Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 213
Filtrar
1.
Oncol Ther ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861416

RESUMO

Cancer is now a leading health concern worldwide. In an effort to provide these patients with adequate care, coordination between anesthesiologists and surgeons is crucial. In cancer-related treatment, it is very clear that radio-chemotherapy and medical procedures are important. There are some obstacles to anesthesia when dealing with cancer treatment, such as physiological disturbances, tumor-related symptoms, and toxicity in traditional chemotherapy treatment. Therefore, it is important that a multisystemic, multidisciplinary and patient-centered approach is used to preserve perioperative homeostasis and immune function integrity. Adding adjuvants can help increase patient safety and satisfaction and improve clinical efficacy. Correctly paired anesthetic procedures and medications will reduce perioperative inflammatory and immune changes that could potentially contribute to improved results for future cancer patients. Further research into best practice strategies is required which will help to enhance the acute and long-term effects of cancer care in clinical practice.

2.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The multifaceted clinical presentation of fibromyalgia (FM) supports the modern understanding of the disorder as a more global condition than one simply affecting pain sensation. The main pharmacologic therapies used clinically include anti-epileptics and anti-depressants. Conservative treatment options include exercise, myofascial release, psychotherapy, and nutrient supplementation. METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: Nutrient supplementation is a broadly investigated treatment modality as numerous deficiencies have been linked to FM. Additionally, a proposed link between gut microbiome patterns and chronic pain syndromes has led to studies investigating probiotics as a possible treatment. Despite positive results, much of the current evidence regarding this topic is of poor quality, with variable study designs, limited sample sizes, and lack of control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of FM is complex, and has shown to be multi-factorial with genetics and environmental exposures lending influence into its development. Preliminary results are promising, however, much of the existing evidence regarding diet supplementation is of poor quality. Further, more robust studies are needed to fully elucidate the potential of this alternative therapeutic option.

3.
Neurol Int ; 13(1): 64-78, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670456

RESUMO

Valtoco® is a new FDA-approved nasal spray version of diazepam indicated for the treatment of acute, intermittent, and stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity in epilepsy patients six years of age and older. Although IV and rectal diazepam are already used to treat seizure clusters, Valtoco® has less variability in plasma concentration compared to rectal diazepam. Furthermore, the intranasal administration of Valtoco® is more convenient and less invasive than rectal or IV diazepam, making it ideal for self-administration outside of a hospital setting. Multiple clinical trials have taken place comparing Valtoco® to the oral, rectal, and IV forms of diazepam. Aside from mild nasal irritation and lacrimation, Valtoco® was found to have no increased safety risk in comparison to traditional forms of diazepam. This review of Valtoco® will include a history of diazepam prescribing and withdrawal treatment, Valtoco® drug information, its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and a comprehensive review of clinical studies.

4.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(2): 12, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598816

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Therapeutic use, misuse, abuse, and diversion of controlled substances in managing chronic non-cancer pain remain a major concern for physicians, the government, payers, and patients. The challenge remains finding effective diagnostic tools that can be clinically validated to eliminate or substantially reduce the abuse of controlled prescription drugs, while still assuring the proper treatment of those patients in pain. Urine drug testing still remains an important means of adherence monitoring, but questions arise as to its relevance and effectiveness. This review examines the role of UDT, determines its utility in current clinical practice, and investigates its relevance in current chronic pain management. RECENT FINDINGS: A review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Literature was searched from year 2000 to present examining the relevance and role of UDT in monitoring chronic opioid therapy along with reliability and accuracy, appropriate use, overuse, misuse, and abuse. There are only a limited number of reviews and investigations on UDT, despite the fact that clinicians who prescribe controlled medications for chronic states commonly are expected to utilize UDT. Therefore, despite highly prevalent use, there is a limited publication base from which to draw in this present study. Regardless of experience or training background, physicians and healthcare providers can much more adequately assess opioid therapy with the aid of UDT, which often requires confirmatory testing by a laboratory for clinical and therapeutic prescribing decisions. It has become a strongly recommended aspect of pain care with controlled substances locally, regionally, and nationally. Incorporating UDT for all patients in whom chronic opioid therapy is undertaken is consistent with state and national guidelines and best practice strategies. Practice standards vary as to the frequency of UDT locally, regionally, and nationally, however.

