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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Erythritol, a sugar alcohol, is widely used as a substitute for sugar in diets for patients with diabetes or obesity. METHODS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of erythritol on metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, while focusing on changes in innate immunity. RESULTS: Mice that were fed a high-fat diet and administered water containing 5% erythritol (Ery group) had markedly lower body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and markedly higher energy expenditure than the control mice (Ctrl group) (n = 6). Furthermore, compared with the Ctrl group, the Ery group had lesser fat deposition in the liver, smaller adipocytes, and significantly better inflammatory findings in the small intestine. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid, in the serum, feces, and white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. In flow cytometry experiments, group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) counts in the lamina propria of the small intestine and ILC2 counts in the white adipose tissue of the Ery group were markedly higher than those in the Ctrl group. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the Il-22 expression in the small intestine of the Ery group was markedly higher than that in the Ctrl group. CONCLUSIONS: Erythritol markedly decreased metabolic disorders such as diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and fat accumulation in the mouse liver by increasing SCFAs and modulating innate immunity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Eritritol/farmacologia , Intolerância à Glucose/dietoterapia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritritol/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo
2.
Diabetol Int ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898153

RESUMO

Background: To investigate the acute effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 34 patients who were admitted to our hospital from April 16 to May 1, 2020. Data on stress levels, sleep duration, exercise, total diet, snacks, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. Changes in the values of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and body weight from 3 months before the administration of the questionnaire to the time the study questionnaire was administered (pandemic year), and those from 15 months before to 12 months before the administration of the questionnaire (pre-pandemic year) were evaluated. Results: Increased stress levels and decreased exercise volumes were observed in approximately 60% and 50% of participants during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Decreased sleep duration was associated with changes in the body weight for 3 months during pandemic year (r = - 0.40, p = 0.043). Furthermore, compared with changes in HbA1c for 3 months during pre-pandemic year, changes in HbA1c during the pandemic year were worse (0.12% [0.33] % during pandemic year vs. - 0.09 [0.39] % during pre-pandemic year, p = 0.027). Conclusions: Many patients experienced stress and exercised less due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Glycemic control in patients with T1D was worse than that in the previous year. Since the pandemic is currently ongoing, more attention should be paid to stress and lifestyle factor management in patients with T1D. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13340-021-00507-4.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 40(4): 1613-1620, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIM: Past studies reported that the intake of adequate energy is more important than protein intake; however, the relationship between energy intake and muscle mass loss remains unclear thus far. This study therefore explored the association between energy intake and muscle mass loss in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, impedance body composition and a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire were used for analyzing body composition and habitual diet intake, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, kg/m2) was defined as appendicular muscle mass (kg) ÷ height-squared (m2). Rate of SMI change (%) was calculated as ([SMI at baseline - SMI at follow-up]/[follow-up duration (years) × baseline SMI (kg/m2)]) × 100, and muscle mass loss was defined as rate of SMI change ≥0.5%. Energy intake was defined as total energy intake (kcal/day) divided by ideal body weight (kg), defined as 22 × patient height-squared (m2). RESULTS: Among non-older and older participants, 54.8% (n = 51/93) and 58.9% (n = 116/197) experienced muscle mass loss at 16.3 (6.4) and 18.1 (7.1) months' follow-up, respectively. Logistic regression analyses showed that energy intake was associated with incident muscle mass loss after adjusting for age, sex, insulin, sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, steroids, smoking, exercise, alcohol intake, body mass index, SMI, presence of renal failure, and protein intake (g/actual body weight/day) in the older people (odds ratio [OR] 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.996], p = 0.037), whereas energy intake was not associated with incident muscle mass loss in the non-older people (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.86-1.06], p = 0.423). CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient energy intake is associated with muscle mass loss in older people with T2D. Therefore, it is recommended to consume enough energy for older people with T2D to keep muscle mass.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Impedância Elétrica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Endocr J ; 68(2): 201-210, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999133

RESUMO

To investigate the acute effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the lifestyle and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellites. This cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study induced 203 patients who completed a questionnaire regarding stress levels and lifestyles. Data regarding stress levels, sleep time, exercise, and total diet, snack, and prepared food intake were obtained from the questionnaires. The changes in the body weight or HbA1c levels were determined by comparing the values at the time the questionnaire was administered to those noted 3 months ago. Increased levels of stress and decreased exercise levels were reported in approximately 40% and >50%. During the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a negative correlation between stress and exercise (r = -0.285, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation between stress and prepared food intake (r = 0.193, p = 0.009). Decreased exercise levels (r = -0.33, p < 0.001) and increased snack consumption (r = 0.24, p = 0.002) were associated with increased body weight. Furthermore, increased total diet intake (r = 0.16, p = 0.031) was associated with increased HbA1c levels. These relationships remained significant for patients aged <65 years and patients who did not engage in regular exercise. Many patients experienced stress and lifestyle changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and these changes were associated with increased body weight and HbA1c levels.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fast Foods , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Lanches
5.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096793

RESUMO

Exercise has been reported to be effective in maintaining and recovering muscle; however, the effect of exercise combined with adequate or inadequate protein intake on muscle mass is not clear. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of exercise habit on changes in muscle mass, with adequate or inadequate protein intake. This retrospective cohort study included 214 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. The rate of skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) change (%) was defined as ((SMI at follow-up minus SMI at baseline)/(follow-up years [kg/m2/year] × SMI at baseline [kg/m2])) × 100. Adequate protein intake was defined as protein intake ≥1.2 g/kg ideal body weight/day. During a mean follow-up duration of 18.0 (7.1) months, the rate of SMI change was -1.14 (4.10)% in the whole sample. The rate of SMI change of non-habitual exercisers with inadequate protein intake, habitual exercisers with inadequate protein intake, non-habitual exercisers with adequate protein intake, and habitual exercisers with adequate protein intake was -1.22 (3.71), -2.31 (3.30), -1.88 (4.62), and 0.36 (4.29)%, respectively. Compared with patients with exercise habit and adequate protein intake, the odds ratio for decreasing SMI was 2.50 (0.90-6.90, p = 0.078) in patients with no exercise habit and inadequate protein intake, 3.58 (1.24-10.4, p = 0.019) in those with exercise habit and inadequate protein intake, and 3.03 (1.27-7.22, p = 0.012) in those with no exercise habit and adequate protein intake, after adjusting for covariates. Therefore, exercise habit without adequate protein intake was associated with an increased risk of decreasing SMI compared with exercise habit with adequate protein intake.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707957

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), often complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is reported to be associated with diet habits, including eating speed, in the general population. However, the association between eating speed and NAFLD in patients with T2DM, especially sex difference, has not been reported so far. This cross-sectional study included 149 men and 159 women with T2DM. Eating speed was evaluated by a self-reported questionnaire and divided into three groups: fast, moderate, and slow eating. Nutrition status was evaluated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as the hepatic steatosis index ≥36 points. Body mass index and carbohydrate/fiber intake in the fast-eating group were higher than those in the slow-eating group in men, whereas this difference was absent in women. In men, compared with eating slowly, eating fast had an elevated risk of the presence of NAFLD after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio (OR) 4.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-18.5, p = 0.038). In women, this risk was not found, but fiber intake was found to be negatively associated with the presence of NAFLD (OR 0.85, 95% Cl 0.76-0.96, p = 0.010). This study indicates that eating speed is associated with the presence of NAFLD in men but not in women.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triglicerídeos/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
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