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1.
Science ; 376(6589): 193-199, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389784

RESUMO

Magic-angle twisted trilayer graphene (TTG) has recently emerged as a platform to engineer strongly correlated flat bands. We reveal the normal-state structural and electronic properties of TTG using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy at twist angles for which superconductivity has been observed. Real trilayer samples undergo a strong reconstruction of the moiré lattice, which locks layers into near-magic-angle, mirror symmetric domains comparable in size with the superconducting coherence length. This relaxation introduces an array of localized twist-angle faults, termed twistons and moiré solitons, whose electronic structure deviates strongly from the background regions, leading to a doping-dependent, spatially granular electronic landscape. The Fermi-level density of states is maximally uniform at dopings for which superconductivity has been observed in transport measurements.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344654

RESUMO

Four-dimensional (4D) scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to study the electric fields at the edges of 2D semiconducting monolayer MoS2. Sub-nanometer 1D features in the 2D electric field maps are observed at the outermost region along zigzag edges and also along nanowire MoS-terminated MoS2 edges. Atomic-scale oscillations are detected in the magnitude of the 1D electromagnetic edge state, with spatial variations that depend on the specific periodic edge reconstructions. Electric field reconstructions, along with integrated differential phase contrast reconstructions, reveal the presence of low Z number atoms terminating many of the uniform edges, which are difficult to detect by annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy due to its limited dynamic range. Density functional theory calculations support the formation of periodic 1D edge states and also show that enhancement of the electric field magnitude can occur for some edge terminations. The experimentally observed electric fields at the edges are attributed to the absence of an opposing electric field from a nearest neighbor atom when the electron beam propagates through the 2D monolayer and interacts. These results show the potential of 4D-STEM to map the atomic scale structure and fluctuations of electric fields around edge atoms with different bonding states than bulk atoms in 2D materials, beyond conventional imaging.

3.
Nano Lett ; 22(5): 1922-1928, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167308

RESUMO

Although the unconventional π-magnetism at the zigzag edges of graphene holds promise for a wide array of applications, whether and to what degree it plays a role in their chemistry remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate the addition of a hydrogen atom─the simplest yet the most experimentally relevant adsorbate─to zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We show that the π-magnetism governs the chemistry of ZGNRs, giving rise to a site-dependent reactivity of the carbon atoms and driving the hydrogenation process to the nanoribbon edges. Conversely, the chemisorbed hydrogen atom governs the π-magnetism of ZGNRs, acting as a spin-1/2 paramagnetic center in the otherwise antiferromagnetic ground state and spin-polarizing the charge carriers at the band extrema. Our findings establish a comprehensive picture of the peculiar interplay between chemistry and magnetism that emerges at the zigzag edges of graphene.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanotubos de Carbono , Hidrogênio
4.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 154: 111621, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815624

RESUMO

Population-wide vaccination is critical for containing the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic when combined with restrictive and prevention measures. In this study we introduce SAIVR, a mathematical model able to forecast the COVID-19 epidemic evolution during the vaccination campaign. SAIVR extends the widely used Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) model by considering the Asymptomatic (A) and Vaccinated (V) compartments. The model contains several parameters and initial conditions that are estimated by employing a semi-supervised machine learning procedure. After training an unsupervised neural network to solve the SAIVR differential equations, a supervised framework then estimates the optimal conditions and parameters that best fit recent infectious curves of 27 countries. Instructed by these results, we performed an extensive study on the temporal evolution of the pandemic under varying values of roll-out daily rates, vaccine efficacy, and a broad range of societal vaccine hesitancy/denial levels. The concept of herd immunity is questioned by studying future scenarios which involve different vaccination efforts and more infectious COVID-19 variants.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(16): 166802, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723600

RESUMO

Layers of two-dimensional materials stacked with a small twist angle give rise to beating periodic patterns on a scale much larger than the original lattice, referred to as a "moiré superlattice." Here, we demonstrate a higher-order "moiré of moiré" superlattice in twisted trilayer graphene with two consecutive small twist angles. We report correlated insulating states near the half filling of the moiré of moiré superlattice at an extremely low carrier density (∼10^{10} cm^{-2}), near which we also report a zero-resistance transport behavior typically expected in a 2D superconductor. The full-occupancy (ν=-4 and ν=4) states are semimetallic and gapless, distinct from the twisted bilayer systems.

