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1.
Biomaterials ; 233: 119750, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931441

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a deadly and uncurable disease characterized by remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and its product, angiotensin-(1-7) [ANG-(1-7)] were expressed in lettuce chloroplasts to facilitate affordable oral drug delivery. Lyophilized lettuce cells were stable up to 28 months at ambient temperature with proper folding, assembly of CTB-ACE2/ANG-(1-7) and functionality. When the antibiotic resistance gene was removed, Ang1-7 expression was stable in subsequent generations in marker-free transplastomic lines. Oral gavage of monocrotaline-induced PAH rats resulted in dose-dependent delivery of ANG-(1-7) and ACE2 in plasma/tissues and PAH development was attenuated with decreases in right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, RV systolic pressure, total pulmonary resistance and pulmonary artery remodeling. Such attenuation correlated well with alterations in the transcription of Ang-(1-7) receptor MAS and angiotensin II receptor AGTRI as well as IL-1ß and TGF-ß1. Toxicology studies showed that both male and female rats tolerated ~10-fold ACE2/ANG-(1-7) higher than efficacy dose. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes enhanced plasma levels of orally delivered protein drug bioencapsulated within plant cells. Efficient attenuation of PAH with no toxicity augurs well for clinical advancement of the first oral protein therapy to prevent/treat underlying pathology for this disease.

3.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(1): 45-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating levels of endothelin-1 (ET1) are elevated in heart failure and predict poor prognosis. However, it is not clear whether ET1 elevation is an adaptive response, maladaptive response, or an epiphenomenon of heart failure. In this study, we evaluated the relationships between ET1, cardiac morphology, and incident heart failure or cardiovascular death in participants with no evidence of clinical cardiovascular disease at the time ET1 was measured. METHODS AND RESULTS: ET1 was measured in 1,361 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Angiogenesis Sub-Study. As suggested by linear regression, participants with lower circulating ET1 levels tended to be older, non-white, more likely to have smoked heavily, and less likely to report intentional exercise. Participants with higher ET1 levels had smaller left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (8.9 ml smaller per log increase in ET1, 95% confidence interval 17.1-0.7, p = 0.03) with an increased left ventricular ejection fraction (2.8% per log increase in ET1, 95% confidence interval 0.5%-5.2%, p = 0.02). As suggested by Cox Proportional Hazards estimates, participants with higher ET1 levels had a lower risk for the composite outcome of heart failure or cardiovascular death in models that were unadjusted or had limited adjustment (p = 0.03 and p = 0.05, respectively). Lower risk for heart failure with higher ET1 levels could not be clearly shown in a model including health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest, but do not confirm, that elevated levels of circulating ET1 are associated with a more favorable cardiac phenotype. The relationship between ET1 and outcomes was not fully independent of one or more covariates.

4.
J Cyst Fibros ; 19(1): 125-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical effects of Aspergillus fumigatus in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway, with the exception of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, is unclear. METHODS: CF adolescents and adults (age 14 years and older) underwent bacterial and semi-selective fungal culture testing to determine the prevalence of fungi in the CF respiratory tract and the independent association between the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Aspergillus fumigatus (10.3%) and Candida species (57.8%) were the most common filamentous fungi and yeast seen respectively in the sputa of 206 individuals with CF. Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use was more common in Aspergillus fumigatus-positive than Aspergillus fumigatusnegative (100% versus 75.8%, p = .01). Aspergillus fumigatus was significantly associated with lower respiratory domain score (ß -8.74, 95% CI -16.6, -0.88, p = .03), representing worse respiratory-related quality of life, accounting for demographics, disease characteristics, and the presence of a pulmonary exacerbation. CONCLUSION: The presence of Aspergillus fumigatus in CF sputum was associated with worse respiratory quality of life in CF in a crosssectional, single center study. Longitudinal analysis examining the clinical implications of Aspergillus fumigatus on respiratory health over time is needed.

