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1.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645767

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

3.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 43: 102152, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518964

RESUMO

Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP) provides the ability to predict externally visible characteristics from minute amounts of crime scene DNA, which can help find unknown perpetrators who are typically unidentifiable via conventional forensic DNA profiling. Fundamental human genetics research has led to a better understanding of the specific DNA variants responsible for physical appearance characteristics, particularly eye, hair, and skin color. Recently, we introduced the HIrisPlex-S system for the simultaneous prediction of eye, hair, and skin color based on 41 DNA variants generated from two forensically validated SNaPshot multiplex assays using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Here we introduce massively parallel sequencing (MPS) solutions for the HIrisPlex-S (HPS) system on two MPS platforms commonly used in forensics, Ion Torrent and MiSeq, that cover all 41 DNA variants in a single assay, respectively. Additionally, we present the forensic developmental validation of the two HPS-MPS assays. The Ion Torrent MPS assay, based on Ion AmpliSeq technology, illustrated the successful generation of full HIrisPlex-S genotypic profiles from 100 pg of input control DNA, while the MiSeq MPS assay based on an in-house design yielded complete profiles from 250 pg of input DNA. Assessing simulated forensic casework samples such as saliva, hair (bulb), blood, semen, and low quantity touch DNA, as well as artificially damaged DNA samples, concordance testing, and samples from numerous species, all illustrated the ability of both versions of the HIrisPlex-S MPS assay to produce results that motivate forensic applications. By also providing an integrated bioinformatics analysis pipeline, MPS data can now be analyzed and a file generated for upload to the publically accessible HIrisPlex online webtool (https://hirisplex.erasmusmc.nl). In addition, we updated the website to accept VCF input data for those with genome sequence data. We thus provide a user-friendly and semi-automated MPS workflow from DNA sample to individual eye, hair, and skin color prediction probabilities. Furthermore, we present a 2-person mixture separation tool that not only assesses genotype reliability with regards genotyping confidence but also provides the most fitting mixture scenario for both minor and major contributors, including profile separation. We envision this MPS implementation of the HIrisPlex-S system for eye, hair, and skin color prediction from DNA as a starting point for further expanding MPS-based forensic DNA phenotyping. This may include the future addition of SNPs predictive for more externally visible characteristics, as well as SNPs for bio-geographic ancestry inference, provided the statistical framework for DNA prediction of these traits is in place.


Assuntos
Cor de Olho/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/instrumentação , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pigmentação da Pele/genética , Animais , DNA/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(11): 1055-1074, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488894

RESUMO

Previous studies indicated existing, albeit limited, genetic-geographic population substructure in the Dutch population based on genome-wide data and a lack of this for mitochondrial SNP based data. Despite the aforementioned studies, Y-chromosomal SNP data from the Netherlands remain scarce and do not cover the territory of the Netherlands well enough to allow a reliable investigation of genetic-geographic population substructure. Here we provide the first substantial dataset of detailed spatial Y-chromosomal haplogroup information in 2085 males collected across the Netherlands and supplemented with previously published data from northern Belgium. We found Y-chromosomal evidence for genetic-geographic population substructure, and several Y-haplogroups demonstrating significant clinal frequency distributions in different directions. By means of prediction surface maps we could visualize (complex) distribution patterns of individual Y-haplogroups in detail. These results highlight the value of a micro-geographic approach and are of great use for forensic and epidemiological investigations and our understanding of the Dutch population history. Moreover, the previously noted absence of genetic-geographic population substructure in the Netherlands based on mitochondrial DNA in contrast to our Y-chromosome results, hints at different population histories for women and men in the Netherlands.

7.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 42: 8-13, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207428

