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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline DICER1 mutations increase the risk of developing a wide variety of generally uncommon tumors. We describe a case of DICER1-related embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) of the uterine corpus in a prepubertal girl. CASE: A 10-year-old- girl with a history of cystic nephroma presented with a 3-week history of vaginal bleeding. A 3-cm mass filling the uterine cavity was detected, and histopathologic examination of hysteroscopy-guided biopsy samples revealed ERMS. Molecular genetic sequencing of the tumor sample revealed a DICER1 mutation. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: This report highlights the importance of screening for DICER1 mutations in the presence of the early-onset features of this syndrome, and extends the spectrum of DICER1-related tumors by showing the mutation in a case of ERMS of the uterine corpus.

3.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 15(4): 245-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530267

RESUMO

The life span of patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies has increased due to recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are genetic disorders that predispose patients to frequent infections, autoimmunity and malignancies. Genomic instability due to defective DNA repair processes and other unknown mechanisms in patients with PID leads to an enhanced risk of cancer. PIDs were originally described as rare diseases occurring only in infants and young children, which are associated with severe clinical symptoms. However, advances in gene sequencing technologies, have revealed that they are much more common than originally appreciated and are present in older children, adolescents, and adults. After infection, malignancy is the most prevalent cause of death in both children and adults with PIDs. The overall risk of developing cancer in patients with PID is estimated to range from 4.7 to 5.7 percent. A 1.4 to 1.6-fold excess relative risk of cancer has been reported for PIDs. Increasing awareness among physicians regarding PID and cancer may lead to earlier diagnosis which may decrease morbidity and mortality. In this paper, we review the various categories of PIDs in children and highlight their association with various malignancies. MEDLINE was searched to identify articles for inclusion. Three authors have independently screened literature search results from MEDLINE and abstracted data from studies dealing with cancers of children among primary immune deficiencies.

4.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 177-184, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare clinically, neuro-radiologically, and molecularly defined malignancy of the brainstem with a median overall survival of approximately 11 months. Our aim is to evaluate the current tendency for its treatment in Europe in order to develop (inter)national consensus guidelines. METHODS: Healthcare professionals specialized in DIPG were asked to fill in an online survey with questions regarding usual treatment strategies at diagnosis and at disease progression in their countries and/or their centers, respectively. RESULTS: Seventy-four healthcare professionals responded to the survey, of which 87.8% were pediatric oncologists. Only 13.5% of the respondents biopsy all of their patients, 41.9% biopsy their patients infrequently. More than half of the respondents (54.1%) treated their patients with radiotherapy only at diagnosis, whereas 44.6% preferred radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. When the disease progresses, treatment strategies became even more diverse, and the tendency for no treatment increased from 1.4% at diagnosis to 77.0% after second progression. 36.5% of the healthcare professionals treat children younger than 3 years differently than older children at diagnosis. This percentage decreased, when the disease progresses. Most of the participants (51.4%) included less than 25% of their patients in clinical trials. CONCLUSION: This survey demonstrates a large heterogeneity of treatment regimens, especially at disease progression. We emphasize the need for international consensus guidelines for the treatment of DIPG, possible by more collaborative clinical trials.

5.
Turk Pediatri Ars ; 54(2): 82-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384142

RESUMO

Aim: Children with cancer receiving intensive chemotherapy require multiple transfusions and are at increased risk for blood transmittable diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HBC), and HIV infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in children with cancer and to compare the results with findings in our previous cancer studies conducted before the national free HBV vaccination and the HCV screening program in blood banks were established. Material and Methods: Sera from 100 children (51 females, 49 males) with cancer treated between January 2010 and January 2012 who received multiple transfusions were investigated for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs, anti-HCV, anti-HIV at diagnosis and at the end of treatment. Patients were born after 1998 when the national free hepatitis B vaccination program began. Results: HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV seropositivities were 0% at diagnosis and at the end of treatment. Anti-HBs seropositivity was 58% at diagnosis and 42% at the end of treatment. HBsAg seropositivity, which was 0% at the end of treatment, was lower than 10% during 1994-95, and 40% from 1986 to 1989. Anti-HCV was 0% in contrast to 14% between 1994 and 1995. Seventeen patients with anti-HBs seropositivity at diagnosis were found to be seronegative after intensive chemotherapy. Conclusion: The nil seroprevalence of anti-HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV in this cohort of children with cancer is encouraging. This progress is due to advances in donor screening techniques in blood banks, good hygenic practices, and the national free hepatitis B vaccination program in Turkey.

