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1.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820715

RESUMO

The histological diagnosis of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) based on the findings obtained by an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) is feasible, but the diagnostic consistency of this method has not been confirmed. We determined the interobserver agreement among 20 pathologists regarding the diagnosis of type 1 AIP, including the distinction from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) using large tissue samples obtained by EUS-FNB. After guidance for diagnosing AIP with biopsy tissues was provided, a round 2 was performed. The median sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing PDAC vs. non-neoplastic diseases were 95.2% and 100%, respectively. In groups of specialists (n = 7) and the generalists (n = 13), Fleiss' к-values increased from 0.886 to 0.958 and from 0.750 to 0.816 in round 2. The concordance was fair or moderate for obliterative phlebitis and storiform fibrosis but slight for ductal lesion of type 1 AIP. Discordant results were due to ambiguous findings and biopsy tissue limitations. Among the specialists, the ratio of cases with perfect agreement regarding the presence of storiform fibrosis increased in round 2, but agreement regarding obliterative phlebitis or ductal lesions was not improved. Although the histological definite diagnosis of type 1 AIP was achieved by most observers in > 60% of the cases, the confidence levels varied. Because some ambiguities exist, the histological diagnostic levels based on the diagnostic criteria of type 1 AIP should not be taken for granted. Guidance is effective for improving accurate PDAC diagnoses (notably by recognizing acinar-ductal metaplasia) and for evaluating storiform fibrosis.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415430

RESUMO

Although many germinal centers (GCs) have been reported in immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease, the significance of GCs in IgG4-related disease has not received attention. Both T follicular regulatory cells (Tfr), which are regulatory T cells (Treg) in GCs, and T follicular helper cells (Tfh) produce the cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and regulate GC development. In whole-slide image analysis in surgical specimens using immunohistochemistry, IgG4-related sclerosing sialadenitis (IgG4-SS, n = 17) was characterized by markedly numerous, large, and irregular-shaped GCs with increased IL-10 + cells and Tfr and Tfh in the total area of the salivary gland compared with controls, including patients with chronic sialadenitis (n = 17) and Sjögren syndrome (n = 15). In particular, the central area of GC in IgG4-SS showed a higher Tfr number and Tfr/Tfh ratio than controls. The number of Tfr in the central area was significantly correlated with the number of IgG4 + plasmacytes and the number, size, and irregularity of GCs. In the mantle area, which surrounds GCs, IgG4-SS showed a higher Treg number and Treg/T helper cells (Th) ratio than controls. In IgG4-SS, the Treg/Th ratio was highest in the mantle area outside GCs and the Tfr/Tfh ratio was highest in the central area inside GCs. However, in controls, the Treg/Th ratio gradually decreased from outside to inside GCs. Our findings reveal that the morphological abnormality of GCs and the characteristic localization and altered balance of Treg and Th in the different compartments of inside and outside GCs would be the novel hallmarks of IgG4-SS.

3.
J Cancer ; 12(15): 4478-4487, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149911

RESUMO

Objectives: Cancer cells usually escape tumor-reactive T-cell responses using immune checkpoint proteins, such as programmed death protein-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1). These proteins can be blocked by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs); the decision on ICI-based first-line treatment for advanced lung cancers depends on the PD-L1 levels in tumor specimens. Determining the PD-L1 expression conventionally requires histological specimens from resected tumors and core biopsy specimens. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is usually diagnosed at stage III or IV; therefore, only small biopsy specimens, such as those obtained via endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) are available. However, the suitability of EBUS-TBNA specimens determining the PD-L1 expression levels in advanced lung cancers remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Here, we investigated the concordance rate of PD-L1 expression between EBUS-TBNA and matched transbronchial biopsy (TBB) specimens. Using the 22C3 anti-PD-L1 antibody (immunohistochemistry), we determined the PD-L1 expression levels in paired specimens obtained from 69 patients (50 with advanced NSCLC and 19 with small cell lung cancer [SCLC]), as well as the efficacy of ICIs in these patients. Results: The concordance rate of PD-L1 expression between the EBUS-TBNA and TBB specimens was 78.3%. The κ values referent to the PD-L1-positive expression rate between EBUS-TBNA and TBB specimens were 0.707 and 0.676 at cutoff limits of ≥1% and ≥50%, respectively. Among the 19 SCLC patients, 16 (84.2%) exhibited no PD-L1 expression in both EBUS-TBNA and TBB specimens. Notably, the progression-free survival of patients with ≥50% PD-L1 expression in the paired specimens who received ICI treatment was 8.3 months. Conclusion: Collectively, our results validate the use of EBUS-TBNA specimens for the determination of the PD-L1 expression levels in the context of NSCLC and SCLC.

