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3.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28620, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an important, hidden cause of childhood mortality worldwide. It is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa where national newborn screening programs remain unavailable and most children in rural areas are never diagnosed. We conducted a study at a rural district hospital in northern Tanzania to determine the birth prevalence and community awareness of SCD and to determine the feasibility of using point-of-care testing to enroll newborns in a new SCD clinic for ongoing treatment. DESIGN/METHODS: We screened infants at Shirati KMT hospital for SCD using HemoTypeSC, an inexpensive point-of-care test. Infants who screened positive were enrolled in the SCD clinic and instructed to return at 6-12 weeks for confirmatory testing, counseling, and preventive care. RESULTS: A total of 999 newborns were screened from February to September 2019. Among these, 31.6% (315/999) had sickle cell trait and 3.9% (39/999) had SCD. No hemoglobin C was detected. Very few parents knew their own sickle cell status (0.3%). At 5 months after completion, 12 infants from the screening study and 30 additional children had been seen at the SCD clinic for ongoing counseling and care. CONCLUSIONS: Birth prevalence of SCD in rural Tanzania is extremely high and community awareness is low. Newborn point-of-care testing enhances case finding and enables early enrollment in preventive care for SCD, even in rural sub-Saharan Africa with minimal laboratory capacity. SCD-specific clinical services implemented at the district hospital level could expand access to many children and significantly reduce early SCD morbidity and mortality.

4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 239, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with antigenic stimulation from Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Whether eBL risk is related to malaria parasite density is unknown. To address this issue, children with eBL, asymptomatic and clinical malaria, as a surrogate of malaria parasite density, were assessed. METHODS: Malaria-related laboratory results (parasite density, haemoglobin, platelet count, and white cell count [WBC]) count) were compiled for 4019 eBL cases and 80,532 subjects evaluated for asymptomatic malaria or clinical malaria (severe malaria anaemia, hyperparasitaemia, cerebral malaria, malaria prostration, moderate malaria, and mild malaria) in 21 representative studies published in Africa (mostly East Africa) and 850 eBL cases and 2878 controls with primary data from the Epidemiology of Burkitt Lymphoma in East African Children and Minors (EMBLEM) case-control study in Uganda, Tanzania, and Kenya. The average values of malaria-related laboratory results were computed by condition and trends across single-year age groups were assessed using regression and spline models. RESULTS: Overall, malaria infection or malaria was diagnosed in 37,089 of children compiled from the literature. Children with eBL and asymptomatic parasitaemia/antigenaemia, but not those with clinical malaria, were closest in their mean age (age 7.1-7.2 vs. 7.4-9.8 years), haemoglobin level (10.0-10.4 vs. 11.7-12.3 g/dL), malaria parasite density (2800 vs. 1827-7780 parasites/µL), platelet count (347,000-353,000 vs. 244,000-306,000 platelets/µL), and WBC count (8180-8890 vs. 7100-7410 cells/µL). Parasite density in these two groups peaked between four to five years, then decreased steadily thereafter; conversely, haemoglobin showed a corresponding increase with age. Children with clinical malaria were markedly different: all had an average age below 5 years, had dramatically elevated parasite density (13,905-869,000 parasites/µL) and dramatically decreased platelet count (< 159,000 platelets/µL) and haemoglobin (< 7 g/dL). CONCLUSIONS: eBL and asymptomatic parasitaemia/antigenaemia, but not clinical malaria, were the most similar conditions with respect to mean age and malaria-related laboratory results. These results suggest that children with asymptomatic parasitaemia/antigenaemia may be the population at risk of eBL.

5.
Br J Haematol ; 190(5): 772-782, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395868

RESUMO

Platelet counts are decreased in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which is aetiologically linked with endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL). However, the pattern of platelet counts in eBL cases is unknown. We studied platelet counts in 582 eBL cases and 2 248 controls enrolled in a case-control study in Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya (2010-2016). Mean platelet counts in controls or eBL cases with or without malaria-infection in controls versus eBLcases were compared using Student's t-test. Odds ratios (ORs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, haemoglobin and white blood cell counts. Platelets were decreased with malaria infection in the controls [263 vs. 339 × 109 platelets/l, P < 0·0001; adjusted OR (aOR) = 3·42, 95% CI: 2·79-4·18] and eBL cases (314 vs. 367 × 109 platelets/l, P-value = 0·002; aOR = 2·36, 95% CI: 1·49-3·73). Unexpectedly, platelets were elevated in eBL cases versus  controls in overall analyses (mean: 353 vs. 307 × 109 platelets/l, P < 0·0001; aOR = 1·41; 95% CI: 1·12-1·77), and when restricted to malaria-positive (mean 314 vs. 263 × 109 platelets/l, P < 0·0001; OR = 2·26; 95% CI: 1·56-3·27) or malaria-negative (mean 367 vs. 339 × 109 platelets/l, P < 0·001; OR = 1·46; 95% CI: 1·17-1·83) subjects. Platelets were decreased with malaria infection in controls and eBL cases but elevated with eBL.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 953-969, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054214