6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e785, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most prevalent intraocular pediatric malignancy of the retina. Significant genetic factors are known to have a role in the development of Rb. METHODS: Here, we report the mutation status of 4813 clinically significant genes in six patients with noncarrier of RB1 gene mutation and having normal RB1 promoter methylation from three families having higher risk for developing Rb in the study. RESULTS: A total of 27 variants were detected in the study. Heterozygous missense variants c.1162G > A (p.Gly388Arg) in the FGFR4 gene; c.559C > T (p.Pro187Ser) in the NQO1 gene were identified. The family based evaluation of the variants showed that the variant, c.714T > G (p.Tyr238Ter), in the CLEC7A gene in first family; the variant, c.55C > T (p.Arg19Ter), in the APOC3 gene and the variant, c.1171C > T (p.Gln391Ter), in the MUTYH gene in second family; and the variant, c.211G > A (p.Gly71Arg), in the UGT1A1 gene in the third family, were found statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study might be an important report on emphazing the mutational status of other genes in patients without RB1 gene mutations and having high risk for developing Rb. The study also indicates the interaction between the retinoic acid pathway and Rb oncogenesis for the first time.

8.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(9): 3601-3610, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although staff spiritual care provision plays a key role in patient-centered care, there is insufficient information on international variance in attitudes toward spiritual care and its actual provision. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of the attitudes of Middle Eastern oncology physicians and nurses toward eight examples of staff provision of spiritual care: two questionnaire items concerned prayer, while six items related to applied information gathering, such as spiritual history taking, referrals, and encouraging patients in their spirituality. In addition, respondents reported on spiritual care provision for their last three advanced cancer patients. RESULTS: Seven hundred seventy responses were received from 14 countries (25% from countries with very high Human Development Index (HDI), 41% high, 29% medium, 5% low). Over 63% of respondents positively viewed the six applied information gathering items, while significantly more, over 76%, did so among respondents from very high HDI countries (p value range, p < 0.001 to p = 0.01). Even though only 42-45% overall were positively inclined toward praying with patients, respondents in lower HDI countries expressed more positive views (p < 0.001). In interaction analysis, HDI proved to be the single strongest factor associated with five of eight spiritual care examples (p < 0.001 for all). Significantly, the Middle Eastern respondents in our study actually provided actual spiritual care to 47% of their most recent advanced cancer patients, compared to only 27% in a parallel American study, with the key difference identified being HDI. CONCLUSIONS: A country's development level is a key factor influencing attitudes toward spiritual care and its actual provision. Respondents from lower ranking HDI countries proved relatively more likely to provide spiritual care and to have positive attitudes toward praying with patients. In contrast, respondents from countries with higher HDI levels had relatively more positive attitudes toward spiritual care interventions that involved gathering information applicable to patient care.


Assuntos
Oncologia/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/enfermagem , Médicos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus ; 56: e12-e16, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747977

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma of the iris is an extremely rare clinical entity. An otherwise healthy 2-month-old male infant presented to the oncology clinic with a nodular whitish iris lesion in his right eye. The excisional tumor biopsy was consistent with a pathological diagnosis of neuroblastoma with differentiation and negative MYCN gene mutation. Further systemic evaluation revealed a right adrenal mass with no metastatic lesion. The biopsy of the adrenal lesion was also consistent with neuroblastoma. After four courses of chemotherapy, the adrenal mass was completely resected. The patient underwent two additional courses of postoperative chemotherapy and continued retinoic acid treatment. The patient is under regular follow-up with no evidence of recurrence 36 months after the initial diagnosis. This is the first case report to present a histopathological verification of neuroblastoma of the iris. The authors suggest that neonates and infants who are diagnosed as having neuroblastoma undergo an ophthalmologic examination after the initial diagnosis to investigate the true incidence of small iris lesions in neuroblastoma that may have been unrecognized. Neuroblastoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of amelanotic iris lesions in infants and young children. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2019;56:e12-e16.].