4.
Kyobu Geka ; 74(4): 317-320, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831894

RESUMO

An 84-year-old man was referred to our out-patient clinic with an elongated mass localized to the retrosternal area that was incidentally identified by computed tomography. On 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, this lesion showed intense tracer uptake. Thus, a surgical biopsy under thoracoscopy was performed. Histological examination revealed dense fibrous tissue associated with inflammatory cell infiltration. The immunoglobulin (Ig) G4/IgG plasma cell ratio was over 90%. Serum IgG4 levels were normal. According to the Umehara criteria for IgG4-related disease, a final diagnosis of a "possible" IgG4-related fibrosing mediastinitis was made. Oral glucocorticoid treatment with 30 mg/day prednisolone reduced the mass.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G , Mediastinite , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Mediastinite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Esclerose
5.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 118(3): 264-271, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692261

RESUMO

The patient was an 81-year-old man who presented with a complaint of hoarseness. When he was 80 years old, he had developed superficial esophageal cancer and had undergone endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) at our hospital. Two months after the ESD, he developed hoarseness. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed no abnormal findings at that time;therefore, he was diagnosed with idiopathic vocal cord paralysis, and followed up with symptom treatment in the Gastroenterology and Otolaryngology Departments. Ten months after the ESD, a CT scan revealed mediastinal lymph node swelling. He was admitted to our hospital for histopathological examination of the lymph node using endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the lymph node, similar to the primary esophageal tumor. This result suggests that laryngeal nerve paralysis involving hoarseness is caused by lymph node metastasis of superficial esophageal cancer. We report that histopathological examination with EUS-FNA helps in determining the cause of hoarseness that develops after ESD.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Rouquidão/etiologia , Humanos , Linfonodos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e927562, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1) is known to be associated with not only neurogenic tumors but also gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, there are few reports on vascular lesions and the incidence is unknown. CASE REPORT We report here the case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of NF1 referred to our hospital for the purpose of detailed examination for positive fecal occult blood test. On the basis of the investigation reports, she was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine tumor (NET)-G1. We planned a subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The abdominal structures, including the vascular system, were abnormally fragile, and it was very difficult to achieve satisfactory hemostasis. The total amount of intraoperative blood loss was 7580 mL. Fulminant intra-abdominal bleeding occurred on postoperative day (POD) 3. Urgent angiography showed a rupture of the gastroduodenal artery. Transarterial embolization was performed, but the patient died of multiorgan failure on POD5. On histological examination, neurofibroma cells proliferating into the surrounding blood vessels were seen; moreover, immunohistochemistry staining with S-100 antibody showed positive neurofibroma cells surrounding the vascular wall. The pathological diagnosis was duodenal NET-G1 with multinodal involvement. CONCLUSIONS This case is a rare presentation of a NET with multiple gastrointestinal stromal tumors associated with NF1, which led to a fatal outcome due to the extreme fragility of the vessel walls. Since patients with NF1 might have vulnerable vessel walls, adequate surgical preparation for major surgical treatment is necessary.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Duodenais , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias Intestinais , Tumores Neuroendócrinos , Neurofibromatose 1 , Neoplasias Duodenais/complicações , Neoplasias Duodenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Duodenais/cirurgia , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/complicações , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/complicações , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico
7.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(1): 181-186, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475967

