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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802890

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an infection which can present with various clinical manifestations. While it affects respiratory tract primarily, several other manifestations including gastrointestinal involvements have been reported. The prevalence of all gastrointestinal complaints is approximately 17 percent and diarrhea, nausea/vomiting and abdominal pain are the most common symptoms. In COVID-19, acute abdominal pain requiring surgical evaluation and abdominal imaging is uncommon and there is also a lack of knowledge about COVID-19 related gastrointestinal complications. Here, we report a case of mild COVID-19 infection complicated by omental infarction during the course of the illness.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156968

RESUMO

We investigated the cases with Aeromonas bacteremia in terms of clinical and microbiological characteristics, underlying disease and mortality rates. Patients with positive blood cultures were included in this research. Aeromonas bacteremia was diagnosed as at least one positive blood culture for Aeromonas species. The bacteremia was defined as community origin if the onset was in the community or within 72 hours of hospital admission. The others were considered as nosocomial. All bacteria were defined as Aeromonas with conventional method. Species identification was verified by VITEK system. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were analyzed with the disc diffusion, E-test method or VITEK system. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with bacteremia due to Aeromonas spp. Hematologic and solid tumors were the leading underlying conditions, followed by cirrhosis. Two patients (6%) had community-acquired infections. Aeromonas hydrophila was the most common isolated bacterium. The crude mortality rate was 36%. 12 patients died and 6 deaths and 4 deaths were detected in patients with bacteremia caused by A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria respectively. All strains were resistant to ampicillin and more than 90% of the strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolone, third generation cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Aeromonas sp. is not a frequent cause of bacteremia however, it may lead to high mortality rates, especially in the immunocompromised hosts and patients with liver cirrhosis. Nosocomial Aeromonas bacteremia is not uncommon in these populations. Broad-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems remain as effective antimicrobial agents for therapy of Aeromonas bacteremia.

3.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(10): 2161-2170, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963928

RESUMO

Mortality due to K. pneumoniae bacteremia is on rise, particularly in regions with high rates of carbapenem and colistin resistance. We aimed to define risk factors for colistin resistance and its impact on mortality. Patients diagnosed with "carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp)" bacteremia between 2014 and 2018 were divided into two groups as "colistin susceptible (ColS)" and "colistin resistant (ColR)" based on broth microdilution method. Retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare characteristics and outcomes. Multiple logistic regression model was used to define independent risk factors for acquired colistin resistance and Cox proportional hazard model for 28-day mortality. A total of 82 patients (39 ColS and 43 ColR) were included. Mean age was 61.5 years, and 50 (61%) were male. Colistin resistance was significantly increased with duration of hospital stay (p = 0.007) and prior colistin use (p = 0.007). Overall, the 28-day mortality rate was 66%. Age (p = 0.014) and colistin resistance significantly increased 28-day (p = 0.009) mortality. Microbiological response to treatment within 7 days favors survival. PFGE analysis revealed an outbreak with K. pneumoniae ST78 and ST45 clones. Patients treated with combined antimicrobials had significantly lower 28-day mortality (p = 0.045) in comparison to monotherapy. However, types of combinations did not show significant superiority on each other. Colistin resistance increases 28-day mortality in CRKp bacteremia. Although combined regimens are more effective than monotherapy, existing antibacterial combinations have no apparent superiority to each other. New treatment options are pivotal.

4.
Gynecol Minim Invasive Ther ; 10(1): 41-43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747772

RESUMO

Female genital tuberculosis (FG-TB) is an important disease leading to substantial morbidity including infertility and abnormal vaginal bleeding. While the incidence of FG-TB is < 1% in a developed area, its incidence is >1% in developing countries. Due to its subtle presentation, many cases are overlooked and diagnosed incidentally. Accordingly, the actual incidence of FG-TB is unknown. The definitive diagnosis of the disease is based on histopathological or microbiological examination but in most cases, the bacteriological test is overlooked. In addition, there is no specific laboratory or imaging evaluation to distinguish FG-TB from others. The first step in the diagnosis of FG-TB is suspicion of the disease. In the case of infertility, FG-TB should be included in the differential diagnosis in developing countries after excluding other common diseases and tissue biopsy should be sent for not only histopathology but also microbiological investigations.