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Neoplasias da Íris/patologia , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Neoplasias da Íris/cirurgia , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Oftalmológicos
10.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(4): 256-260, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections, including hepatosplenic fungal infections (HSFI), cause significant morbidity and mortality in children with leukemia. There are not enough data to support for the best approach to diagnosis of HSFI in children, nor for the best treatment. PROCEDURE: In this multicentric study, we assessed the demographic data, clinical and radiologic features, treatment, and outcome of 40 children with leukemia and HSFI from 12 centers. RESULTS: All cases were radiologically diagnosed with abdominal ultrasound, which was performed at a median of 7 days, of the febrile neutropenic episode. Mucor was identified by histopathology in 1, and Candida was identified in blood cultures in 8 patients. Twenty-two had fungal infection in additional sites, mostly lungs. Nine patients died. Four received a single agent, and 36 a combination of antifungals. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of HSFI is challenging because signs and symptoms are usually nonspecific. In neutropenic children, persistent fever, back pain extending to the shoulder, widespread muscle pain, and increased serum galactomannan levels should alert clinicians. Abdominal imaging, particularly an abdominal ultrasound, which is easy to perform and available even in most resource-limited countries, should be recommended in children with prolonged neutropenic fever, even in the absence of localizing signs and symptoms.


Assuntos
Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/imunologia , Leucemia/complicações , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Micoses/imunologia , Esplenopatias/imunologia , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Leucemia/imunologia , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenopatias/microbiologia
11.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 35(1): 83-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417211

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nimotuzumab is an IgG1 antibody that targets epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Overexpression of EGFR is detected in some pediatric brain tumors including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG)s. METHODS: Since May 2010, nimotuzumab, combined with carboplatin or vinorelbine or Temozolomide (TMZ), was administered during progressive disease (PD) after the use of the institutional protocol consisting of radiotherapy (RT) + TMZ and adjuvant TMZ. After May 2012, children with newly diagnosed disease received TMZ during RT, and nimotuzumab and TMZ after RT. Nimotuzumab was given as 150 mg/m2/dose once a week for 12 weeks, and then every other week with TMZ until PD. PD patients were switched to nimotuzumab + vinorelbine combination until death. RESULTS: Nimotuzumab was used in 24 children with DIPG (seven in the PD group, 17 in the newly diagnosed patient group). In the PD group, median survival time was 12 months (7-42 months); 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 42.9 ± 18% and 14.3 ± 13%, respectively. The median survival in this group, after the initiation of nimotuzumab was 6 months (3-8 months). In the newly diagnosed patient group, median survival time was 11 months (3-35 months) and median progression free survival was 4 months (1-21 months). The 1-year OS in this group was 35.3 ± 11% and 2 year OS was 11.8 ± 7%. Nimotuzumab ± chemotherapy was well tolerated with no major adverse effect. CONCLUSION: Nimotuzumab-containing regimens are feasible and tolerable; it might be that some patients either with newly diagnosed DIPG or with progressive disease may benefit modestly from nimotuzumab-containing combinations.