5.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(11): 73, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098008

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multimodal pain management is the most effective way to treat postsurgical pain. However, the use of opioids for acute pain management has unfortunately been a significant contributor to the current opioid epidemic. The use of opioids should be limited and only considered a "rescue" pain medication after other modalities of pain management have been utilized. RECENT FINDINGS: It may be difficult to curtail the use of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain; however, in the postsurgical setting, there is compelling evidence that an opioid-centric analgesic approach is not necessary for good patient outcomes and healthcare cost benefits. Opioid-related adverse effects are the leading cause of preventable harm in the hospital setting. After the realization in recent years of the many harmful effects of opioids, alternative regimens including the use of multimodal analgesia have become a standard practice in acute pain management. Exparel, a long-lasting liposomal bupivacaine local anesthetic agent, has many significant benefits in the management of postoperative pain. Overall, the literature suggests that Exparel may be a significant component for postoperative multimodal pain control owing to its efficacy and long duration of action.

6.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 48(4): 280-287, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864642

RESUMO

Objective: The Gnana Laryngeal Airway (GLA) device, a novel supraglottic airway device, is similar to the LMA-Classic in basic design, but with an additional suction port on the convex portion of the laryngeal mask to remove the saliva. We evaluated the GLA device in terms of ease and time to insertion, the number of attempts, oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP), correct placement, and complications in adult patients undergoing elective surgical procedures. Methods: After general anaesthesia, the GLA device was inserted in ASA Class I-II consecutive patients aged 18-60 years, who were scheduled for elective surgeries lasting <2h. An independent observer noted (1) 10 consecutive successful GLA device insertions, all on the first attempt; (2) 10 consecutive device insertions, each <20 second in duration; and (3) 10 consecutive patients with the mean leak <10%. The criteria were fulfilled in 50 consecutive patients. Results: In 72% of patients, the GLA device was successfully placed on the first attempt and was effortless in 64%. Between the first 10 and last 10 consecutive patients of the total 50, the ease-of-insertion grade progressively decreased (mean±standard deviation [SD]: 2.80±0.25 to 1.30±0.15, p<0.0001) and so did insertion time in seconds (28.70±1.87 to 14.20±0.79, p<0.0001). The post-insertion, OLP and airway compliance progressively increased, while the cuff inflation volume, peak airway pressure and airway resistance progressively decreased, along with minimal side effects and malposition. Conclusion: The GLA device insertion became progressively easier and faster; thus, such a device is promising and warrants further clinical evaluation.

7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(9): 53, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761268

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Capsaicin is a natural substance used to treat neuropathic pain because of its ability to be used in a more direct form on patients and efficiently treat their pain without the amount of side effects seen in the use of oral medications. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the treatments for neuropathic pain are, control of the underlying disease process, then focused on symptomatic relief with pharmacotherapy, topical analgesics, or other interventions. When all pharmacological agents fail to relieve the pain, interventional strategies can be considered, such as neural blocks, spinal cord stimulation, and intrathecal administered medications. The response to current treatment of neuropathic pain is only modest relief of symptoms. Multiple treatment options may be attempted, while ultimately leaving patients with refractory neuropathic pain. For these reasons, a better treatment approach to neuropathic pain is greatly needed. Overall, capsaicin has great potential for becoming a first- or second-line treatment for neuropathic pain, and for becoming a therapeutic option for many other neuropathic pain-related disease states.

8.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 269-281, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711833

RESUMO

The management principles of non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy are important concepts for all health care providers to be cognizant of. The goals of non-obstetric surgery are to ensure maternal safety, maintain the pregnancy, and ensure fetal well-being. In this regard, organogenesis occurs roughly between days 7-57 and thus, certain medications have a higher incidence of fetal teratogenicity in this first trimester. Some examples of common surgeries performed urgently or emergently include appendectomies, ovarian detorsions, bowel obstruction, trauma, and cholecystectomies. The choice of anesthetic technique and the selection of appropriate anesthetic drugs should be guided by indication for surgery, the nature of the surgery, and the site of the surgical procedure. Many of the concerns for any patients undergoing urgent or emergent surgery must be considered by anesthesia providers along with steps to ensure the fetus has the best outcome.

9.
Ochsner J ; 20(2): 222-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612481

RESUMO

Background: Tension pneumothorax is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition with numerous etiologies. Hypopharyngeal injury, a possible complication of endotracheal intubation, can lead to tension pneumothorax. We describe a hypopharyngeal injury that occurred during endotracheal intubation that resulted in tension pneumothorax. Case Report: A 30-year-old female underwent emergent chest tube placement after sustaining an intraoperative tension pneumothorax caused by pyriform sinus tract injury during traumatic intubation for an elective fistulectomy, debridement of a previous fracture site, and removal and replacement of hardware 4 months from the time of the initial injury. A timely chest x-ray aided in the discovery of the pneumothorax. Postoperatively, the patient's tension pneumothorax resolved, her chest tube was removed, and she was extubated during her stay in the trauma intensive care unit. The patient was discharged without any other major complications. Conclusion: Tension pneumothorax is a rare but reported complication that can occur during intubation and intraoperatively. Early recognition of hypopharyngeal perforation is crucial to successful management. Anticipation of a difficult airway can suggest the use of alternative methods of intubation that may reduce the risk of hypopharyngeal perforation.