RESUMO

Pouchitis is a frequent complication of surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), and is typically treated using antimicrobials. If pouchitis is refractory to antimicrobials, screening for complications, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, is necessary. However, the optimal approach to management of pouchitis complicated by CMV infection is unclear. We report the case of a 41-year-old female patient with UC presenting with pouchitis associated with CMV infection; she had received subtotal colectomy/ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA). She was admitted to hospital with persistent fever, epigastric discomfort, and watery diarrhea despite receiving antibiotics. Laboratory findings showed inflammation and reactivation of CMV infection accompanied by liver injury. The endoscopic findings showed inflammation of the pouch and ileal mucosa on the oral side with extensive and deep punched-out ulcers. Immunohistological staining of biopsy specimens from an ulcerated lesion demonstrated CMV infection. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with pouchitis complicated by CMV infection. The patient was treated with ganciclovir and infliximab, which resolved her symptoms and led to the disappearance of CMV-positive cells. There has been no recurrence of pouchitis. CMV infection should be considered in patients with UC who develop refractory pouchitis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Pouchite , Proctocolectomia Restauradora , Adulto , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/cirurgia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Pouchite/tratamento farmacológico , Pouchite/etiologia , Proctocolectomia Restauradora/efeitos adversos
8.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(1): 370-374, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063294

RESUMO

Pancreatic lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) are rare cystic lesions filled with a keratinous substance and lined by squamous epithelium with underlying lymphoid tissue. Because pancreatic LECs are entirely benign, correct preoperative diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgery. However, the imaging features of pancreatic LECs are not specific and preoperative diagnosis has proven difficult. A pancreatic mass was incidentally detected through abdominal ultrasonography in a 63-year-old male presenting without any symptoms. Computed tomography showed an exophytic cystic lesion in the pancreatic head. The lesion had heterogeneous high signal intensity with partial low intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high signal intensity on diffusion MRI. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) examination showed an encapsulated cystic lesion with relatively homogenous and highly echoic contents. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed caseous appearance and rare fragments of apparently benign squamous epithelium on a background of keratinous debris, cyst contents, and scattered lymphocytes. We diagnosed a pancreatic LEC and opted for conservative management without surgery. Pathological evaluation based on images obtained through EUS-FNA showed macro- and microscopic features that were critical to determining the management strategy. In conclusion, the imaging and pathological features of pancreatic LECs can inform preoperative diagnosis, which may enable conservative management.


Assuntos
Cisto Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Tratamento Conservador , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Endossonografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Pancreático/terapia
9.
Pathol Int ; 70(10): 812-819, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749024

RESUMO

A 78-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with lumbar pain and was found to have an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and femoral artery aneurysm (FAA). Initially, the patient underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the AAA and aneurysmectomy for the FAA. The FAA was diagnosed by histology as immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). The preoperative serum IgG4 level was within the normal range, although a slight serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) elevation was observed. Four years later, the AAA-sac diameter had expanded and the serum levels of both IgG4 and IL-6 levels had increased. Six years after the initial EVAR, aneurysmorrhaphy of AAA-sac was performed. The resected specimen revealed adventitial fibrosis and prominent lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with regulatory T cells, satisfying histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD. Immunoreactive matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, and IL-6 were detected within numerous spindle cells in the adventitia of both the FAA and the AAA-sac. Five months after the aneurysmorrhaphy, the residual AAA-sac was again enlarged with a thickened wall that accumulated [18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) on positron emission tomography; these findings were paralleled by increased levels of serum IgG4 and IL-6. Therefore, persistent inflammation after EVAR may be attributed to the inflammatory sequelae of IgG4-RD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/diagnóstico por imagem , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/etiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Humanos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/etiologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/patologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/cirurgia , Masculino
10.
Pathol Int ; 70(10): 699-711, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767550