12.
Melanoma Res ; 29(1): 99-101, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376464

RESUMO

Malignant melanoma is very rare in childhood. The approach to diagnosis and treatment in children has been adopted from adult guidelines. Vemurafenib is indicated in adults with BRAF V600 mutation-positive stage IIIc/IV melanoma and causes cutaneous adverse events. We report on a 3-year-old child with recurrent, metastatic (bone) BRAF mutation-positive melanoma. He also had severe factor X deficiency. Four days after vemurafenib treatment, bilateral palpebral edema and violet-colored hyperpigmentation were observed. There was no objective response to vemurafenib; however, bone pain regressed slightly. Our patient is the youngest patient who received vemurafenib for BRAF V600 mutation-positive metastatic melanoma in the literature.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Deficiência do Fator X/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Vemurafenib/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Deficiência do Fator X/complicações , Deficiência do Fator X/genética , Deficiência do Fator X/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/complicações , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário
13.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(6): 1343-1348, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the survival of pediatric cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, the survival of refractory, relapsed, and metastatic cases is still dismal. The combination of irinotecan and temozolomide has shown activity against refractory/relapsed pediatric solid tumors. METHOD: Thirty-four children with refractory/relapsed solid tumors who had previously been heavily pretreated and who were given vincristine, irinotecan, and temozolomide as third- or further line chemotherapy during 2004-2015 were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma (n = 15), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 8), neuroblastoma (n = 8), osteosarcoma (n = 2), and Wilms' tumor (n = 1). Thirty patients presented with disease progression on therapy and the other four presented with relapsing. A total of 141 cycles were administered. Radiotherapy was used in 17 patients and surgery in 4 as local therapy. Among all patients, 6 had complete response, 3 had partial response, 14 had stable disease, and 11 had progressive disease. The objective response was 26.4% (complete response + partial response) and median survival duration was six months. The first and second year overall survival rates were 22.3% and 16.8%. The objective response in Ewing sarcoma patients was 40%. Diarrhea was the most common toxicity and 14 (10%) courses were associated with grade 3-4 diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: In heavily pretreated patients with refractory/relapsed solid tumors, the vincristine, irinotecan, and temozolomide regimen seemed promising in Ewing sarcoma patients and was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/terapia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Osteossarcoma/terapia , Rabdomiossarcoma/terapia , Sarcoma de Ewing/terapia , Tumor de Wilms/terapia , Adolescente , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irinotecano/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Retratamento , Taxa de Sobrevida , Temozolomida/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
14.
Palliat Support Care ; 17(3): 345-352, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: When patients feel spiritually supported by staff, we find increased use of hospice and reduced use of aggressive treatments at end of life, yet substantial barriers to staff spiritual care provision still exist. We aimed to study these barriers in a new cultural context and analyzed a new subgroup with "unrealized potential" for improved spiritual care provision: those who are positively inclined toward spiritual care yet do not themselves provide it. METHOD: We distributed the Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study via the Middle East Cancer Consortium to physicians and nurses caring for advanced cancer patients. Survey items included how often spiritual care should be provided, how often respondents themselves provide it, and perceived barriers to spiritual care provision.ResultWe had 770 respondents (40% physicians, 60% nurses) from 14 Middle Eastern countries. The results showed that 82% of respondents think staff should provide spiritual care at least occasionally, but 44% provide spiritual care less often than they think they should. In multivariable analysis of respondents who valued spiritual care yet did not themselves provide it to their most recent patients, predictors included low personal sense of being spiritual (p < 0.001) and not having received training (p = 0.02; only 22% received training). How "developed" a country is negatively predicted spiritual care provision (p < 0.001). Self-perceived barriers were quite similar across cultures.Significance of resultsDespite relatively high levels of spiritual care provision, we see a gap between desirability and actual provision. Seeing oneself as not spiritual or only slightly spiritual is a key factor demonstrably associated with not providing spiritual care. Efforts to increase spiritual care provision should target those in favor of spiritual care provision, promoting training that helps participants consider their own spirituality and the role that it plays in their personal and professional lives.

15.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 41(1): 13-16, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. Primary and secondary testicular involvement is extremely uncommon in neuroblastoma. PROCEDURE: All children with neuroblastoma treated with the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-Neuroblastoma (NB) Study and who had testis involvement either at diagnosis or at relapse were retrospectively evaluated. A review of all cases with neuroblastoma and testis involvement in the literature was done. RESULTS: There were 3 children with NB documented to have involvement of the testis, 2 at diagnosis, 1 at recurrence, within the 559 cases (0.5%) treated with the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-Neuroblastoma Protocol. All had advanced stage. Two were infants. A total of 57 cases of testicular or paratesticular neuroblastoma have been reported in children, and most cases represent metastases as in the 3 cases in our series. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular mass and work-up for neuroblastoma should be done before orchiectomy. Scrotal ultrasonography should be used as the first diagnostic tool and abdominal ultrasonography shall be done additionally. Testis examination should be performed at diagnosis and regularly during follow-up for boys diagnosed with neuroblastoma. Testes may be sanctuary sites when neuroblastoma is metastatic, as is the case in leukemia.