5.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adipokines have inflammatory and fibrotic properties that may be critical in interstitial lung disease (ILD). We examined associations of serum adipokine levels with CT imaging-based measures of subclinical ILD and lung function among community-dwelling adults. METHODS: A subset of the original Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort (n = 1,968) had adiponectin, leptin, and resistin measured during follow-up visits (2002-2005). We used regression models to examine associations of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels with (1) high-attenuation areas (HAAs) from CT scans (2004-2005, n = 1,144), (2) interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) from CT scans (2010-2012, n = 872), and (3) FVC from spirometry (2004-2006, n = 1,446). We used -(1/HAA2), which we denoted with H, to model HAA as our outcome to meet model assumptions. RESULTS: Higher adiponectin was associated with lower HAA on CT imaging among adults with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (P for BMI interaction = .07). Leptin was more strongly associated with ILA among never smokers compared with ever smokers (P for smoking interaction = .004). For every 1-SD increment of log-transformed leptin, the percent predicted FVC was 3.8% lower (95% CI, -5.0 to -2.5). Higher serum resistin levels were associated with greater HAA on CT in a fully adjusted model. For every 1-SD increment of log-transformed resistin there was an increase in H of 14.8 (95% CI, 3.4-26.3). CONCLUSIONS: Higher adiponectin levels were associated with lower HAA on CT imaging among adults with a higher BMI. Higher leptin and resistin levels were associated with lower FVC and greater HAA, respectively.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e013151, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619106

RESUMO

Background Risk-adjusted adverse event (AE) rates have been used to measure the quality of pediatric and congenital cardiac catheterization laboratories. In other settings, failure to rescue (FTR) has demonstrated utility as a quality metric. Methods and Results A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the IMPACT (Improving Adult and Congenital Treatment) Registry between January 2010 and December 2016. A modified FTR metric was developed for pediatric and congenital cardiac catheterization laboratories and then compared with pooled AEs. The associations between patient- and hospital-level factors and outcomes were evaluated using hierarchical logistic regression models. Hospital risk standardized ratios were then calculated. Rankings of risk standardized ratios for each outcome were compared to determine whether AEs and FTR identified the same high- and low-performing centers. During the study period, 77 580 catheterizations were performed at 91 hospitals. Higher annual hospital catheterization volume was associated with lower odds of FTR (odds ratio: 0.68 per 300 cases; P=0.0003). No association was seen between catheterization volume and odds of AEs. Odds of AEs were instead associated with patient- and procedure-level factors. There was no correlation between risk standardized ratio ranks for FTR and pooled AEs (P=0.46). Hospital ranks by catheterization volume and FTR were associated (r=-0.28, P=0.01) with the largest volume hospitals having the lowest risk of FTR. Conclusions In contrast to AEs, FTR was not strongly associated with patient- and procedure-level factors and was significantly associated with pediatric and congenital cardiac catheterization laboratory volume. Hospital rankings based on FTR and AEs were not significantly correlated. We conclude that FTR is a complementary measure of catheterization laboratory quality and should be included in future research and quality-improvement projects.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1570-1579, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the best strategy to treat patients with tetralogy of Fallot who are symptomatic in the neonatal period. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of complete versus staged surgery (i.e., initial palliative procedure for possible later complete repair). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System database, including patients who underwent complete or staged tetralogy of Fallot repair prior to 30 days of age. The primary outcome was death during 2-year follow-up after the initial procedure. Inverse probability-weighted Cox and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between surgical approach group and mortality while accounting for patient- and hospital-level factors. Causal mediation analyses examined the role of intermediate variables. RESULTS: A total of 2,363 patients were included (1,032 complete and 1,331 staged). There were 239 deaths. Complete neonatal repair was associated with a significantly higher risk for mortality during the 2-year follow-up period (hazard ratio: 1.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.06), between 7 and 30 days after the initial procedure (hazard ratio: 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.41), and during the initial hospital admission (odds ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 2.62). Post-operative cardiac complications were more common in the complete repair group and mediated the differences in 30-day and 2-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical repair for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot is associated with a significantly higher risk for early and 2-year mortality compared with the staged approach, after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics. Post-operative cardiac complications mediated these findings.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 54(3)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371443