RESUMO

The biopsy-based diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is difficult but is becoming imperative for pathologists due to the increased amount of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy tissue. To cope with this challenge, we propose guidance for the biopsy diagnosis of type 1 AIP. This guidance is for pathologists and comprises three main parts. The first part includes basic issues on tissue acquisition, staining, and final diagnosis, and is intended for gastroenterologists as well. The second part is a practical guide for diagnosing type 1 AIP based on the AIP clinical diagnostic criteria 2018. Inconsistent histological findings, tips for evaluating IgG4 immunostaining and key histological features including the ductal lesion and others are explained. Storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis are diagnostic hallmarks but are sometimes equivocal. Storiform fibrosis is defined as spindle-shaped cells, inflammatory cells and fine collagen fibers forming a flowing arrangement. Obliterative phlebitis is defined as fibrous venous obliteration with inflammatory cells. Examples of each are provided. The third part describes the differentiation of AIP from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), focusing on histological features of acinar-ductal metaplasia in AIP, which is an important mimicker of PDAC. This guidance will help standardize pathology reports of pancreatic biopsies for diagnosing type 1 AIP.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Fibrose/diagnóstico , Flebite/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes , Pancreatite Autoimune/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Flebite/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Kyobu Geka ; 73(6): 466-470, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475975

RESUMO

A 65-year-old woman presented with mycosis fungoides and an anterior mediastinal tumor. Stage Ⅱa mycosis fungoides was treated with bath psoralen plus ultraviolet A, topical corticosteroids, and oral bexarotene. One month later, a surgical resection was performed for the anterior mediastinal tumor, which was a stage Ⅱ thymoma with membrane invasion. Furthermore, adjuvant radiotherapy was performed for anterior mediastinum. The mycosis fungoides lesion exacerbated after 3 months;thus, chemotherapies were performed. The patient died of respiratory insufficiency due to multiple pulmonary metastases of mycosis fungoides 1 year after the operation.


Assuntos
Micose Fungoide , Timoma , Neoplasias do Timo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Timoma/complicações , Neoplasias do Timo/complicações
12.
Intern Med ; 59(13): 1581-1588, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269188

RESUMO

Objective We aimed to examine the dynamics of serum Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive human Mac-2-binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) in patients with acute liver injury. Methods Serum M2BPGi levels at the time of the diagnosis (n=77) and normalization of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (n=26) were examined retrospectively. The difference in the serum M2BPGi level according to the etiology, and the correlations with other laboratory parameters were evaluated. Results The serum M2BPGi level at the time of the diagnosis was increased in 59 of 77 patients [2.3 cutoff index (COI); range, 0.31-11.1 COI] and was significantly decreased at the time of serum ALT normalization (0.68 COI; range, 0.15-1.87 COI; p<0.0001). The serum M2BPGi level was positively correlated with the duration for which serum ALT normalization was achieved (n=46, Spearman rho=0.53, p<0.0001). A multivariate analysis identified total bilirubin (T-bil), albumin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, and etiology (e.g., drug-induced liver injury or etiology unknown) as independent factors for increased serum M2BPGi. In patients with infectious mononucleosis, the serum M2BPGi level was higher relative to the degree of increase of serum ALT or T-bil levels in comparison to other etiologies. Conclusion The serum M2BPGi level in patients with acute liver injury reflects the magnitude and duration of liver injury. However, it should be noted that the degree of increase of serum M2BPGi in patients with acute liver injury may differ according to the etiology.


Assuntos
Fígado/lesões , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/sangue , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Glicosilação , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lectinas de Plantas , Receptores de N-Acetilglucosamina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
JVS Vasc Sci ; 1: 151-165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617043

RESUMO

Objective: IgG4-related diseases are systemic inflammatory fibrous lesions characterized by elevated serum IgG4 and infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes. They can manifest in vascular lesions as frequently formed aneurysms with prominent thickening of the adventitia (IgG4-related abdominal aortic aneurysm; IgG4-AAA). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix, mainly in the tunica media, resulting in destruction of aortic structures to cause enlargement of the aneurysm. However, the expression of adventitial MMPs in IgG4-AAAs is poorly understood. Methods: MMPs and MMPs-presenting cells in the adventitia of IgG4-AAAs (n = 19) of human surgical specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and dual messenger RNA in situ hybridization. The results were compared with those from control groups of non-IgG4-related inflammatory AAA (n = 18), atherosclerotic AAA (aAAA; n = 11), and autopsy cases (n = 11). Preoperative serum MMPs levels of these groups were compared with the histologic data. Results: Expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and MMP-14 at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the adventitia was significantly higher in IgG4-AAAs than in controls. Other MMPs were scarce. The total number of MMP-9-positive cells was positively correlated with the diameter of the aneurysm (R = 0.461; P = .031), the adventitial thickness (R = 0.688; P < .001), and the number of IgG4-positive cells (R = 0.764; P < .001). Within lymphoid follicles, MMP-9-presenting cells were predominantly detected in large follicular dendritic cells, followed by histiocytes, fibroblasts, and plasmacytic dendritic cells. Outside lymphoid follicles, fibroblasts, and histiocytes mainly expressed MMP-9, and tissue dendritic cells also produced MMP-9. The levels of MMP-9 derived from follicular dendritic cells and histiocytes and plasmacytic dendritic cells outside lymphoid follicles were significantly higher in IgG4-AAA group than in other groups. Expression of adventitial MMP-2 and MMP-14 by histiocytes and fibroblasts was predominantly detected outside lymphoid follicles. Serum MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in IgG4-AAAs (835 ng/mL) than in controls, and correlated with serum IgG4 levels and the total numbers of adventitial MMP-9-positive cells, whereas serum MMP-2 levels did not differ among the three aneurysmal groups. Conclusions: MMP-9 production in adventitial immune cells concerning lymphoid follicles was characteristic of IgG4-AAAs and might work in its activity with aneurysmal dilatation and adventitial thickening. Expressions of adventitial MMP-2 and MMP-14 were detected in histiocytes and fibroblasts outside lymphoid follicles, and were less concerned with the activity of IgG4-AAAs.

14.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 12(2): 135-141, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182162