6.
Nano Lett ; 21(21): 9332-9338, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714095

RESUMO

Graphene nanoribbons are widely regarded as promising building blocks for next-generation carbon-based devices. A critical issue to their prospective applications is whether their electronic structure can be externally controlled. Here, we combine simple model Hamiltonians with extensive first-principles calculations to investigate the response of armchair graphene nanoribbons to transverse electric fields. Such fields can be achieved either upon laterally gating the nanoribbon or incorporating ambipolar chemical codopants along the edges. We reveal that the field induces a semiconductor-to-semimetal transition with the semimetallic phase featuring zero-energy Dirac fermions that propagate along the armchair edges. The transition occurs at critical fields that scale inversely with the width of the nanoribbons. These findings are universal to group-IV honeycomb lattices, including silicene and germanene nanoribbons, irrespective of the type of edge termination. Overall, our results create new opportunities to electrically engineer Dirac semimetallic phases in otherwise semiconducting graphene-like nanoribbons.

7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5345, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526494

RESUMO

The kagome lattice has long been regarded as a theoretical framework that connects lattice geometry to unusual singularities in electronic structure. Transition metal kagome compounds have been recently identified as a promising material platform to investigate the long-sought electronic flat band. Here we report the signature of a two-dimensional flat band at the surface of antiferromagnetic kagome metal FeSn by means of planar tunneling spectroscopy. Employing a Schottky heterointerface of FeSn and an n-type semiconductor Nb-doped SrTiO3, we observe an anomalous enhancement in tunneling conductance within a finite energy range of FeSn. Our first-principles calculations show this is consistent with a spin-polarized flat band localized at the ferromagnetic kagome layer at the Schottky interface. The spectroscopic capability to characterize the electronic structure of a kagome compound at a thin film heterointerface will provide a unique opportunity to probe flat band induced phenomena in an energy-resolved fashion with simultaneous electrical tuning of its properties. Furthermore, the exotic surface state discussed herein is expected to manifest as peculiar spin-orbit torque signals in heterostructure-based spintronic devices.

8.
ACS Nano ; 15(9): 14394-14403, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463476

RESUMO

The interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures governs a variety of optical and electronic properties. The intrinsic dipole moment of Janus transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offers a simple and versatile approach to tune the interlayer interactions. In this work, we demonstrate how the van der Waals interlayer coupling and charge transfer of Janus MoSSe/MoS2 heterobilayers can be tuned by the twist angle and interface composition. Specifically, the Janus heterostructures with a sulfur/sulfur (S/S) interface display stronger interlayer coupling than the heterostructures with a selenium/sulfur (Se/S) interface as shown by the low-frequency Raman modes. The differences in interlayer interactions are explained by the interlayer distance computed by density-functional theory (DFT). More intriguingly, the built-in electric field contributed by the charge density redistribution and interlayer coupling also play important roles in the interfacial charge transfer. Namely, the S/S and Se/S interfaces exhibit different levels of photoluminescence (PL) quenching of MoS2 A exciton, suggesting enhanced and reduced charge transfer at the S/S and Se/S interface, respectively. Our work demonstrates how the asymmetry of Janus TMDs can be used to tailor the interfacial interactions in van der Waals heterostructures.

9.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 698182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179102

RESUMO

Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism in eukaryotic cells. In the intrinsically disordered histone tails, phosphorylation is often a part of combinatorial post-translational modifications and an integral part of the "histone code" that regulates gene expression. Here, we study the association between two histone H3 tail peptides modified to different degrees, using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Assuming that the initial conformations are either α-helical or fully extended, we compare the propensity of the two peptides to associate with one another when both are unmodified, one modified and the other unmodified, or both modified. The simulations lead to the identification of distinct inter- and intramolecular interactions in the peptide dimer, highlighting a prominent role of a fine-tuned phosphorylation rheostat in peptide association. Progressive phosphorylation appears to modulate peptide charge, inducing strong and specific intermolecular interactions between the monomers, which do not result in the formation of amorphous or ordered aggregates, as documented by experimental evidence derived from Circular Dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. However, upon complete saturation of positive charges by phosphate groups, this effect is reversed: intramolecular interactions prevail and dimerization of zero-charge peptides is markedly reduced. These findings underscore the role of phosphorylation thresholds in the dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins. Phosphorylation rheostats might account for the divergent effects of histone modifications on the modulation of chromatin structure.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8997, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903609

RESUMO

We utilize real-time time-dependent density functional theory and Ehrenfest dynamics scheme to investigate excited-state nonadiabatic dynamics of ligand dissociation of cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl, Co(CO)3NO, which is a precursor used for cobalt growth in advanced technologies, where the precursor's reaction is enhanced by electronic excitation. Based on the first-principles calculations, we demonstrate two dissociation pathways of the NO ligand on the precursor. Detailed electronic structures are further analyzed to provide an insight into dynamics following the electronic excitations. This study sheds light on computational demonstration and underlying mechanism of the electronic-excitation-induced dissociation, especially in molecules with complex chemical bonds such as the Co(CO)3NO.