RESUMO

Adhesion molecules may contribute to the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and have been proposed as prognostic biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Our objective was to determine whether the circulating adhesion molecules soluble intracellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 and P-selectin are associated with subclinical ILD in community-dwelling adults.The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis enrolled males and females aged 45-84 years from six communities in the United States in 2000-2002. High attenuation areas were defined as the percentage of imaged lung volume with attenuation -600--250 HU on cardiac computed tomography (CT). Interstitial lung abnormalities were visually assessed on full-lung CT. Spirometry was performed on a subset of individuals. ILD hospitalisations and deaths were adjudicated.In fully adjusted analyses, higher levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin were associated with greater high attenuation areas (2.94%, 95% CI 1.80-4.07%; 1.24%, 95% CI 0.14-2.35%; and 1.58%, 95% CI 0.92-2.23%, respectively), and greater rate of ILD hospitalisations (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.80; 1.40, 95% CI 1.07-1.85; and 2.03, 95% CI 1.16-3.5, respectively). sICAM-1 was associated with greater prevalence of interstitial lung abnormalities (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.71). sICAM-1 and P-selectin were associated with lower forced vital capacity (44 mL, 95% CI 12-76 mL and 29 mL, 95% CI 8-49 mL, respectively). sVCAM-1 and P-selectin were associated with increased risk of ILD death (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.26-3.64 and 3.61, 95% CI 1.54-8.46, respectively).Higher levels of circulating sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and P-selectin are independently associated with CT and spirometric measures of subclinical ILD, and increased rate of adjudicated ILD events among community-dwelling adults.

11.
Transplant Direct ; 5(6): e456, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321292

RESUMO

Background: The role of liver transplantation (LT) in the management of portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to better understand provider attitudes and practice patterns regarding the management of patients with POPH and to assess the concordance between clinical practice and current guidelines. Methods: We performed a multicenter survey study of hepatologists and pulmonary hypertension (PH) physicians at US LT centers that performed >50 transplants per year. Survey responses are summarized as number (%). Associations were assessed using a Wilcoxon-rank sum, chi-square, or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. Results: Seventy-four providers from 35 centers were included. There was marked variability regarding screening practices, management, and attitudes. Forty-two percent responded that POPH nearly always or often improves with LT, and 15.5% reported that POPH rarely or never improves. In contrast to current guidelines, 50.7% agreed that treated POPH should be an indication for LT in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Hepatologists were more likely than PH physicians to agree that POPH should be an indication for LT (P = 0.02). Forty-nine percent of respondents thought that the current POPH Model for End-stage Liver Disease exception criteria should be modified, and management of patients with an elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure and normal pulmonary vascular resistance differed from current policies. Conclusions: There is marked variability in provider attitudes and practice patterns regarding the management of POPH. This study highlights the need for prospective studies to inform practice and for improved implementation of practice guidelines in order to standardize care.

14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(12): 1513-1521, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322417

RESUMO

Rationale: A model for stratifying progression of respiratory muscle weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) would identify disease mechanisms and phenotypes suitable for future investigations. This study sought to categorize progression of FVC after presentation to an outpatient ALS clinic.Objectives: To identify clinical phenotypes of ALS respiratory progression based on FVC trajectories over time.Methods: We derived a group-based trajectory model from a single-center cohort of 837 patients with ALS who presented between 2006 and 2015. We applied our model to the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database with 7,461 patients with ALS. Baseline characteristics at first visit were used as predictors of trajectory group membership. The primary outcome was trajectory of FVC over time in months.Measurements and Main Results: We found three trajectories of FVC over time, termed "stable low," "rapid progressor," and "slow progressor." Compared with the slow progressors, the rapid progressors had shorter diagnosis delay, more bulbar-onset disease, and a lower ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) total score at baseline. The stable low group had a shorter diagnosis delay, lower body mass index, more bulbar-onset disease, lower ALSFRS-R total score, and were more likely to have an ALSFRS-R orthopnea score lower than 4 compared with the slow progressors. We found that projected group membership predicted respiratory insufficiency in the PRO-ACT cohort (concordance statistic = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.76-0.79).Conclusions: We derived a group-based trajectory model for FVC progression in ALS, which validated against the outcome of respiratory insufficiency in an external cohort. Future studies may focus on patients predicted to be rapid progressors.

