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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2142210, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994793

RESUMO

Importance: A surge of COVID-19 occurred from March to June 2021, in New Delhi, India, linked to the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out for health care workers (HCWs) starting in January 2021. Objective: To assess the incidence density of reinfection among a cohort of HCWs and estimate the effectiveness of the inactivated whole virion vaccine BBV152 against reinfection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study among HCWs working at a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India. Exposures: Vaccination with 0, 1, or 2 doses of BBV152. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HCWs were categorized as fully vaccinated (with 2 doses and ≥15 days after the second dose), partially vaccinated (with 1 dose or 2 doses with <15 days after the second dose), or unvaccinated. The incidence density of COVID-19 reinfection per 100 person-years was computed, and events from March 3, 2020, to June 18, 2021, were included for analysis. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Estimated vaccine effectiveness (1 - adjusted HR) was reported. Results: Among 15 244 HCWs who participated in the study, 4978 (32.7%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean (SD) age was 36.6 (10.3) years, and 55.0% were male. The reinfection incidence density was 7.26 (95% CI: 6.09-8.66) per 100 person-years (124 HCWs [2.5%], total person follow-up period of 1696 person-years as time at risk). Fully vaccinated HCWs had lower risk of reinfection (HR, 0.14 [95% CI, 0.08-0.23]), symptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.24]), and asymptomatic reinfection (HR, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05-0.53]) compared with unvaccinated HCWs. Accordingly, among the 3 vaccine categories, reinfection was observed in 60 of 472 (12.7%) of unvaccinated (incidence density, 18.05 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 14.02-23.25), 39 of 356 (11.0%) of partially vaccinated (incidence density 15.62 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 11.42-21.38), and 17 of 1089 (1.6%) fully vaccinated (incidence density 2.18 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 1.35-3.51) HCWs. The estimated effectiveness of BBV152 against reinfection was 86% (95% CI, 77%-92%); symptomatic reinfection, 87% (95% CI, 76%-93%); and asymptomatic reinfection, 84% (95% CI, 47%-95%) among fully vaccinated HCWs. Partial vaccination was not associated with reduced risk of reinfection. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that BBV152 was associated with protection against both symptomatic and asymptomatic reinfection in HCWs after a complete vaccination schedule, when the predominant circulating variant was B.1.617.2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vírion/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728983

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases continue to increase globally. Poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have been reported; predictors of outcome are unclear. The existing data is from the early part of the pandemic when variants of concern (VOC) were not reported. Aims: We aimed to assess the outcomes and predictors in patients with cirrhosis and COVID-19. We also compared the differences in outcomes between the first wave of pandemic and the second wave. Methods: In this retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database, data on consecutive cirrhosis patients (n=221) admitted to the COVID-19 care facility of a tertiary care center in India were evaluated for presentation, the severity of liver disease, the severity of COVID-19, and outcomes. Results: The clinical presentation included: 18 (8.1%) patients had compensated cirrhosis, 139 (62.9%) acute decompensation (AD), and 64 (29.0%) had an acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Patients with ACLF had more severe COVID-19 infection than those with compensated cirrhosis and AD (54.7% vs. 16.5% and 33.3%, P<0.001). The overall mortality was 90 (40.7%), highest among ACLF (72.0%). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of mortality were high leukocyte count, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, child class, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and COVID-19 severity. The second wave had more cases of severe COVID-19 as compared to the first wave, with a similar MELD score and Child score. The overall mortality was similar between the two waves. Conclusion: Patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis have high mortality (40%), particularly those with ACLF (72%). A higher leukocyte count, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, Child class, and MELD score are predictors of mortality.

3.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1990827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747326

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelium represents a dynamic and diverse cellular system that continuously interacts with gut commensals and external cues. Intestinal stem cells, which lie at the heart of epithelial renewal and turnover, proliferate to maintain a steady stem cell population and differentiate to form functional epithelial cell types. This rather sophisticated assembly-line is maintained by an elaborate micro-environment, sculpted by a myriad of host and gut microbiota-derived signals, forming an intestinal stem cell niche. This complex, yet crucial signaling niche undergoes dynamic changes during homeostasis and chronic intestinal inflammation. Inflammatory bowel disease refers to a chronic inflammatory response toward pathogenic or commensal microbiota, in a genetically susceptible host. Compositional and functional alterations in gut microbiota are pathognomonic of IBD.The present review highlights the modulatory role of gut microbiota on the intestinal stem cell niche during homeostasis and inflammatory bowel disease. We discuss the mechanisms of direct action of gut commensals (through microbiota-derived or microbiota-influenced metabolites) on ISCs, followed by their effects via other epithelial and immune cell types.