12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(4): 1214-1219, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482063

RESUMO

Magnetic carbon nanostructures are currently under scrutiny for a wide spectrum of applications. Here, we theoretically investigate armchair graphene nanoribbons patterned with asymmetric edge extensions consisting of laterally fused naphtho groups, as recently fabricated via on-surface synthesis. We show that an individual edge extension acts as a spin-12 center and develops a sizable spin-polarization of the conductance around the band edges. The Heisenberg exchange coupling between a pair of edge extensions is dictated by the position of the second naphtho group in the carbon backbone, thus enabling ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, or nonmagnetic states. The periodic arrangement of edge extensions yields full spin-polarization at the band extrema, and the accompanying ferromagnetic ground state can be driven into nonmagnetic or antiferromagnetic phases through external stimuli. Overall, our work reveals a precise tunability of the π-magnetism in graphene nanoribbons induced by naphtho groups, thereby establishing these one-dimensional architectures as suitable platforms for logic spintronics.

13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 242, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431846

RESUMO

The emerging field of twistronics, which harnesses the twist angle between two-dimensional materials, represents a promising route for the design of quantum materials, as the twist-angle-induced superlattices offer means to control topology and strong correlations. At the small twist limit, and particularly under strain, as atomic relaxation prevails, the emergent moiré superlattice encodes elusive insights into the local interlayer interaction. Here we introduce moiré metrology as a combined experiment-theory framework to probe the stacking energy landscape of bilayer structures at the 0.1 meV/atom scale, outperforming the gold-standard of quantum chemistry. Through studying the shapes of moiré domains with numerous nano-imaging techniques, and correlating with multi-scale modelling, we assess and refine first-principle models for the interlayer interaction. We document the prowess of moiré metrology for three representative twisted systems: bilayer graphene, double bilayer graphene and H-stacked MoSe2/WSe2. Moiré metrology establishes sought after experimental benchmarks for interlayer interaction, thus enabling accurate modelling of twisted multilayers.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(43): 49174-49181, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054176

RESUMO

Solvent effects are important for photovoltaic systems like dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) but remain largely unexplored, partly due to the complexity of explicitly including solvent molecules in atomistic simulations. To address these issues, we have systematically investigated the solvent effects in practical solar cells using ab initio excited state dynamics simulations. In this computational protocol and the extended model system, we considered giving a novel perspective on the excited state changes in response to solvation and finite temperature at the heterointerface of DSCs. By directly comparing the geometric stability of interface bonding, photoabsorption, interfacial electronic structure, and dynamics of vacuum and solvent systems, we obtain useful insights into how solvents influence the key factors that determine the efficiency of DSCs. Solvents significantly enhance the intensity of visible light absorption of chromophores (∼2 times) through two effects: (a) by inducing changes to the dye molecule structure due to intermolecular dye-solvent interactions, and (b) by the dielectric screening of the solvent. Furthermore, by adsorbing onto the TiO2 surface, solvent molecules adjust the interfacial band alignment to a favorable level and screen out the attraction force between injected electrons in the semiconductor substrate and holes left on the chromophore to a large extent, dramatically slowing down the recombination process (>8 times). Our findings provide a comprehensive picture of the explicit solvent effects on individual energy conversion steps in DSCs at the microscopic scale and lead to more accurate prediction of the performance of nanodevices in practical environments, contributing to the optimization of realistic renewable energy devices.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(11): 116404, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975975

RESUMO

We introduce twisted trilayer graphene (tTLG) with two independent twist angles as an ideal system for the precise tuning of the electronic interlayer coupling to maximize the effect of correlated behaviors. As established by experiment and theory in the related twisted bilayer graphene system, van Hove singularities (VHS) in the density of states can be used as a proxy of the tendency for correlated behaviors. To explore the evolution of VHS in the twist-angle phase space of tTLG, we present a general low-energy electronic structure model for any pair of twist angles. We show that the basis of the model has infinite dimensions even at a finite energy cutoff and that no Brillouin zone exists even in the continuum limit. Using this model, we demonstrate that the tTLG system exhibits a wide range of magic angles at which VHS merge and that the density of states has a sharp peak at the charge-neutrality point through two distinct mechanisms: the incommensurate perturbation of twisted bilayer graphene's flatbands or the equal hybridization between two bilayer moiré superlattices.

