compared with the clinical characteristics of the patients. A validation study was also undertaken with 55 samples (17 NAFL and 38 NASH). RESULTS: Trace amounts of AFP-L3 were detected in 3.5%, 16.7%, and 58.0% of patients with DM, NAFL, and NASH, respectively. The odds ratio of AFP-L3 positivity for the diagnosis of NASH in multivariate analysis was 9.81 (95% confidence interval, 3.77-25.5). The rates in patients without fibrosis or with stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4 fibrosis were 14.7%, 31.3%, 63.0%, 86.2%, and 100%, respectively. The rates were significantly increased according to the advancement of liver fibrosis (p < 0.001); however, no difference in the positive rate of AFP-L3 was observed between patients with and without fatty livers and between patients with normal and abnormal transaminase. The same relationship was also observed in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: Abnormal fucosylation of AFP occurred in patients with NASH, so it could be useful for the screening of NASH in patients with DM, as well as for the differential diagnosis of NASH and the evaluation of fibrosis.

12.
Intern Med ; 60(9): 1397-1401, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281161

RESUMO

A 44-year-old patient progressed from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) cirrhosis. She was diagnosed with NAFL via a liver biopsy. At 56 years old, she was diagnosed with NASH stage 3 via a second liver biopsy. One year later, she was diagnosed with NASH cirrhosis via a third liver biopsy. This is the first study to report the gradual deterioration of liver histology shown via three liver biopsies and fibrosis markers in a patient who progressed from NAFL to NASH cirrhosis. Following menopause, it is necessary to be aware of the rapid development of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Biópsia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
13.
Intern Med ; 60(7): 1019-1025, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116013

RESUMO

We herein report a case of gastric hyperplastic polyps after argon plasma coagulation (APC) for gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) in the antrum of a 65-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hypergastrinemia induced by long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. Two years after APC therapy, endoscopy demonstrated multiple gastric polyps in the antrum and angle. A gastric polyp biopsy indicated foveolar epithelium hyperplasia, which was diagnosed as gastric hyperplastic polyps. One year after switching to an H2 blocker antagonist, endoscopy revealed that the polyps and GAVE had disappeared, with normal gastrin levels suggesting that PPI-induced hypergastrinemia had caused gastric hyperplastic polyps after APC therapy, and the polyps had disappeared after discontinuing PPIs.


Assuntos
Ectasia Vascular Gástrica Antral , Pólipos , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Coagulação com Plasma de Argônio , Ectasia Vascular Gástrica Antral/etiologia , Gastrinas , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Masculino
14.
Life (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899741

RESUMO

Asians are known to be more likely than Westerners to develop fatty liver and lifestyle-related diseases in spite of their weight. However, the relationship between fat accumulation and lifestyle-related diseases in non-obese Asians is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze visceral fat and hepatic fat in participants with a normal body mass index (BMI) and examine their characteristics during a medical checkup. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 663 of 1142 patients who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and who had an alcohol intake (converted to ethanol) of <30 g/day for males and <20 g/day for females and a BMI of <25 kg/m2 during a health checkup. Participants were classified into four groups: group A, visceral fat accumulation (VFA) (-) and fatty liver (FL) (-) (n = 549); group B, VFA (+) and FL (-) (n = 32); group C, VFA (-) and FL (+) (n = 58); and group D, VFA (+) and FL (+) (n = 24). The frequencies of lifestyle-related disease complications, liver function tests, and liver fibrosis were evaluated among the four groups. Compared with group A (control), groups B, C, and D had a higher number of males, BMI, abdominal circumference, ALT, AST, γ-GTP, triglyceride, uric acid, fasting blood sugar levels, and incidence of hyperlipidemia. Groups C and D had higher ALT, HbA1c, cholinesterase, and triglyceride levels, FIB4 index, and the number of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) than groups A and B; however, there was no difference between groups A and B. FL is a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis in non-obese Japanese individuals; however, VFA only is not a risk factor of DM and liver fibrosis.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(6)2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168769