4.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1215-1227, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590904

RESUMO

Aim: We conducted this network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of targeted pharmacotherapies and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT). Patients & methods: Nineteen studies were included and there was only one head-to-head randomized controlled trial (adalimumab vs vedolizumab). Results: All interventions, including FMT, were superior to a placebo in inducing clinical remission (except adalimumab - odds ratio 1.66; 95% CI: 0.97-2.85), clinical response and endoscopic remission. FMT was comparable with other agents in achieving all efficacy outcomes. Infliximab was ranked highest in inducing clinical remission (surface under the cumulative ranking, 0.8). There was no difference in safety outcomes between FMT and other targeted therapies. Conclusion: FMT is as efficacious and as safe as other targeted therapies in inducing clinical remission, clinical response and endoscopic remission. Further studies to assess the long-term benefits are needed in order to reach a definitive conclusion.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256098, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Crohn's disease (CD) and Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) are chronic inflammatory ulcero-constrictive intestinal diseases with similar phenotype. Although both are disease models of chronic inflammation and their clinical presentations, imaging, histological and endoscopic findings are very similar, yet their etiologies are diverse. Hence, we aimed to look at differences in the prevalence of pathobionts like adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC), Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica in CD and ITB as well as their associations with host-associated genetic polymorphisms in genes majorly involved in pathways of microbial handling and immune responses. METHODS: The study cohort included 142 subjects (69 patients with CD, 32 with ITB and 41 controls). RT- PCR amplification was used to detect the presence of AIEC, L. monocytogenes, C. jejuni, and Y. enterocolitica DNA in colonic mucosal biopsies. Additionally, we tested three SNPs in IRGM (rs13361189, rs10065172, and rs4958847), one SNP in ATG16L1 (rs2241880) and one SNP in TNFRSF1A (rs4149570) by real-time PCR with SYBR green from peripheral blood samples in this cohort. RESULTS: In patients with CD, AIEC was most frequently present (16/ 69, 23.19%) followed by L. monocytogenes (14/69, 20.29%), C. jejuni (9/69, 13.04%), and Y. enterocolitica (7/69, 10.14%). Among them, L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica were significantly associated with CD (p = 0.02). In addition, we identified all the three SNPs in IRGM (rs13361189, rs10065172, and rs4958847), one SNP in ATG16L1 (rs2241880) and TNFRSF1A (rs4149570) with a significant difference in frequency in patients with CD compared with ITB and controls (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence of host gene polymorphisms, as well as the presence of pathobionts, was seen in the colonic mucosa of patients with CD as compared to ITB, although both are disease models of chronic inflammation.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11704, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083575

RESUMO

Crohn's disease (CD) is often complicated by strictures and associated with increased risk for surgery. Inflammatory strictures respond to medical therapy, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is often used after the failure of steroids. However, data on efficacy of anti-TNF therapy in stricturing CD is limited. We retrospectively analysed the records of patients with stricturing CD who were treated with anti-TNF therapy and were prospectively followed from January 2005 to July 2020. Treatment success was defined as continuation of anti-TNF without the requirement for steroids or parenteral nutrition, switch to other anti-TNF, endoscopic dilation, surgery and severe adverse events leading to the withdrawal of anti-TNF. Fifty-nine patients were included [50-infliximab, 9-adalimumab; mean age-30.1 ± 15 years; males-69.5%; median disease duration-124 (range 30-396) months; median follow-up duration-42 (range 8-180) months]. Ileum was the most common site of stricture (69.5%), 20.3% of patients had colonic strictures, and 64.4% had multiple strictures. 55.9% of patients were steroid dependent and 37.3% were steroid refractory. The median duration of anti-TNF therapy was 14 (range 2-96) months, and 54.2% (n = 32) patients received concomitant immunomodulators. 88% improved with induction (11.8% primary non-response), secondary loss of response was seen in 52.2%, and the cumulative probability of treatment success at 1, 2 and 5 years was 69%, 51%, and 28% respectively. Anaemia at presentation predicted poor response. Only 30% of patients retained biologics on long-term (lack of response, cost, adverse events). 16.9% had adverse events, the commonest being reactivation of tuberculosis (5.1%). Anti-TNF therapy is associated with good short-term treatment success with modest long-term response in stricturing CD.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Constrição Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155144