RESUMO

A 60-year-old man with an unruptured cerebral aneurysm and family history of moyamoya disease was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain since the previous day. Serum levels of pancreatic enzyme were elevated and abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed localized enlargement of the pancreatic tail in the arterial phase and revealed numerous areas of fine mesh-like vascular hyperplasia consistent with an enlarged pancreatic tail. We diagnosed pancreatic arteriovenous malformation (P-AVM) with acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, in the pancreatic body, endoscopic ultrasonography showed lobularity (honeycombing type) and hyperechoic foci (non-shadowing), which suggests chronic pancreatitis. Acute management was performed with conservative treatment including administration of replacement fluids and proteolytic enzyme inhibitor. Distal pancreatectomy for P-AVM was performed because P-AVM is associated with acute pancreatitis recurrence, development of portal hypertension, progression of chronic pancreatitis, and refractory duodenal bleeding. Histological findings on the resected specimens revealed the anastomosis of abnormal arteries and veins, which suggested P-AVM. In addition, inflammation accompanied by fat necrosis due to ischemic infarction in the pancreatic tail, which suggested acute pancreatitis, and mild fibrosis in the pancreatic body, which suggested chronic pancreatitis, were shown. Although P-AVM is associated with various complications, symptomatic P-AVM should be considered a chronic and progressive disease.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Pâncreas/irrigação sanguínea , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Artérias/anormalidades , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Endossonografia , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/terapia , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Veias/anormalidades
15.
Cytopathology ; 30(3): 285-294, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease is a recently described systemic immune-mediated fibro-inflammatory disease that frequently occurs in tumorous form. Herein, we elucidated the clinicopathological and cytological characteristics of IgG4-related pleural lesions (PLs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 22 patients with fibro-inflammatory PLs of idiopathic aetiology, eight cases were diagnosed as IgG4-PL and the remaining 14 as non-IgG4-PL according to comprehensive diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease. Cell block examination of pleural effusion (CBPE) was performed in five patients with IgG4-PL and in six with non-IgG4-PL. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical presentation, laboratory data, histopathological features of resected pleura, and cytological features of pleural effusion (PE). RESULTS: PE was the most common (six patients, 75%) clinical presentation of IgG4-PL. IgG4-PL comparatively showed significantly more frequent concomitant allergic disease (P = .021), higher serum IgE levels (P = .012), higher adenosine deaminase levels in pleural fluid (P = .005), and rare spontaneous recovery without treatment (P = .046). The IgG4-PL group was histologically characterised by thicker fibrous pleura, storiform fibrosis, and infiltration of regulatory T cells, eosinophils and basophils. Using CBPE, IgG4-PL was cytologically distinct with numerous IgG4+ cells and eosinophils. The cytology of CBPE positively correlated with the histology of pleural tissue in the number of IgG4+ cells and eosinophils (R = .769 and .803, respectively). CONCLUSION: IgG4-PL frequently presents with PE and is histologically and cytologically characterised by abundant infiltration of IgG4+ cells and eosinophils. We believe that CBPE with immunohistochemistry/special staining could assist in the auxiliary diagnosis of IgG4-PL.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Pleura/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Basófilos/metabolismo , Basófilos/patologia , Citodiagnóstico/métodos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pleura/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
16.
J Med Case Rep ; 12(1): 314, 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most colorectal cancer liver metastases form nodules within the hepatic parenchyma, and hepatectomy is the only radical treatment for synchronous metastases. There is concern about intrabiliary tumor growth which may affect the surgical margin, resulting in local recurrence after hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastasis; however, there has been no report of the dissemination in the bile duct after hepatectomy. Here, we report an unusual case of biliary dissemination of colorectal cancer that caused recurrent intrabiliary growth after hepatectomy, and discuss the management of intrabiliary metastasis of colorectal cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old Japanese man underwent treatment for liver dysfunctions 3 years after aortic valve replacement. Computed tomography revealed an enhanced tumor within the hilar bile duct and dilatation of the left hepatic duct, typical of hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed tumor shadow in his bile duct, and the cytology confirmed malignant cells in the bile. We performed extended left hepatectomy with bile duct resection; his postoperative course remained good without acute complications. After 3 months postoperatively, he was readmitted for subacute cholangitis and obstructive jaundice. Immediately, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainage was performed, followed by cholangiography that exhibited intrabiliary tumor growth in the remnant liver. On immunohistochemical examination, tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin 20 and CDX2 but negative for cytokeratin 7. Then, computed tomography revealed an enhanced tumor-like lesion at the descending colon. After 3 months, left hemicolectomy was performed. Meanwhile, the percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography drainage fluid turned bloody, which was considered to be bleeding from a residual bile duct tumor. Accordingly, radiotherapy was initiated to prevent tumor bleeding around the hilar bile duct, but, unfortunately, the effects were short-lived, and cholangitis rebooted after 1 month leading to our patient's death due to septic liver failure. Autopsy revealed a remnant tumor in the bile duct, but no noticeable nodular metastasis was observed, except for a single small metastasis in the lower lobe of the left lung. CONCLUSIONS: The intrabiliary growth of metastatic colorectal cancer mimics cholangiocarcinoma occasionally. To date, as the effect of chemotherapy or radiotherapy remains uncertain, the complete resection of a bile duct tumor is the only method which could result in a better prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Hepatectomia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Fígado/patologia , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Am J Med Sci ; 356(5): 487-491, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055756

RESUMO

A 65-year-old man was admitted for productive cough and dyspnea. Bilateral pleural effusions were observed on chest X-ray. Although the bilateral pleural effusions were exudative with an increased number of lymphocytes, bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. Immunological examinations showed high levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) in both serum and pleural effusion fluid. Pathologic evaluation of a left pleural biopsy specimen using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining showed fibrosis-associated lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, 50 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high-power field, and an IgG4/IgG ratio of 40%. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4-related pleuritis without other systemic manifestations was established. The bilateral pleural effusion improved following corticosteroid therapy. This is a rare case of IgG4-related pleuritis with no other organ involvement.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Pleurisia/diagnóstico , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Azatioprina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Derrame Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Pleurisia/tratamento farmacológico , Pleurisia/etiologia , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Intern Med ; 57(21): 3093-3097, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877264