11.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): e13-e29, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334792

RESUMO

Surgeries and chronic pain states of the upper extremity are quite common and pose unique challenges for the clinical anesthesiology and pain specialists. Most innervation of the upper extremity involves the brachial plexus. The four most common brachial plexus blocks performed in clinical setting include the interscalene, supraclavicular, infraclavicular, and axillary brachial plexus blocks. These blocks are most commonly performed with the use of ultrasound-guided techniques, whereby analgesia is achieved by anesthetizing the brachial plexus at different levels such as the roots, divisions, cords, and branches. Additional regional anesthetic techniques for upper extremity surgery include wrist, intercostobrachial, and digital nerve blocks, which are most frequently performed using landmark anatomical techniques. This review provides a comprehensive summary of each of these blocks including anatomy, best practice techniques, and potential complications.

12.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(5): 21, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240402

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Effective acute pain management has evolved considerably in recent years and is a primary area of focus in attempts to defend against the opioid epidemic. Persistent postsurgical pain (PPP) has an incidence of up to 30-50% and has negative outcome of quality of life and negative burden on individuals, family, and society. The 2016 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) guidelines states that enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) forms an integral part of Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) and is now recommended to use a multimodal opioid-sparing approach for management of postoperative pain. As such, dexmedetomidine is now being used as part of ERAS protocols along with regional nerve blocks and other medications, to create a satisfactory postoperative outcome with reduced opioid consumption in the Post anesthesia care unit (PACU). RECENT FINDINGS: Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha2 agonist, possesses analgesic effects and has a different mechanism of action when compared with opioids. When dexmedetomidine is initiated at the end of a procedure, it has a better hemodynamic stability and pain response than ropivacaine. Dexmedetomidine can be used as an adjuvant in epidurals with local anesthetic sparing effects. Its use during nerve blocks results in reduced postoperative pain. Also, local infiltration of IV dexmedetomidine is associated with earlier discharge from PACU. Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine has significantly improved postoperative outcomes when used as part of ERAS protocols. An in-depth review of the use of dexmedetomidine in ERAS protocols is presented for clinical anesthesiologists.

13.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 22(2): 18, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030524

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain is multifactorial and complex, often with a genetic component. Pharmacogenomics is a relative new field, which allows for the development of a truly unique and personalized therapeutic approach in the treatment of pain. RECENT FINDINGS: Until recently, drug mechanisms in humans were determined by testing that drug in a population and calculating response averages. However, some patients will inevitably fall outside of those averages, and it is nearly impossible to predict who those outliers might be. Pharmacogenetics considers a patient's unique genetic information and allows for anticipation of that individual's response to medication. Pharmacogenomic testing is steadily making progress in the management of pain by being able to identify individual differences in the perception of pain and susceptibility and sensitivity to drugs based on genetic markers. This has a huge potential to increase efficacy and reduce the incidence of iatrogenic drug dependence and addiction. The streamlining of relevant polymorphisms of genes encoding receptors, transporters, and drug-metabolizing enzymes influencing the pain phenotype can be an important guide to develop safe new strategies and approaches to personalized pain management. Additionally, some challenges still prevail and preclude adoption of pharmacogenomic testing universally. These include lack of knowledge about pharmacogenomic testing, inadequate standardization of the process of data handling, questionable benefits about the clinical and financial aspects of pharmacogenomic testing-guided therapy, discrepancies in clinical evidence supporting these tests, and doubtful reimbursement of the tests by health insurance agencies.