16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(41): 17499-17507, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942848

RESUMO

Interlayer coupling plays essential roles in the quantum transport, polaritonic, and electrochemical properties of stacked van der Waals (vdW) materials. In this work, we report the unconventional interlayer coupling in vdW heterostructures (HSs) by utilizing an emerging 2D material, Janus transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). In contrast to conventional TMDs, monolayer Janus TMDs have two different chalcogen layers sandwiching the transition metal and thus exhibit broken mirror symmetry and an intrinsic vertical dipole moment. Such a broken symmetry is found to strongly enhance the vdW interlayer coupling by as much as 13.2% when forming MoSSe/MoS2 HS as compared to the pristine MoS2 counterparts. Our noncontact ultralow-frequency Raman probe, linear chain model, and density functional theory calculations confirm the enhancement and reveal the origins as charge redistribution in Janus MoSSe and reduced interlayer distance. Our results uncover the potential of tuning interlayer coupling strength through Janus heterostacking.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15795, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978473

RESUMO

We use a data-driven approach to study the magnetic and thermodynamic properties of van der Waals (vdW) layered materials. We investigate monolayers of the form [Formula: see text], based on the known material [Formula: see text], using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and machine learning methods to determine their magnetic properties, such as magnetic order and magnetic moment. We also examine formation energies and use them as a proxy for chemical stability. We show that machine learning tools, combined with DFT calculations, can provide a computationally efficient means to predict properties of such two-dimensional (2D) magnetic materials. Our data analytics approach provides insights into the microscopic origins of magnetic ordering in these systems. For instance, we find that the X site strongly affects the magnetic coupling between neighboring A sites, which drives the magnetic ordering. Our approach opens new ways for rapid discovery of chemically stable vdW materials that exhibit magnetic behavior.

18.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 138: 110114, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834582

RESUMO

A simple analytical model for modeling the evolution of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic is presented. The model is based on the numerical solution of the widely used Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) populations model for describing epidemics. We consider an expanded version of the original Kermack-McKendrick model, which includes a decaying value of the parameter ß (the effective contact rate), interpreted as an effect of externally imposed conditions, to which we refer as the forced-SIR (FSIR) model. We introduce an approximate analytical solution to the differential equations that represent the FSIR model which gives very reasonable fits to real data for a number of countries over a period of 100 days (from the first onset of exponential increase, in China). The proposed model contains 3 adjustable parameters which are obtained by fitting actual data (up to April 28, 2020). We analyze these results to infer the physical meaning of the parameters involved. We use the model to make predictions about the total expected number of infections in each country as well as the date when the number of infections will have reached 99% of this total. We also compare key findings of the model with recently reported results on the high contagiousness and rapid spread of the disease.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4209, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826888

RESUMO

Direct visualization of nanometer-scale properties of moiré superlattices in van der Waals heterostructure devices is a critically needed diagnostic tool for study of the electronic and optical phenomena induced by the periodic variation of atomic structure in these complex systems. Conventional imaging methods are destructive and insensitive to the buried device geometries, preventing practical inspection. Here we report a versatile scanning probe microscopy employing infrared light for imaging moiré superlattices of twisted bilayers graphene encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride. We map the pattern using the scattering dynamics of phonon polaritons launched in hexagonal boron nitride capping layers via its interaction with the buried moiré superlattices. We explore the origin of the double-line features imaged and show the mechanism of the underlying effective phase change of the phonon polariton reflectance at domain walls. The nano-imaging tool developed provides a non-destructive analytical approach to elucidate the complex physics of moiré engineered heterostructures.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4004, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778669

RESUMO

Electronic flat bands in momentum space, arising from strong localization of electrons in real space, are an ideal stage to realize strongly-correlated phenomena. Theoretically, the flat bands can naturally arise in certain geometrically frustrated lattices, often with nontrivial topology if combined with spin-orbit coupling. Here, we report the observation of topological flat bands in frustrated kagome metal CoSn, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and band structure calculations. Throughout the entire Brillouin zone, the bandwidth of the flat band is suppressed by an order of magnitude compared to the Dirac bands originating from the same orbitals. The frustration-driven nature of the flat band is directly confirmed by the chiral d-orbital texture of the corresponding real-space Wannier functions. Spin-orbit coupling opens a large gap of 80 meV at the quadratic touching point between the Dirac and flat bands, endowing a nonzero Z2 invariant to the flat band. These findings demonstrate that kagome-derived flat bands are a promising platform for novel emergent phases of matter at the confluence of strong correlation and topology.

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