15.
Eur Respir J ; 53(6)2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution alters small pulmonary vessels in animal models. We hypothesised that long-term ambient air pollution exposure would be associated with differences in pulmonary vascular volumes in a population-based study. METHODS: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited adults in six US cities. Personalised long-term exposures to ambient black carbon, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone were estimated using spatiotemporal models. In 2010-2012, total pulmonary vascular volume was measured as the volume of detectable pulmonary arteries and veins, including vessel walls and luminal blood volume, on noncontrast chest computed tomography (TPVVCT). Peripheral TPVVCT was limited to the peripheral 2 cm to isolate smaller vessels. Linear regression adjusted for demographics, anthropometrics, smoking, second-hand smoke, renal function and scanner manufacturer. RESULTS: The mean±sd age of the 3023 participants was 69.3±9.3 years; 46% were never-smokers. Mean exposures were 0.80 µg·m-3 black carbon, 14.6 ppb NO2 and 11.0 µg·m-3 ambient PM2.5. Mean±sd peripheral TPVVCT was 79.2±18.2 cm3 and TPVVCT was 129.3±35.1 cm3. Greater black carbon exposure was associated with a larger peripheral TPVVCT, including after adjustment for city (mean difference 0.41 (95% CI 0.03-0.79) cm3 per interquartile range; p=0.036). Associations for peripheral TPVVCT with NO2 were similar but nonsignificant after city adjustment, while those for PM2.5 were of similar magnitude but nonsignificant after full adjustment. There were no associations for NO x or ozone, or between any pollutant and TPVVCT. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term black carbon exposure was associated with a larger peripheral TPVVCT, suggesting diesel exhaust may contribute to remodelling of small pulmonary vessels in the general population.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e011543, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023121

RESUMO

Background Cardiac catheterization is an important but costly component of health care for young patients with cardiac disease. Measurement of variation in their cost between hospitals and identification of the reasons for this variation may help reduce cost without compromising quality. Methods and Results Using data from Pediatric Health Information Systems Database from January 2007 to December 2015, the costs of 9 procedures were measured. Mixed-effects multivariable models were used to generate case-mix-adjusted estimates of each hospital's cost for each procedure and measure interhospital variation. Procedures (n=35 637) from 43 hospitals were studied. Median costs varied from $8249 (diagnostic catheterization after orthotopic heart transplantation) to $38 909 (transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement). There was marked variation in the cost of procedures between hospitals with 3.5- to 8.9-fold differences in the case-mix-adjusted cost between the most and least expensive hospitals. No significant correlation was found between hospitals' procedure-specific mortality rates and costs. Higher procedure volume was not associated with lower cost except for diagnostic procedures in heart transplant patients and pulmonary artery angioplasty. At the hospital level, the proportion of cases that were outliers (>95th percentile) was significantly associated with rank in terms of cost (Spearman's ρ ranging from 0.37 to 0.89, P<0.01). Conclusions Large-magnitude hospital variation in cost was not explained by case-mix or volume. Further research is necessary to determine the degree to which variation in cost is the result of differences in the efficiency of the delivery of healthcare services and the rate of catastrophic adverse outcomes and resultant protracted and expensive hospitalizations.

18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(7): 811-814, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974063
20.
Pulm Circ ; 9(2): 2045894019841978, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880577

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC), invasively assessed by the ratio of stroke volume to pulmonary arterial (PA) pulse pressure, is a sensitive marker of right ventricular (RV)-PA coupling that differs across the spectrum of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is predictive of outcomes. We assessed whether the echocardiographically derived ratio of RV outflow tract velocity time integral to PA systolic pressure (RVOT-VTI/PASP) (a) correlates with invasive PAC, (b) discriminates heart failure with preserved ejection-associated PH (HFpEF-PH) from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and (c) is associated with functional capacity. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with PAH (n = 70) and HFpEF-PH (n = 86), which was further dichotomized by diastolic pressure gradient (DPG) into isolated post-capillary PH (DPG < 7 mmHg; Ipc-PH, n = 54), and combined post- and pre-capillary PH (DPG ≥ 7 mm Hg; Cpc-PH, n = 32). Of the 156 patients, 146 had measurable RVOT-VTI or PASP and were included in further analysis. RVOT-VTI/PASP correlated with invasive PAC overall (ρ = 0.61, P < 0.001) and for the PAH (ρ = 0.38, P = 0.002) and HFpEF-PH (ρ = 0.63, P < 0.001) groups individually. RVOT-VTI/PASP differed significantly across the PH spectrum (PAH: 0.13 [0.010-0.25] vs. Cpc-PH: 0.20 [0.12-0.25] vs. Ipc-PH: 0.35 [0.22-0.44]; P < 0.001), distinguished HFpEF-PH from PAH (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.63-0.81) and Cpc-PH from Ipc-PH (AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.88), and remained independently predictive of 6-min walk distance after multivariate analysis (standardized ß-coefficient = 27.7, 95% CI = 9.2-46.3; P = 0.004). Echocardiographic RVOT-VTI/PASP is a novel non-invasive metric of PAC that differs across the spectrum of PH. It distinguishes the degree of pre-capillary disease within HFpEF-PH and is predictive of functional capacity.

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