5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 493-497, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788139

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common sporadic fatal encephalitis. Although timely administered acyclovir treatment decreases mortality, neuropsychiatric sequelae is still common among survivors. Magnetic resonance imaging is frequently utilized for the diagnosis of HSE, which typically involves temporal lobe(s) and can be mixed with brain tumors involving the same area. Here, we report a case of HSE, who received acyclovir with a delay of 90 days because of presumptive tumor diagnosis and survived with minimal sequelae.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 53, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccinations have been widely used worldwide since their invention to prevent various diseases, but they can also have some adverse effects ranging from mild local reactions to serious side effects. These adverse effects are generally self-limited and resolve within a short time without any treatment. While a sterile abscess following vaccination is a rare condition in adults, many cases have been reported regarding children in the literature. Here, we report a case of recurrent sterile abscesses, which occurred after a Td vaccination, treated with corticosteroids. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22-year old woman was admitted to our department with a complaint of swelling at the site of the vaccination. On physical examination, this mass was about 6 × 6 cm in size and fluctuating, but there were no pain complaints and no redness present. She had received her Td vaccination 3 weeks ago and the swelling had started at the site of the injection 4 days following this immunization. Oral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and local antibiotic cream were administered for 10 days. The laboratory values were unremarkable. Despite the administration of antibiotics, the swelling did not regress, and on the contrary, continued to increase in size. On ultrasound, two interconnected abscesses were observed in the subcutaneous area, and did not involve the muscle tissue. Later, the abscesses were completely drained, and the samples were cultured. The current antibiotics were continued. The gram staining of the samples revealed abundant leukocytes but no microorganisms. The solid and liquid cultures of the materials remained negative. Despite the administration of multiple drainages and antibiotics, the mass recurred. Finally, the patient was considered to have a sterile abscess due to Td immunization. The antimicrobials were stopped. Local and oral corticosteroids were initiated. The swelling regressed significantly, and the treatments continued for 7 days. The patient has been doing well and has had no recurrence for over a year. CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids appeared to improve the patient and therefore we suggest that the efficacy and route of administration of steroids in this situation should be explored further.


Assuntos
Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/etiologia , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Toxoide Diftérico/efeitos adversos , Toxoide Tetânico/efeitos adversos , Abscesso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Toxoide Diftérico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Toxoide Tetânico/administração & dosagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(9-10): 478-483, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910333

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to determine the proportion of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonized patients among all inpatients who later developed VRE bacteremia during hospital stay and to identify the risk factors for VRE bacteremia at a tertiary hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with positive rectal screening or any clinically significant positive culture results for VRE were included in 1­year follow-up. Colonization with VRE was defined as a positive culture (rectal, stool, urinary) for VRE without infection and VRE bacteremia was defined as positive blood culture if the signs and symptoms were compatible with infection. To determine the risk factors for VRE bacteremia among VRE colonized patients, a retrospective case control study was performed. The two groups were compared in terms of variables previously defined as risk factors in the literature. RESULTS: Of 947 positive samples, 17 VRE bacteremia were included in the analysis. Cephalosporin use for more than 3 days within 3 months was a significant risk factor for bacteremia (p = 0.008). Prior use of carbapenems was found to be statistically significant for bacteremia (p = 0.007). In multivariate analyses the use of carbapenems and cephalosporins was an independent risk factor for developing bacteremia among VRE colonizers (odds ratio, OR, 6.67; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.30-34; p = 0.022 and OR 4.32, 95% CI 1.23-15; p = 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSION: A VRE colonization in patients receiving broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems and cephalosporins may result in bacteremia. It is possible to keep mortality at very low levels in VRE bacteremia with effective infection control measures, rapid infectious diseases consultation and rational antimicrobial treatment based on current epidemiological data.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vancomicina , Resistência a Vancomicina
8.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 325-333, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935158