RESUMO

Liver-related diseases are the third-leading causes (9.3%) of mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Japan. T2D is closely associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of NAFLD, can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatic failure. No pharmacotherapies are established for NASH patients with T2D. Though vitamin E is established as a first-line agent for NASH without T2D, its efficacy for NASH with T2D recently failed to be proven. The effects of pioglitazone on NASH histology with T2D have extensively been established, but several concerns exist, such as body weight gain, fluid retention, cancer incidence, and bone fracture. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are expected to ameliorate NASH and NAFLD (LEAN study, LEAD trial, and E-LIFT study). Among a variety of SGLT2 inhibitors, dapagliflozin has already entered the phase 3 trial (DEAN study). A key clinical need is to determine the kinds of antidiabetic drugs that are the most appropriate for the treatment of NASH to prevent the progression of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in HCC or liver-related mortality without increasing the risk of cardiovascular or renal events. Combination therapies, such as glucagon receptor agonist/GLP-1 or gastrointestinal peptide/GLP-1, are under development. This review focused on antidiabetic agents and future perspectives on the view of the treatment of NAFLD with T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Comorbidade , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Japão
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0219412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a wide spectrum, eventually leading to cirrhosis and hepatic carcinogenesis. We previously reported that a series of microRNAs (miRNAs) mapped in the 14q32.2 maternally imprinted gene region (Dlk1-Dio3 mat) are related to NAFLD development and progression in a mouse model. We examined the suitability of miR-379, a circulating Dlk1-Dio3 mat miRNA, as a human NAFLD biomarker. METHODS: Eighty NAFLD patients were recruited for this study. miR-379 was selected from the putative Dlk1-Dio3 mat miRNA cluster because it exhibited the greatest expression difference between NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in our preliminary study. Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression levels of miR-379 and miR-16 as an internal control. One patient was excluded due to low RT-PCR signal. RESULTS: Compared to normal controls, serum miR-379 expression was significantly up-regulated in NAFLD patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that miR-379 is a suitable marker for discriminating NAFLD patients from controls, with an area under the curve value of 0.72. Serum miR-379 exhibited positive correlations with alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with early stage NAFLD (Brunt fibrosis stage 0 to 1). The correlation between serum miR-379 and cholesterol levels was lost in early stage NAFLD patients treated with statins. Software-based predictions indicated that various energy metabolism-related genes, including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1 receptor, are potential targets of miR-379. CONCLUSIONS: Serum miR-379 exhibits high potential as a biomarker for NAFLD. miR-379 appears to increase cholesterol lipotoxicity, leading to the development and progression of NAFLD, via interference with the expression of target genes, including those related to the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Our results could facilitate future research into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Regulação para Cima
17.
Intern Med ; 58(20): 2907-2913, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292380

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune gastritis in patients with histologically proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods A total of 33 patients with NASH and 143 patients with chronic liver disease (66, 24, 22, 10, 1, and 21 patients with hepatitis C, hepatitis B, autoimmune hepatitis/primary biliary cholangitis, non-B/non-C hepatitis, fatty liver, and alcoholic disease, respectively) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 2013 and August 2016 were retrospectively assessed to determine the prevalence of autoimmune gastritis. The clinical characteristics of these patients with NASH and autoimmune gastritis were examined, and the clinical characteristic and biomarkers were compared between patients with NASH with and without autoimmune gastritis. Results Six of the 33 patients with NASH (19.4%) were diagnosed with autoimmune gastritis. The prevalence of autoimmune gastritis was higher in patients with NASH than in those with other chronic liver diseases [4/143 (2.8%), p=0.002]. All six patients with NASH and autoimmune gastritis exhibited high serum gastrin levels; five of the patients were positive for anti-parietal cell antibodies, and one was negative for anti-parietal cell antibodies but positive for intrinsic factor antibody. Furthermore, 1 patient presented with iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin <11 g/dL), but none developed pernicious anemia. Endocrine cell micronests were found in four patients. Patients with NASH and autoimmune gastritis tended to be older with lower ferritin levels than the other patients. Conclusion The prevalence of NASH with concomitant autoimmune gastritis was high, highlighting the need for upper endoscopy for the diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis and gastric malignancies.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Gastrite/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Biópsia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Feminino , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/patologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Biomed Rep ; 11(2): 63-69, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338192