RESUMO

A 37-year-old obese man who was a social drinker was admitted to our hospital to undergo a detailed examination for liver injury with anti-mitochondrial antibody positivity. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed moderate fatty liver. A histological analysis showed steatosis of approximately 30% of the hepatocytes, focal necrosis, a few ballooning hepatocytes and lobular inflammation suggestive of steatohepatitis, epithelioid granuloma and irregularity of the sequence of the bile duct epithelium accompanied by lymphocyte infiltration suggestive of chronic cholangitis. He was diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis complicated with primary biliary cholangitis. His liver injury was improved by weight loss and high-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/diagnóstico , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Obesidade/complicações , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Heart Vessels ; 33(12): 1471-1481, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931542

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin (IgG) 4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs) are fibro-inflammatory conditions characterized by tumorous swelling and serum IgG4 levels. Intrapelvic IgG4-RD has been subclassified according to the localization site and aortic shape as IgG4-related aortic aneurysms (IgG4-AAs), periaortitis (IgG4-PA), and retroperitoneal fibrosis (IgG4-RF). The IgG4-AA pathogenesis would involve interleukin (IL)-6 upregulation, and Th2-predominant and Treg-activated immune conditions. We characterized the features of intrapelvic IgG4-RD lesions, including presence of vascular lesions. The clinical, serological, and pathological features, including cytokines concerning Th1/2 and Treg (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and interferon-gamma) of patients with IgG4-AAs (n = 24), IgG4-PA (n = 8), and IgG4-RF (n = 10) were retrospectively compared. Clinical symptoms, such as low-grade fever, abdominal/lumber pain, and anemia, were frequently detected in IgG4-AAs but rarely in IgG4-RF. Serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly higher in IgG4-AAs and IgG4-PA than in IgG4-RF. Pathologically, IL-6+ cells were more frequently detected in IgG4-PA and IgG4-AAs than in IgG4-RF. There were no noteworthy differences in the clinical complications, white blood cell counts, serum IgE, and serum and immunopositive cells of other cytokines between the subgroups. Among IgG4-AAs and IgG4-PA, serum IL-6 and IL-6+ cells correlated with CRP, aortic diameter, and periaortic fibrosis. IgG4-AA and IgG4-PA, but not IgG4-RF, were characterized by "inflammatory" features, such as increased CRP and serum/pathological IL-6, and clinical inflammatory symptoms; thus, IgG4-AA and IgG4-PA belong to the same group as IgG4-related vascular disease. High levels of CRP and IL-6 would be hallmarks of IgG4-related vascular disease.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Doenças Vasculares/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inflamação/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares/imunologia
20.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 11(5): 411-416, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845554

RESUMO

Since diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis (DHH) is an extremely rare disease especially in adults, the etiology and natural course of adult-onset DHH has not been well understood. We report a case of DHH complicated with multiple organic dysfunction and Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) in an 83-year-old female. She presented with mild abdominal distension and laboratory findings revealed thrombocytopenia and abnormal coagulation, indicating disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Enhanced computed tomography revealed diffuse, hypodense hepatic nodules with delayed enhancement involving the whole liver, and multiple hypodense splenic legions. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, laparoscopic-guided biopsy was performed. Histological findings revealed irregularly dilated non-anastomotic vascular spaces, which were lined with flat endothelial cells without cellular atypia. We diagnosed this as DHH complicated with splenic lesions and KMS. Although the patient was treated with symptomatic treatment, such as anti-coagulation therapy, hemangiomatous lesions, especially in the spleen, progressed rapidly, leading to worsening of DIC. Finally, the patient died of multiple organ failure at 12 months after diagnosis. A postmortem examination demonstrated diffuse hemangiomatosis of not only the liver and spleen, but also the adrenal glands and bone marrow. Despite no malignant histologically, DHH can be fatal if it progresses rapidly within a short period of time.


Assuntos
Hemangioma/complicações , Síndrome de Kasabach-Merritt/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/complicações , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hemangioma/patologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Kasabach-Merritt/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/patologia
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