RESUMO

Candidemia is a nosocomial infection mostly found in critically ill patients. Our objectives were to evaluate the change in distribution and resistance profile of Candida spp. isolated from candidemic patients in our intensive care unit over two 5-year periods spanning 15 years and to evaluate the risk factors. Records from the microbiology laboratory were obtained, from January 2004 to December 2008 and from January 2013 to December 2017, retrospectively. Antifungal susceptibility was performed by E-test and evaluated according to EUCAST breakpoints. A total of 210 candidemia cases occurred; 238 Candida spp. were isolated in 197 patients (58.8% male; mean age, 59.2 ± 19.6 years). The most predominant risk factor was central venous catheter use. Species distribution rates were 32%, 28%, 17%, and 11% for C. albicans (n = 76), C. parapsilosis (n = 67), C. glabrata (n = 40), and C. tropicalis (n = 27), respectively. Resistance rate to anidulafungin was high in C. parapsilosis over both periods and increased to 73% in the second period. Fluconazole showed a remarkable decrease for susceptibility in C. parapsilosis (94 to 49%). The prevalence of MDR C. parapsilosis (6%/33%) and C. glabrata (0%/44%) increased in the second period. We observed a predominance of non-albicans Candida spp., with C. parapsilosis being the most frequent and C. glabrata infections presenting with the highest mortality. High level of echinocandin resistance in C. parapsilosis and increasing prevalences of MDR C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata seem emerging challenges in our institution.


Assuntos
Candida , Candidemia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Candidemia/microbiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Turquia/epidemiologia
9.
Trop Doct ; 51(2): 231-232, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731796

RESUMO

Syphilis is an increasingly common infectious disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. Atypical clinical presentations occur that may delay its diagnosis and treatment. Regional enlargement of lymph nodes is seen in both primary and secondary stages. Such lymph nodes very rarely become abscesses. Antibiotics should be administered in this situation; however, if this fails, the lymph nodes should be surgically excised.


Assuntos
Abscesso/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Linfadenite/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/patologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Linfadenite/patologia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Treponema pallidum/efeitos dos fármacos , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação
10.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 20(1): 379, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183229

RESUMO

Syphilis is a sexuality transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Liver involvement is very rarely seen and occurs in the second phase of the disease. Syphilitic hepatitis generally is mild clinical condition and is characterized by high serum alkaline phosphatase level, often with normal or only slightly abnormal transaminases. The skin eruptions are classically diffuse, symmetric maculopapular rashes involving trunk and extremities. Involvement of palms and soles is a strong clue to the diagnosis of secondary syphilis. Therefore, syphilitic hepatitis should be included in the early differential diagnosis in patient with abnormal liver enzyme, especially increased alkaline phosphatase, and rashes involving palms and soles.


Assuntos
Exantema , Hepatite , Hepatopatias , Sífilis , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Treponema pallidum
11.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 11(8): 805-15, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23977936

RESUMO

Prolonged fever presents a challenge for the patient and the physician. Fever with a temperature higher than 38.3°C on several occasions that lasts for at least 3 weeks and lacks a clear diagnosis after 1 week of study in the hospital is called a fever of unknown origin (FUO). More than 200 diseases can cause FUO, and the information gathered from history taking, physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies should be evaluated with care. History taking and physical examination may provide some localizing signs and symptoms pointing toward a diagnosis. Infection, cancers, noninfectious inflammatory diseases and some miscellaneous diseases are the main etiologies, and some patients remain undiagnosed despite investigations. Tuberculosis, lymphoma and adult-onset Still's disease are the main diseases. Fluorodeoxyglucose PET is a promising imaging modality in FUO. Establishing a uniform algorithm for FUO management is difficult. Every patient should be carefully evaluated individually considering the previous FUO management experience.


Assuntos
Febre de Causa Desconhecida/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/etiologia , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/terapia , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
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