RESUMO

Predicting adult height from DNA has important implications in forensic DNA phenotyping. In 2014, we introduced a prediction model consisting of 180 height-associated SNPs based on data from 10,361 Northwestern Europeans enriched with tall individuals (770 > 1.88 standard deviation), which yielded a mid-ranged accuracy (AUC = 0.75 for binary prediction of tall stature and R2 = 0.12 for quantitative prediction of adult height). Here, we provide an update on DNA-based height predictability considering an enlarged list of subsequently-published height-associated SNPs using data from the same set of 10,361 Europeans. A prediction model based on the full set of 689 SNPs showed an improved accuracy relative to previous models for both tall stature (AUC = 0.79) and quantitative height (R2 = 0.21). A feature selection analysis revealed a subset of 412 most informative SNPs while the corresponding prediction model retained most of the accuracy (AUC = 0.76 and R2 = 0.19) achieved with the full model. Over all, our study empirically exemplifies that the accuracy for predicting human appearance phenotypes with very complex underlying genetic architectures, such as adult height, can be improved by increasing the number of phenotype-associated DNA variants. Our work also demonstrates that a careful sub-selection allows for a considerable reduction of the number of DNA predictors that achieve similar prediction accuracy as provided by the full set. This is forensically relevant due to restrictions in the number of SNPs simultaneously analyzable with forensically suitable DNA technologies in the current days of targeted massively parallel sequencing in forensic genetics.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
8.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(6): 986-987, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068681

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, there were errors in the colour ordering of the legend in Fig. 5b, and in the positions of the target and surrogate populations in Fig. 5c. This has now been corrected. The conclusions of the study are in no way affected. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

9.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 41: 93-106, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063905

RESUMO

Y-chromosomal haplogroups assigned from male-specific Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) allow paternal lineage identification and paternal bio-geographic ancestry inference, both being relevant in forensic genetics. However, most previously developed forensic Y-SNP tools did not provide Y haplogroup resolution on the high level needed in forensic applications, because the limited multiplex capacity of the DNA technologies used only allowed the inclusion of a relatively small number of Y-SNPs. In a proof-of-principle study, we recently demonstrated that high-resolution Y haplogrouping is feasible via two AmpliSeq PCR analyses and simultaneous massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of 530 Y-SNPs allowing the inference of 432 Y-haplogroups. With the current study, we present a largely improved Y-SNP MPS lab tool that we specifically designed for the analysis of low quality and quantity DNA often confronted with in forensic DNA analysis. Improvements include i) Y-SNP marker selection based on the "minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome" (PhyloTree Y), ii) strong increase of the number of targeted Y-SNPs allowing many more Y haplogroups to be inferred, iii) focus on short amplicon length enabling successful analysis of degraded DNA, and iv) combination of all amplicons in a single AmpliSeq PCR and simultaneous sequencing allowing single DNA aliquot use. This new MPS tool simultaneously analyses 859 Y-SNPs and allows inferring 640 Y haplogroups. Preliminary forensic developmental validation testing revealed that this tool performs highly accurate, is sensitive and robust. We also provide a revised software tool for analysing the sequencing data produced by the new MPS lab tool including final Y haplogroup assignment. We envision the tools introduced here for high-resolution Y-chromosomal haplogrouping to determine a man's paternal lineage and/or paternal bio-geographic ancestry to become widely used in forensic Y-chromosome DNA analysis and other applications were Y haplogroup information from low quality / quantity DNA samples is required.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Y , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA/análise , Degradação Necrótica do DNA , Genética Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 41: 72-82, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003081

RESUMO

Correct identification of different human epithelial materials such as from skin, saliva and vaginal origin is relevant in forensic casework as it provides crucial information for crime reconstruction. However, the overlap in human cell type composition between these three epithelial materials provides challenges for their differentiation and identification when using previously proposed human cell biomarkers, while their microbiota composition largely differs. By using validated 16S rRNA gene massively parallel sequencing data from the Human Microbiome Project of 1636 skin, oral and vaginal samples, 50 taxonomy-independent deep learning networks were trained to classify these three tissues. Validation testing was performed in de-novo generated high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing data using the Ion Torrent™ Personal Genome Machine from 110 test samples: 56 hand skin, 31 saliva and 23 vaginal secretion specimens. Body-site classification accuracy of these test samples was very high as indicated by AUC values of 0.99 for skin, 0.99 for oral, and 1 for vaginal secretion. Misclassifications were limited to 3 (5%) skin samples. Additional forensic validation testing was performed in mock casework samples by de-novo high-throughput sequencing of 19 freshly-prepared samples and 22 samples aged for 1 up to 7.6 years. All of the 19 fresh and 20 (91%) of the 22 aged mock casework samples were correctly tissue-type classified. Moreover, comparing the microbiome results with outcomes from previous human mRNA-based tissue identification testing in the same 16 aged mock casework samples reveals that our microbiome approach performs better in 12 (75%), similarly in 2 (12.5%), and less good in 2 (12.5%) of the samples. Our results demonstrate that this new microbiome approach allows for accurate tissue-type classification of three human epithelial materials of skin, oral and vaginal origin, which is highly relevant for future forensic investigations.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Feminino , Genética Forense/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Saliva/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia
11.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(5): 765-771, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988490

RESUMO

The roles of migration, admixture and acculturation in the European transition to farming have been debated for over 100 years. Genome-wide ancient DNA studies indicate predominantly Aegean ancestry for continental Neolithic farmers, but also variable admixture with local Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Neolithic cultures first appear in Britain circa 4000 BC, a millennium after they appeared in adjacent areas of continental Europe. The pattern and process of this delayed British Neolithic transition remain unclear. We assembled genome-wide data from 6 Mesolithic and 67 Neolithic individuals found in Britain, dating 8500-2500 BC. Our analyses reveal persistent genetic affinities between Mesolithic British and Western European hunter-gatherers. We find overwhelming support for agriculture being introduced to Britain by incoming continental farmers, with small, geographically structured levels of hunter-gatherer ancestry. Unlike other European Neolithic populations, we detect no resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry at any time during the Neolithic in Britain. Genetic affinities with Iberian Neolithic individuals indicate that British Neolithic people were mostly descended from Aegean farmers who followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal. We also infer considerable variation in pigmentation levels in Europe by circa 6000 BC.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo , Genoma , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Reino Unido
16.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 51-52(51-52): 873-880, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons whose identifying DNA profile (STR profile) is not yet known to the ingvestigating authorities cannot be identified by standard forensic DNA analysis (STR profiling) as it is now practiced. In view of the current public debate, particularly in Germany, on the legalization of so-called forensic DNA phenotyping, we present its scientific basis, societal aspects, and forensic applications and describe the analytic techniques that are now available. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and in public media, and on the authors' own research. RESULTS: Forensically validated DNA test systems are available for the categorization of eye, hair, and skin color and the inference of continental biogeographic ancestry. As for statistical measures of test accuracy, the AUC (area under the curve) values lie in the range 0.74-0.99 for eye color, 0.64-0.94 for hair color, and 0.72-0.99 for skin color, depending on the predictive model and color category used.The corre- sponding positive predictive values (PPV) are lower. Empirical social-scientific research on forensic DNA phenotyping has shown that preserving privacy and protecting against discrimination are major ethical and regulatory considerations. CONCLUSION: All three methods of forensic DNA phenotyping-the predition of exter- nally visible characteristics, biogeographic ancestry, and the estimation of age from crime scene DNA-require a proper regulatory framework and should be used in conjunction with each other. Before forensic DNA phenotyping can be implemented in forensic practice, steps must be taken to minimize the risks of violation of privacy scrimination and to ensure that these methods are used transpar- ently and proportionately.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4774, 2018 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429480

RESUMO

The total number of acquired melanocytic nevi on the skin is strongly correlated with melanoma risk. Here we report a meta-analysis of 11 nevus GWAS from Australia, Netherlands, UK, and USA comprising 52,506 individuals. We confirm known loci including MTAP, PLA2G6, and IRF4, and detect novel SNPs in KITLG and a region of 9q32. In a bivariate analysis combining the nevus results with a recent melanoma GWAS meta-analysis (12,874 cases, 23,203 controls), SNPs near GPRC5A, CYP1B1, PPARGC1B, HDAC4, FAM208B, DOCK8, and SYNE2 reached global significance, and other loci, including MIR146A and OBFC1, reached a suggestive level. Overall, we conclude that most nevus genes affect melanoma risk (KITLG an exception), while many melanoma risk loci do not alter nevus count. For example, variants in TERC and OBFC1 affect both traits, but other telomere length maintenance genes seem to affect melanoma risk only. Our findings implicate multiple pathways in nevogenesis.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Pleiotropia Genética/genética , Melanoma/genética , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fator de Células-Tronco/genética , Telomerase/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Telômeros/genética
18.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 37: 241-251, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268682

RESUMO

Human head hair shape, commonly classified as straight, wavy, curly or frizzy, is an attractive target for Forensic DNA Phenotyping and other applications of human appearance prediction from DNA such as in paleogenetics. The genetic knowledge underlying head hair shape variation was recently improved by the outcome of a series of genome-wide association and replication studies in a total of 26,964 subjects, highlighting 12 loci of which 8 were novel and introducing a prediction model for Europeans based on 14 SNPs. In the present study, we evaluated the capacity of DNA-based head hair shape prediction by investigating an extended set of candidate SNP predictors and by using an independent set of samples for model validation. Prediction model building was carried out in 9674 subjects (6068 from Europe, 2899 from Asia and 707 of admixed European and Asian ancestries), used previously, by considering a novel list of 90 candidate SNPs. For model validation, genotype and phenotype data were newly collected in 2415 independent subjects (2138 Europeans and 277 non-Europeans) by applying two targeted massively parallel sequencing platforms, Ion Torrent PGM and MiSeq, or the MassARRAY platform. A binomial model was developed to predict straight vs. non-straight hair based on 32 SNPs from 26 genetic loci we identified as significantly contributing to the model. This model achieved prediction accuracies, expressed as AUC, of 0.664 in Europeans and 0.789 in non-Europeans; the statistically significant difference was explained mostly by the effect of one EDAR SNP in non-Europeans. Considering sex and age, in addition to the SNPs, slightly and insignificantly increased the prediction accuracies (AUC of 0.680 and 0.800, respectively). Based on the sample size and candidate DNA markers investigated, this study provides the most robust, validated, and accurate statistical prediction models and SNP predictor marker sets currently available for predicting head hair shape from DNA, providing the next step towards broadening Forensic DNA Phenotyping beyond pigmentation traits.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Cabelo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem/instrumentação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Forensic Sci Int Genet ; 37: 180-195, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176440

RESUMO

Forensic epigenetics, i.e., investigating epigenetics variation to resolve forensically relevant questions unanswerable with standard forensic DNA profiling has been gaining substantial ground over the last few years. Differential DNA methylation among tissues and individuals has been proposed as useful resource for three forensic applications i) determining the tissue type of a human biological trace, ii) estimating the age of an unknown trace donor, and iii) differentiating between monozygotic twins. Thus far, forensic epigenetic investigations have used a wide range of methods for CpG marker discovery, prediction modelling and targeted DNA methylation analysis, all coming with advantages and disadvantages when it comes to forensic trace analysis. In this review, we summarize the most recent literature on these three main topics of current forensic epigenetic investigations and discuss limitations and practical considerations in experimental design and data interpretation, such as technical and biological biases. Moreover, we provide future perspectives with regard to new research questions, new epigenetic markers and recent technological advances that - as we envision - will move the field towards forensic epigenomics in the near future.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Genética Forense , Envelhecimento/genética , Líquidos Corporais/química , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Estatísticos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
20.
PLoS Genet ; 14(9): e1007640, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248107

RESUMO

Hair plays an important role in primates and is clearly subject to adaptive selection. While humans have lost most facial hair, eyebrows are a notable exception. Eyebrow thickness is heritable and widely believed to be subject to sexual selection. Nevertheless, few genomic studies have explored its genetic basis. Here, we performed a genome-wide scan for eyebrow thickness in 2961 Han Chinese. We identified two new loci of genome-wide significance, at 3q26.33 near SOX2 (rs1345417: P = 6.51×10(-10)) and at 5q13.2 near FOXD1 (rs12651896: P = 1.73×10(-8)). We further replicated our findings in the Uyghurs, a population from China characterized by East Asian-European admixture (N = 721), the CANDELA cohort from five Latin American countries (N = 2301), and the Rotterdam Study cohort of Dutch Europeans (N = 4411). A meta-analysis combining the full GWAS results from the three cohorts of full or partial Asian descent (Han Chinese, Uyghur and Latin Americans, N = 5983) highlighted a third signal of genome-wide significance at 2q12.3 (rs1866188: P = 5.81×10(-11)) near EDAR. We performed fine-mapping and prioritized four variants for further experimental verification. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing provided evidence that rs1345417 and rs12651896 affect the transcriptional activity of the nearby SOX2 and FOXD1 genes, which are both involved in hair development. Finally, suitable statistical analyses revealed that none of the associated variants showed clear signals of selection in any of the populations tested. Contrary to popular speculation, we found no evidence that eyebrow thickness is subject to strong selective pressure.


Assuntos
Sobrancelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Loci Gênicos/genética , Fenótipo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Edição de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Seleção Genética
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