RESUMO

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is the most common childhood cancer in sub-Saharan African countries, however, few epidemiologic studies have been undertaken and none attempted enrolling cases from multiple countries. We therefore conducted a population-based case-control study of eBL in children aged 0-15 years old in six regions in Northern Uganda, Northern Tanzania and Western Kenya, enrolling 862 suspected cases and 2,934 population controls (response rates 98.5-100%), and processing ~40,000 vials of samples using standardized protocols. Risk factor questionnaires were administered, and malaria period prevalence was measured using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). A total of 80.9% of the recruited cases were diagnosed as eBL; 61.4% confirmed by histology. Associations with eBL risk were computed using logistic regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Associations common in at least two countries were emphasized. eBL risk was decreased with higher maternal income and paternal education and elevated with history of inpatient malaria treatment >12 months before enrollment. Reporting malaria-attributed fever up to 6 months before enrollment and malaria-RDT positivity at enrollment were associated with decreased eBL risk. Conversely, reporting exposure to mass malaria suppression programs (e.g., indoor residual insecticide) was associated with elevated risk. HIV seropositivity was associated with elevated eBL risk, but the relative impact was small. The study shows that it is feasible to conduct networked, multisite population-based studies of eBL in Africa. eBL was inversely associated with socioeconomic status, positively associated with inpatient malaria treatment 12 months ago and with living in areas targeted for malaria suppression, which support a role of malaria in eBL.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Linfoma de Burkitt/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária/complicações , Malária/diagnóstico , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 9: 32, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686906

RESUMO

A one-day workshop on Burkitt lymphoma (BL) was held at the 9(th) African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) conference in 2013 in Durban, South Africa. The workshop featured 15 plenary talks by delegates representing 13 institutions that either fund or implement research on BL targeting AORTIC delegates primarily interested in pediatric oncology. The main outcomes of the meeting were improved sharing of knowledge and experience about ongoing epidemiologic BL research, BL treatment in different settings, the role of cancer registries in cancer research, and opportunities for African scientists to publish in scientific journals. The idea of forming a consortium of BL to improve coordination, information sharing, accelerate discovery, dissemination, and translation of knowledge and to build capacity, while reducing redundant efforts was discussed. Here, we summarize the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 59(7): 1234-8, 2012 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22618958

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is endemic in parts of Tanzania, but there is scant country or region level data about burden and trends of BL in Tanzania over the past three decades. Here, we update baseline epidemiology of BL in northern Tanzania using recent data. PROCEDURE: Data for childhood BL diagnosed at six hospitals in Mara and Mwanza regions in northern Tanzania during 2000-2009 were compiled. Age, sex, and regional patterns were analyzed. Crude incidence rates of BL were calculated by sex, anatomic site, geographical region, and calendar year. RESULTS: Among 944 cases, 549 (58%) were male (male/female case ratio 1.4:1). Among those with known anatomic site (92%), facial only tumors represented a large proportion of tumors in boys than girls (50% vs. 36%, P < 0.002). Tumors occurred at a younger mean age in boys than girls (6.8 years vs. 7.6 years, P < 0.01). Crude BL incidence was 4.2 per 100,000, but varied by region (3.0 in Mwanza vs. 6.8 in Mara, P = 0.01), by district (1.4-22), by gender (5.0 in boys vs. 4.0 in girls), and by age group (2.0 in 0-4, 7.8 in 5-9, and 3.1 in 10-15 years). BL incidence peaked in 2001 and decreased gradually thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that male sex, young age, and geographical characteristics are risk factors for BL in Tanzania. BL incidence declined with calendar year, but the significance of this finding is uncertain. Well-designed epidemiological studies of BL in Tanzania may shed light on environmental characteristics underlying these patterns.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 84(3): 397-401, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21363976

RESUMO

African Burkitt lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell, non-Hodgkin lymphoma linked to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Malaria biomarkers related to onset of African Burkitt lymphoma are unknown. We correlated age-specific patterns of 2,602 cases of African Burkitt lymphoma (60% male, mean ± SD age = 7.1 ± 2.9 years) from Uganda, Ghana, and Tanzania with malaria biomarkers published from these countries. Age-specific patterns of this disease and mean multiplicity of P. falciparum malaria parasites, defined as the average number of distinct genotypes per positive blood sample based on the merozoite surface protein-2 assessed by polymerase chain reaction, were correlated and both peaked between 5 and 9 years. This pattern, which was strong and consistent across regions, contrasted parasite prevalence, which peaked at 2 years and decreased slightly, and geometric mean parasite density, which peaked between 2 and 3 years and decreased sharply. Our findings suggest that concurrent infection with multiple malaria genotypes may be related to onset of African Burkitt lymphoma.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Burkitt/epidemiologia , Linfoma de Burkitt/etiologia , Malária Falciparum/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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