RESUMO

Pruritus is a common pathogenesis in liver diseases, including chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The phases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are defined in the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases guidelines. However, it still remains unclear whether the phase independently affects pruritus. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of HBV infection phase on pruritus in patients with HBV. Of the 1,631 patients that attended the joint research facilities and were interviewed regarding their pruritus between January and June 2016, 196 patients with HBV infection were selected for the present analysis. One-to-one propensity score-matching using 13 variables was performed between participants in the hepatitis B e antigen (HBe-Ag)-positive/negative immune-active phase group and the inactive CHB phase group. Data from 47 patients per group were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of pruritus in the inactive CHB phase was significantly lower than in the HBe-Ag-positive/negative immune-active phase (23 vs. 47%; P=0.031). Being in the inactive CHB phase was determined to be an independent risk factor for pruritus (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.143-0.842; P=0.019). The progression to inactive CHB phase may contribute to the amelioration of pruritus in patients with HBV infection.

19.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 34(9): 1626-1632, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD-HCC) is increasing. Unfortunately, NAFLD frequently develops into HCC without liver cirrhosis. Therefore, we investigated the clinical features of HCC in NAFLD patients without advanced fibrosis. METHODS: We compared clinical characteristics, survival rates, and recurrence rates between 104 NAFLD-HCC patients diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2016, including 35 without (F0-2) and 69 with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). Risk factors associated with survival and recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 66.3% of those diagnosed had advanced fibrosis, 58.8% in men and 80.5% in women (men vs women, P = 0.03). In NAFLD-HCC without advanced fibrosis, tumor size was significantly larger and liver histological activity was lower than those in patients with advanced fibrosis. Survival rates between the two groups did not differ. Among those achieving curative treatment, the recurrence rate was significantly lower in NAFLD-HCC without advanced fibrosis (P < 0.01). Risk factors of recurrence were male gender, lower serum albumin, and advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In men, HCC tended to develop from NAFLD without advanced fibrosis. Although tumor size in NAFLD-HCC without advanced fibrosis is significantly larger, the recurrence rate is significantly lower. Surgical therapy should be strongly considered in these cases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/mortalidade , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/mortalidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Carga Tumoral
20.
Hepatol Res ; 49(3): 296-303, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367534

RESUMO

AIM: The association between glycemia and liver fibrosis was analyzed using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and the Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in a large general population cohort that underwent a health checkup. METHODS: A total of 6927 subjects without hepatitis B or C virus infection or habitual alcohol intake were enrolled. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was diagnosed by ultrasonography and potential liver fibrosis (FIB-4 index ≥1.3) in NAFLD was analyzed in relation to HbA1c level. Factors associated with potential liver fibrosis of NAFLD were also analyzed. RESULTS: The overall frequency of NAFLD was 27.9% (1935 subjects) and the frequency of NAFLD by HbA1c level (<4.9%, 5.0-5.9%, 6.0-6.9%, 7.0-7.9%, ≥8.0%) was 16%, 27%, 54%, 53%, and 54%, respectively. Among the 1935 NAFLD cases, the frequency of potential liver fibrosis was 25.2% (487 subjects) overall and 19%, 22%, 30%, 52%, and 31%, respectively, by HbA1c category. From multivariate analysis, an HbA1c level ≥6.5% was significantly associated with potential liver fibrosis (P = 0.017, hazard ratio = 1.7). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of NAFLD and liver fibrosis of NAFLD increased according to glycemia, up to 8.0% HbA1c. Measuring HbA1c and calculating the FIB-4 index in health checkups could help to identify potential cases of liver fibrosis of NAFLD, which should then be further evaluated using other techniques to confirm liver fibrosis.

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