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Materials (Basel) ; 14(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918857


In the present work, extraction with a solvent (cold acetone) was used to extract the assimilation pigments from spinach leaves. Then, the sorption capacity of selected plastics granules (polyvinyl chloride-PVC, polypropylene-PP, polyethylene-PE of different densities) was tested for the selective isolation of chlorophylls. Quantification of chlorophylls by HPLC (Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, the mobile phase: Acetonitrile/methanol/ethyl acetate 6:2:2, v/v) was based on chlorophyll-a content as the most common chlorophyll. The performed experiments prove that PVC containing electronegative chlorine exhibits favorable interactions toward chlorophyll by creating stable molecular complexes. The Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and the molecular modeling were used to elucidate the structure of the created complexes. The optimal extraction requirements, the mass of sorbent, water-acetone ratio, time, and the composition of the elution solvent were all established. The optimized extraction conditions ensured a maximum extraction yield of chlorophylls of 98%. The chlorophyll-rich sorbent was re-extracted by acetone, leading to the recovery of 91% of chlorophylls in one step, adding the possibility of its re-use. The proposed effective and ecological method of obtaining the green dye from plants is cheap, simple, and efficient, avoiding organic solvents, utilizing the most widely used synthetic polymers in the world, being products difficult for utilization. The possibility to remove chosen fungicides cyprodinil, chlorothalonil, and thiabendazone from plant extract by PVC was also examined. The described method proposes a new application of synthetic polymers, which meets the criteria of sustainable green chemistry, simultaneously reaching the growing demand for pure natural compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Materials (Basel) ; 13(22)2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233399


Zeolites are materials with known sorption properties. The sorption is thought to progress mainly by ion exchange with Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ or H+ from the zeolite exchange sites. The aim of the study was to compare the sorption properties of natural and synthetic zeolites on the example of the removal of selected metals from aqueous acidic solutions. Uptake experiments for selected ions of chromium, manganese, selenium, nickel, cobalt, and iron were performed using the batch and kinetic column methods. The sorption of the individual metal ions in mg per 1g of sorbent was determined for each sorbent. The relative affinity sequence of the examined cations toward the various sorbent was presented. The Langmuir model was used to model the adsorption equilibrium. Vermiculite under 1 mm of diameter (SF), Na-X, and Na-A were proved to be the most suitable for the individual uptake of studied metal ions. It was observed that the behavior of selenium ions differed from the remaining ones which was interpreted that selenium undergoes adsorption in the anionic form. The fixed-bed column studies were performed using Na-A, ensuring the sorption of selenium in the presence of iron(III) ions. The experiments were conducted using Na-X zeolite pre-loaded by Fe(III) as well as unmodified sorbent eluted by an equimolar mixture containing 100 ppm of Fe and Se. Obtained results prove that selenium sorption improves if other metal ions such as iron appear in the acidic solution. That efficient selenium sorption conditions can be applied to remove selenium which was recognized as toxic at higher levels.

Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739645


Trace elements play an important role in the pathogenesis of several serious ophthalmological disorders, such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataract, etc. This study aimed to measure alterations of chemical elements' (67) levels in the aqueous humor of patients undergoing cataract surgery. The pilot study included 115 patients, (age 74 ± 7.27, female 64.35%, male 35.65%). The aqueous levels of elements were measured by the use of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), quality controlled with certified standards. The classification of elements based on their concentration was achieved by hierarchical cluster analysis. This is the first screening study that quantifies over 60 elements which are present in the fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye of cataract patients. The obtained results can be suitable for understanding and identifying the causes that may play a role in the initiation and progression of lens opacity.

Humor Aquoso/química , Catarata/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640293


The aim of the study was to estimate the thiocyanate levels in saliva of cigarette smokers in comparison to e-cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. To improve our understanding of the influence of smoking on the oral level of thiocyanate, we conducted an assessment of human saliva, in 24 individuals (eight tobacco smokers, eight e-cigarette smokers, and eight nonsmokers). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) using a unique phosphatidylcholine column was applied in this assay. Thiocyanate ion was detected directly by its absorbance at 210 nm. The method presents a new application of the IAM (Immobilized Artificial Membrane) column for quantification of inorganic anions. The whole process meets the criteria of green chemistry because it was carried out without the use of organic solvents. For compensating matrix effects, an eight-point standard addition protocol was used to quantify the thiocyanate level in saliva samples. The calibration graphs were linear in the range of 5-100 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99. The thiocyanate concentrations in the saliva of tobacco smokers, e-cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers were found in the range of 121.25-187.54 mg L-1, 121.24-244.11 mg L-1, 33.03-79.49 mg L-1, respectively. The present study indicates an obvious statistically significant elevation in salivary thiocyanate level in tobacco smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. The phosphatidylcholine-based stationary phase proved to be suitable for the detection and quantification of the thiocyanate ion. The salivary thiocyanate levels in e-cigarette smokers were not significantly different in comparison to tobacco smokers but higher if compared to nonsmokers. The criterion for statistical significance was p < 0.05.

Saliva/química , Tiocianatos/análise , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Química Verde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfatidilcolinas/química
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064131


The aim of this research was to optimize the separation and quantitative determination of nitrites and nitrates in human saliva. HPLC with UV absorption (HPLC/DAD) using a phosphatidylcholine column (IAM.PC.DD2 Regis HPLC) was applied in this assay. Nitrates were detected directly by their absorbance at 210 nm, whereas nitrites were detected after oxidation to nitrates by potassium permanganate at acidic conditions. The kinetics of the permanganate-nitrite reaction was measured chromatographically. The calibration graph for nitrates was linear in the range of 0.5-35 µg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection was 4.56 ng mL-1. The calibration graph for nitrites (after oxidation to nitrates) was linear in the range of 0.5-15 µg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The limit of detection was 4.21 ng mL-1. The nitrate concentrations in the saliva samples were found in the range of 8.98-18.52 µg mL-1, whereas nitrite was in the range of 3.50-5.34 µg mL-1.

Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Saliva/química , Bioensaio/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Oxirredução , Permanganato de Potássio/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Molecules ; 24(7)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934973


Iodine is an essential nutrient necessary for the production of thyroid hormones. A valuable source of iodide, which is the bio-available iodine form could be mineral waters offered by different spas. In this work, the method capable of direct determination of iodide in mineral water samples based on IAM liquid chromatography on the phosphatidylcholine column (IAM.PC.DD2 Regis HPLC) with DAD detection without sample pretreatment or any pre-concentration steps is presented. The calibration graph for iodide was linear in the range of 0.5⁻10.0 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The limit of detection was 22.84 ng mL-1. The relative recoveries were in the interval of 98.5⁻100.2% and the repeatability, expressed as a relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%. The RSA (Response Surface Analysis) investigated the effect of the sample concentration and the injection volume. The iodide concentrations in the mineral water samples ranged from 0.58 to 2.88 mg L-1. The accuracy of the method was assessed through independent analysis by ICP-MS. Iodide levels measured by these two procedures did not significantly differ. The effects of interfering ions like HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, F-, and Br- were also tested. The analysis has shown insignificant differences in the values of the iodide peak area and its height measured in multicomponent mixtures with an error smaller than 5%.

Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Iodetos/análise , Águas Minerais/análise , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Ânions/química , Íons , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes