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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1126-1147, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735293

RESUMO

The redox state of the neural progenitors regulates physiological processes such as neuronal differentiation and dendritic and axonal growth. The relevance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated oxidoreductases in these processes is largely unexplored. We describe a severe neurological disorder caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in thioredoxin (TRX)-related transmembrane-2 (TMX2); these variants were detected by exome sequencing in 14 affected individuals from ten unrelated families presenting with congenital microcephaly, cortical polymicrogyria, and other migration disorders. TMX2 encodes one of the five TMX proteins of the protein disulfide isomerase family, hitherto not linked to human developmental brain disease. Our mechanistic studies on protein function show that TMX2 localizes to the ER mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), is involved in posttranslational modification and protein folding, and undergoes physical interaction with the MAM-associated and ER folding chaperone calnexin and ER calcium pump SERCA2. These interactions are functionally relevant because TMX2-deficient fibroblasts show decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and compensatory increased glycolytic activity. Intriguingly, under basal conditions TMX2 occurs in both reduced and oxidized monomeric form, while it forms a stable dimer under treatment with hydrogen peroxide, recently recognized as a signaling molecule in neural morphogenesis and axonal pathfinding. Exogenous expression of the pathogenic TMX2 variants or of variants with an in vitro mutagenized TRX domain induces a constitutive TMX2 polymerization, mimicking an increased oxidative state. Altogether these data uncover TMX2 as a sensor in the MAM-regulated redox signaling pathway and identify it as a key adaptive regulator of neuronal proliferation, migration, and organization in the developing brain.

2.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(12): 1403-1406, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782950

RESUMO

Malignancy-induced hypercalcemia is a very rare condition in children whereas it is more common among adult patients with malignancy. The mechanisms of malignancy-induced hypercalcemia include the over-secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), osteolytic metastases and the over-production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol). Although hypercalcemia due to PTHrP secretion has been published before, overproduction of calcitriol has not been reported yet in pediatric squamous cell skin carcinoma cases. Herein, we report calcitriol-mediated severe hypercalcemia in a 5-year-old boy with squamous cell skin carcinoma arising in the background of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) which responded well to zoledronate treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of malignancy-induced hypercalcemia which is mediated by calcitriol in squamous cell skin carcinoma.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549748

RESUMO

Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is a frequent limb malformation consisting in the duplication of the fifth digit of the hand or foot. Morphologically, this condition is divided into type A and B, with PAP-B corresponding to a more rudimentary extra-digit. Recently, biallelic truncating variants in the transcription factor GLI1 were reported to be associated with a recessive disorder, which in addition to PAP-A, may include syndromic features. Moreover, two heterozygous subjects carrying only one inactive copy of GLI1 were also identified with PAP. Herein, we aimed to determine the level of involvement of GLI1 in isolated PAP, a condition previously established to be autosomal dominantly inherited with incomplete penetrance. We analyzed the coding region of GLI1 in 95 independent probands with nonsyndromic PAP and found 11.57% of these subjects with single heterozygous pathogenic variants in this gene. The detected variants lead to premature termination codons or result in amino acid changes in the DNA-binding domain of GLI1 that diminish its transactivation activity. Family segregation analysis of these variants was consistent with dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. We conclude that heterozygous changes in GLI1 underlie a significant proportion of sporadic or familial cases of isolated PAP-A/B.

6.
Brain ; 142(9): 2631-2643, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334757

RESUMO

Marked by incomplete division of the embryonic forebrain, holoprosencephaly is one of the most common human developmental disorders. Despite decades of phenotype-driven research, 80-90% of aneuploidy-negative holoprosencephaly individuals with a probable genetic aetiology do not have a genetic diagnosis. Here we report holoprosencephaly associated with variants in the two X-linked cohesin complex genes, STAG2 and SMC1A, with loss-of-function variants in 10 individuals and a missense variant in one. Additionally, we report four individuals with variants in the cohesin complex genes that are not X-linked, SMC3 and RAD21. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we show that STAG2 and SMC1A are expressed in the prosencephalic neural folds during primary neurulation in the mouse, consistent with forebrain morphogenesis and holoprosencephaly pathogenesis. Finally, we found that shRNA knockdown of STAG2 and SMC1A causes aberrant expression of HPE-associated genes ZIC2, GLI2, SMAD3 and FGFR1 in human neural stem cells. These findings show the cohesin complex as an important regulator of median forebrain development and X-linked inheritance patterns in holoprosencephaly.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(12): 1763-1773, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235869

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for 10-20% of total mortality, i.e., one in five individuals will eventually die suddenly. Given the substantial genetic component of SCD in younger cases, postmortem genetic testing may be particularly useful in elucidating etiological factors in the cause of death in this subset. The identification of genes responsible for inherited cardiac diseases have led to the organization of cardiogenetic consultations in many countries worldwide. Expert recommendations are available, emphasizing the importance of genetic testing and appropriate information provision of affected individuals, as well as their relatives. However, the context of postmortem genetic testing raises some particular ethical, legal, and practical (including economic or financial) challenges. The Public and Professional Policy Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG), together with international experts, developed recommendations on management of SCD after a workshop sponsored by the Brocher Foundation and ESHG in November 2016. These recommendations have been endorsed by the ESHG Board, the European Council of Legal Medicine, the European Society of Cardiology working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases, the ERN GUARD-HEART, and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology. They emphasize the importance of increasing the proportion of both medical and medicolegal autopsies and educating the professionals. Multidisciplinary collaboration is of utmost importance. Public funding should be allocated to reach these goals and allow public health evaluation.

8.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 157(4): 189-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974434

RESUMO

Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED/EDA) is characterized by impaired development of the hair, teeth, or sweat glands. HED/EDA is inherited in an X-linked, autosomal dominant, or autosomal recessive pattern and caused by the pathogenic variants in 4 genes: EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, and WNT10A. The aim of the present study was to perform molecular screening of these 4 genes in a cohort of Turkish individuals diagnosed with HED/EDA. We screened for pathogenic variants of WNT10A, EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD through Sanger sequencing. We further assessed the clinical profiles of the affected individuals in order to establish phenotype-genotype correlation. In 17 (63%) out of 27 families, 17 pathogenic variants, 8 being novel, were detected in the 4 well-known ectodermal dysplasia genes. EDAR and EDA variants were identified in 6 families each, WNT10A variants in 4, and an EDARADD variant in 1, accounting for 35.3, 35.3, 23.5, and 5.9% of mutation-positive families, respectively. The low mutation detection rate of the cohort and the number of the EDAR pathogenic variants being as high as the EDA ones were the most noteworthy findings which could be attributed to the high consanguinity rate.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Ectodisplasinas/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Proteína de Domínio de Morte Associada a Edar/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Turquia
9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(11): 1801-1809, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657919

RESUMO

The cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 (CREB3L1) gene codes for the endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), which has an important role in osteoblast differentiation during bone development. Deficiency of OASIS is linked to a severe form of autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), but only few patients have been reported. We identified the first homozygous pathogenic missense variant [p.(Ala304Val)] in a patient with lethal OI, which is located within the highly conserved basic leucine zipper domain, four amino acids upstream of the DNA binding domain. In vitro structural modeling and luciferase assays demonstrate that this missense variant affects a critical residue in this functional domain, thereby decreasing the type I collagen transcriptional binding ability. In addition, overexpression of the mutant OASIS protein leads to decreased transcription of the SEC23A and SEC24D genes, which code for components of the coat protein complex type II (COPII), and aberrant OASIS signaling also results in decreased protein levels of SEC24D. Our findings therefore provide additional proof of the potential involvement of the COPII secretory complex in the context of bone-associated disease.

11.
Bone ; 120: 495-503, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537558

RESUMO

The osteopetroses and related sclerosing bone dysplasias can have a broad range of manifestations. Especially in the milder forms, sandwich vertebrae are an easily recognizable and reliable radiological hallmark. We report on four patients from three families presenting with sandwich vertebrae and platyspondyly. The long bone phenotypes were discordant with one patient showing modeling defects and patchy osteosclerosis, while the second displayed only metaphyseal sclerotic bands, and the third and fourth had extreme metaphyseal flaring with uniform osteosclerosis. Two of the four patients had experienced pathological fractures, two had developmental delay, but none showed cranial nerve damage, hepatosplenomegaly, or bone marrow failure. According to these clinical features the diagnoses ranged between intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis and dysosteosclerosis. After exclusion of mutations in CLCN7 we performed gene panel and exome sequencing. Two novel mutations in SLC29A3 were found in the first two patients. In the third family a TCIRG1 C-terminal frameshift mutation in combination with a mutation at position +4 in intron 2 were detected. Our study adds two cases to the small group of individuals with SLC29A3 mutations diagnosed with dysosteosclerosis, and expands the phenotypic variability. The finding that intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis due to TCIRG1 splice site mutations can also present with platyspondyly further increases the molecular heterogeneity of dysosteosclerosis-like sclerosing bone dysplasias.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 123-129, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561107

RESUMO

Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary defects (TODPD; MIM #300244) is an extremely rare, X-linked dominant, in utero male-lethal disease, characterized by skeletal dysplasia of the limbs, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromatosis of childhood. Delayed/abnormal ossification of bones of the hands and feet, joint contractures, and dysmorphic facial features may accompany. A single recurrent mutation (c.5217 G>A) of the FLNA gene which causes cryptic splicing was identified as the cause of the disease. We here present the first TODPD case from Turkey with full-blown phenotype who exhibit unique additional findings, hypopigmented patch on the lower extremity following Blaschko's lines and smooth muscle hamartoma of the scalp in review of all the previously reported TODPD cases.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2740-2750, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548201

RESUMO

The oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of frontonasal dysplasia (widely spaced eyes, facial cleft, and nose abnormalities) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS)-associated features, such as preauricular ear tags, ear dysplasia, mandibular asymmetry, epibulbar dermoids, eyelid coloboma, and costovertebral anomalies. The etiology is unknown so far. This work aimed to identify molecular bases for the OAFNS. Among a cohort of 130 patients with frontonasal dysplasia, accurate phenotyping identified 18 individuals with OAFNS. We describe their clinical spectrum, including the report of new features (micro/anophtalmia, cataract, thyroid agenesis, polymicrogyria, olfactory bulb hypoplasia, and mandibular cleft), and emphasize the high frequency of nasal polyps in OAFNS (56%). We report the negative results of ALX1, ALX3, and ALX4 genes sequencing and next-generation sequencing strategy performed on blood-derived DNA from respectively, four and four individuals. Exome sequencing was performed in four individuals, genome sequencing in one patient with negative exome sequencing result. Based on the data from this series and the literature, diverse hypotheses can be raised regarding the etiology of OAFNS: mosaic mutation, epigenetic anomaly, oligogenism, or nongenetic cause. In conclusion, this series represents further clinical delineation work of the rare OAFNS, and paves the way toward the identification of the causing mechanism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Facies , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Putative nucleotidyltransferase MAB21L1 is a member of an evolutionarily well-conserved family of the male abnormal 21 (MAB21)-like proteins. Little is known about the biochemical function of the protein; however, prior studies have shown essential roles for several aspects of embryonic development including the eye, midbrain, neural tube and reproductive organs. OBJECTIVE: A homozygous truncating variant in MAB21L1 has recently been described in a male affected by intellectual disability, scrotal agenesis, ophthalmological anomalies, cerebellar hypoplasia and facial dysmorphism. We employed a combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping to identify the underlying genetic cause in subjects with similar phenotypic features descending from five unrelated consanguineous families. RESULTS: We identified four homozygous MAB21L1 loss of function variants (p.Glu281fs*20, p.Arg287Glufs*14 p.Tyr280* and p.Ser93Serfs*48) and one missense variant (p.Gln233Pro) in 10 affected individuals from 5 consanguineous families with a distinctive autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome. Cardinal features of this syndrome include a characteristic facial gestalt, corneal dystrophy, hairy nipples, underdeveloped labioscrotal folds and scrotum/scrotal agenesis as well as cerebellar hypoplasia with ataxia and variable microcephaly. CONCLUSION: This report defines an ultrarare but clinically recognisable Cerebello-Oculo-Facio-Genital syndrome associated with recessive MAB21L1 variants. Additionally, our findings further support the critical role of MAB21L1 in cerebellum, lens, genitalia and as craniofacial morphogenesis.

17.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 71(9-10): 337-342, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335266

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Impaired shoulder function is the most disabling problem for daily life of Fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) patients. Scapulothoracic arthrodesis can give a high impact to the functionality of patients. Here we report our experience with scapulothoracic arthrodesis and spinal stenosis surgery in FSHD patients. Methods: 32 FSHD patients were collected between 2015-2016. Demographical and clinical features were documented. All the patients were neurologically examined. The Medical Research Council (MRC) and the FSHD evaluation scale was used to assess muscle involvement1. Scapulothoracic arthrodesis and spinal stenosis surgeries were performed in eligible patients. Results: There were 16 male and 16 female (mean age 34.4 years; range 12-73) patients. 6 shoulders of 4 patients aged between 2132 years underwent scapulothoracic arthrodesis (two bilateral, one left and one right sided). Only one 63 years old female patient with severe hyperlordosis had spinal fusion surgery. All of the patients undergoing these corrective surgeries have better functionality in daily life, as well as superior shoulder elevation. Conclusion: Until the emergence and clinical use of novel therapeutics, surgical interventions are indicated in carefully selected patients with FSHD to improve arm movements, the posture and the quality of life of patients in general. Scapulothorosic arthrodesis is a management with good clinical results and patient satisfaction. In selected cases other corrective orthopedic surgeries like spinal fusion may also be considered.

18.
Genet Med ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349098

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting. METHODS: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey. RESULTS: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified. CONCLUSION: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.

19.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize new molecular factors implicated in a hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) family and otosclerosis. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a four-generation family presenting nonprogressive HCFP and mixed hearing loss (HL). MEPE was analyzed using either Sanger sequencing or molecular inversion probes combined with massive parallel sequencing in 89 otosclerosis families, 1604 unrelated affected subjects, and 1538 unscreened controls. RESULTS: Exome sequencing in the HCFP family led to the identification of a rare segregating heterozygous frameshift variant p.(Gln425Lysfs*38) in MEPE. As the HL phenotype in this family resembled otosclerosis, we performed variant burden and variance components analyses in a large otosclerosis cohort and demonstrated that nonsense and frameshift MEPE variants were significantly enriched in affected subjects (p = 0.0006-0.0060). CONCLUSION: MEPE exerts its function in bone homeostasis by two domains, an RGD and an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated (ASARM) motif inhibiting respectively bone resorption and mineralization. All variants associated with otosclerosis are predicted to result in nonsense mediated decay or an ASARM-and-RGD-truncated MEPE. The HCFP variant is predicted to produce an ASARM-truncated MEPE with an intact RGD motif. This difference in effect on the protein corresponds with the presumed pathophysiology of both diseases, and provides a plausible molecular explanation for the distinct phenotypic outcome.

20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310124

RESUMO

Technological advances have increased the availability of genomic data in research and the clinic. If, over time, interpretation of the significance of the data changes, or new information becomes available, the question arises as to whether recontacting the patient and/or family is indicated. The Public and Professional Policy Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG), together with research groups from the UK and the Netherlands, developed recommendations on recontacting which, after public consultation, have been endorsed by ESHG Board. In clinical genetics, recontacting for updating patients with new, clinically significant information related to their diagnosis or previous genetic testing may be justifiable and, where possible, desirable. Consensus about the type of information that should trigger recontacting converges around its clinical and personal utility. The organization of recontacting procedures and policies in current health care systems is challenging. It should be sustainable, commensurate with previously obtained consent, and a shared responsibility between healthcare providers, laboratories, patients, and other stakeholders. Optimal use of the limited clinical resources currently available is needed. Allocation of dedicated resources for recontacting should be considered. Finally, there is a need for more evidence, including economic and utility of information for people, to inform which strategies provide the most cost-effective use of healthcare resources for recontacting.

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