Assuntos
Neuroblastoma , Escroto/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neuroblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroblastoma/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/terapia , Ultrassonografia
16.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 13(4): 293-297, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30319332

RESUMO

Background: Primary breast rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) can occur in children. There is a lack of knowledge regarding radiologic findings and added diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of RMS in the literature. Case Report: A 12-year-old girl was diagnosed with primary alveolar RMS of the breast. Gray scale ultrasound revealed posterior acoustic enhancement behind a well-circumscribed, multilobulated hypoechoic mass. Doppler ultrasound revealed increased peripheral and central vascularity. Hypointense septations on T2-weighted image exhibiting more enhancement than the stroma on late gadolinium-enhanced images were striking within a hyperintense mass. A hyperintense hemorrhagic focus on T1-weighted image was present in the absence of any necrosis. Avid enhancement on early postcontrast images proceeding from the periphery to the center was depicted. Conclusion: A rapidly enlarging mass with an echogenic peripheral rim together with posterior acoustic enhancement on gray scale ultrasound, intense vascularity on Doppler ultrasound, axillary lymphadenopathy, and satellite nodules on MRI should raise suspicion. Enhancing central and peripheral septations are suggestive of RMS. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in suspected cases can provide valuable data in the differential diagnosis.

17.
Turk Pediatri Ars ; 53(1): 57-60, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083077

RESUMO

In children and adolescents with chest pain and dyspnea, pneumonia, pleural effusion, and empyema are the frequent causes in the differential diagnosis. Malignant tumors of the chest wall are rare and most originate from the ribs. In children, the most frequent malignant tumor of the rib is Ewing's sarcoma. Osteosarcomas of the rib are very rare. Osteosarcoma has a predilection for rapidly growing long bones including the femur, tibia and humerus in adolescents. In this paper, we present an adolescent girl who presented with chest pain and dyspnea with osteosarcoma that originated from the rib and extended to the right hemithorax.

18.
Turk J Ophthalmol ; 48(3): 127-131, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988860

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate visual outcomes, surgical complications and tumor recurrence among children with retinoblastoma undergoing phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation for radiation-induced cataract secondary to external beam radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: The medical records of all patients treated by phacoemulsification and PCIOL implantation for radiation-induced cataract after external beam radiotherapy for retinoblastoma at a single institution between 1980 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 6 eyes of 6 children (4 girls, 2 boys). Results: Four patients had bilateral and two patients had unilateral retinoblastoma. The median age at diagnosis of retinoblastoma was 28.3 months (range, 12-96 months). All patients received chemoreduction (OPEC protocol) and external beam radiotherapy with or without local ophthalmic therapies and developed radiation-induced cataracts. The median interval from retinoblastoma diagnosis to cataract surgery was 96.3 months (range, 73-122 months). Time interval between surgery and last retinoblastoma treatment was 67.2 months. Postoperative complications included iridocyclitis in 2 eyes and posterior capsule opacification in all eyes. The mean follow-up after surgery was 105.8 months (range, 59-120 months). Final visual acuity was better in all eyes than preoperative visual acuities. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification and PCIOL implantation is an effective method of managing radiation-induced cataracts in eyes with previously treated retinoblastoma. However, visual acuity was limited by the presence of primary macular tumor.

19.
Curr Pediatr Rev ; 14(3): 204-209, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia is one of the major acute side effects of intensive treatment in pediatric cancer, necessitating prompt initiation of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics. Patients may be classified as low or high risk according some risk factors (duration of neutropenia, depth of neutropenia, type of cancer, state of disease, bone marrow involvement, type of treatment, additional health problems). Initial evaluation of the febrile neutropenic child should include the history of the child, a detailed physical examination, blood culture (peripheral and catheter), urinalysis and culture, cultures of lesions. RESULT & CONCLUSION: The standard of care in febrile neutropenic children is that they should be hospitalized, especially if high risk, and should be treated urgently with intravenous wide spectrum empiric antibiotics, the spectrum covering P. Aeruginosa. Empiric treatment should be modified according to culture results and clinical situation. Other options for low risk patients are starting with intravenous treatment and continuing with per oral treatment or giving per oral antibiotic treatment from the beginning.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neutropenia Febril/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Neutropenia Febril/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
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