14.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 24(3): 6, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002676

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute postoperative pain reduction is a major target against the opioid crisis. While opioids have traditionally been the mainstay for postoperative analgesia, current practice has focused on a multimodal approach to pain control, including ultrasound-guided blocks with longer acting local anesthetic agents. RECENT FINDINGS: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as meloxicam, are an important class of medications utilized to manage pain in the perioperative period. An additional treatment used in perioperative or postoperative pain relief is Exparel, a bupivacaine (sodium channel blocker) liposomal injectable suspension with a 3-4-day duration of action. The long-acting mechanism and formulation of Exparel consistently has demonstrated decreased opioid use and pain scores in patients undergoing many different surgical procedures. A concern is that pH negatively alters the efficacy of bupivacaine, as in cases of inflamed tissue and acidic fluid pH. For this reason, a combination medication with both meloxicam and bupivacaine has been developed, which normalizes pH and has anti-inflammatory and anti-pain conduction properties. Clinical studies demonstrate that this combination agent can be extremely beneficial in treating postoperative pain. This manuscript summarizes the newest developments with regard to liposomal bupivacaine and the non-steroidal meloxicam, their roles in effective treatment of postoperative pain, contraindications, special considerations of using these medications, and future considerations. HTX-011 pairs up a new extended-release formulation of the local anesthetic bupivacaine with meloxicam, a well-established non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Lipossomos
15.
Pain Ther ; 9(1): 25-39, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933147

RESUMO

Alternative and non-opioid options for pain management are necessary in perioperative patient care. Opioids are no longer touted as cure-all medications, and furthermore, there have been tremendous advances in alternative therapies such as in interventional pain, physical therapy, exercise, and nutritional counseling that have proven benefits to combat pain. The center for disease control now strongly recommends the use of multimodal analgesia and multidisciplinary approaches based on the individual needs of patients: personalized medicine. In this manuscript, the specifics of non-opioid pharmacological and non-pharmacological analgesic approaches will be discussed as well as their possible indications and uses to reduce the need for excessive use of opioids for adequate pain control.

17.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 407-413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791559

RESUMO

The facsia iliaca block (FIB) is a relatively new regional technique where local anesthetic is delivered within the fascia iliaca region. Indications for a FIB include surgical anesthesia to the lower extremity after knee, femoral shaft, hip surgery, management of cancer pain or pain secondary to inflammatory conditions of the lumbar plexus, as well as treatment of acute pain in the setting of trauma, fracture, or burns. The FIB may be performed using either a loss of resistance technique or an ultrasound (US)-guided technique; however, the use of US has become commonplace and resulted in improved femoral nerve and obturator nerve motor blocks. The main targets of the FIB are the predominant nerves contained in the fascia iliaca compartment (FIC), namely the femoral nerve and the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. The FIB US guided technique is beneficial to patients and the possibility to perform FIB should be discussed and coordinated with surgical staff appropriately, considering its superiority to general or epidural anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Fáscia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nervo Femoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Fáscia/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervo Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 415-423, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791560

RESUMO

Adjuvants are medications that work synergistically with local anesthetics to help enhance the duration and quality of analgesia in regional techniques. Regional anesthesia has become more prevalent as evidence continues to show efficacy, enhancement of patient care, increased patient satisfaction, and improved patient safety. Practitioners in the perioperative setting need to not only be familiar with regional techniques but also the medications used for them. Some examples of adjuvant medications for regional techniques include dexamethasone, alpha 2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine, midazolam, buprenorphine, NMDA antagonists, including ketamine and magnesium, neostigmine, sodium bicarbonate, epinephrine, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of the present investigation, therefore, is to provide a comprehensive review of the most commonly used non-opioid adjuvants in clinical practice today. Regional adjuvants can improve patient safety, increase patient satisfaction, and enhance clinical efficacy. Future studies and best practice techniques can facilitate standardization of regional anesthesia adjuvant dosing when providing nerve blocks in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem
20.
Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol ; 33(4): 425-432, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791561

RESUMO

Novel preparations allowing for the extended duration of action of local anesthetics have many clinically relevant benefits. With regard to this, the development of liposomal bupivacaine has the potential to significantly impact patient care by improving perioperative pain control. The unique liposomal bilayer that encapsulates bupivacaine allows for a sustained release of local anesthetic for up to 72 h after a single use and can significantly decrease postoperative opioid consumption. SABER-bupivacaine is another depot formulation that helps in sustained release of bupivacaine from an encapsulated bupivacaine in a biodegradable sucrose acetate isobutyrate biolayer. HTX-011 is an investigational extended-release local anesthetic formulation currently undergoing Phase 3 clinical trials. HTX-011 is composed of a bioerodible polymer with bupivacaine and low-dose meloxicam in which the polymer undergoes hydrolysis and allows for sustained release of bupivacaine and meloxicam for 3 days. The present investigation reviews pharmacologic considerations related to the formulation of liposomal bupivacaine, current FDA-approved indications for its use, and future extended-release local anesthetic formulations currently under investigation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/química , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Bupivacaína/química , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipossomos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...