RESUMO

Aberrant inflammation, such as that associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is fueled by the inordinate activity of RelA/NF-κB factors. As such, the canonical NF-κB module mediates controlled nuclear activation of RelA dimers from the latent cytoplasmic complexes. What provokes pathological RelA activity in the colitogenic gut remains unclear. The noncanonical NF-κB pathway typically promotes immune organogenesis involving Nfkb2 gene products. Because NF-κB pathways are intertwined, we asked whether noncanonical signaling aggravated inflammatory RelA activity. Our investigation revealed frequent engagement of the noncanonical pathway in human IBD. In a mouse model of experimental colitis, we established that Nfkb2-mediated regulations escalated the RelA-driven proinflammatory gene response in intestinal epithelial cells, exacerbating the infiltration of inflammatory cells and colon pathologies. Our mechanistic studies clarified that cell-autonomous Nfkb2 signaling supplemented latent NF-κB dimers, leading to a hyperactive canonical RelA response in the inflamed colon. In sum, the regulation of latent NF-κB dimers appears to link noncanonical Nfkb2 signaling to RelA-driven inflammatory pathologies and may provide for therapeutic targets.

8.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 40(3): 253-264, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037954

RESUMO

The role of diet and its manipulation in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is gradually acquiring central stage. Certain dietary factors have been identified as putative triggers in IBD as some other factors are found to be protective. The dietary manipulation as part of comprehensive IBD care should be done by the clinician in conjunction with a skilled dietitian. Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients with IBD and can have long-term effects on disease course and quality of life in these patients. So, early identification and correction of these deficiencies along with proper nutritional supplementation should be addressed routinely as a part of IBD management. Oral nutritional supplementation is sufficient for most patients, but in some sick patients, tube feeding may be necessary. Diet needs to be individualized based on the nutritional deficiencies and dietary triggers in a specific patient. Multiple specific diets, with elimination of components that trigger inflammation or addition of components that alter gut microbes in a favorable way, are now appearing as a treatment option in IBD, but more evidence is required before their universal recommendation. Though enteral nutrition (EN) (both exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN] and partial enteral nutrition [PEN]) have proven therapeutic role in pediatric IBD, their uses and role are now expanding in adult IBD patients as well.

9.
Intest Res ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934587

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) is difficult to diagnose due to poor sensitivity of definitive diagnostic tests. ITB may be associated with concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) which may remain undetected on chest X-ray. We assessed the role of contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) chest in detecting the prevalence of active PTB, and increasing the diagnostic yield in patients with suspected ITB. Methods: Consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected ITB (n=200) who underwent CECT chest (n=88) and had follow-up duration>1 year were recruited in this retrospective study (February 2016 to October 2018). ITB was diagnosed in the presence of caseating granuloma, positive acid fast stain or culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis on biopsy, presence of necrotic lymph nodes (LNs) on CT enterography or positive response to anti-tubercular therapy. Evidence of active tuberculosis on CECT-chest was defined as presence of centrilobular nodules with or without consolidation/miliary nodules/thick-walled cavity/enlarged necrotic mediastinal LNs. Results: Sixty-five of eighty-eight patients (mean age, 33.8±12.8 years; 47.7% of females) were finally diagnosed as ITB (4-caseating granuloma on biopsy, 12-necrotic LNs on CT enterography, 1-both, and 48-response to anti-tubercular therapy) and 23 were diagnosed as Crohn's disease. Findings of active TB on CECT chest with or without necrotic abdominal LNs were demonstrated in 5 and 20 patients, respectively. No patient with Crohn's disease had necrotic abdominal LNs or active PTB. Addition of CECT chest in the diagnostic algorithm improved the sensitivity of ITB diagnosis from 26.2% to 56.9%. Conclusions: Addition of CECT chest significantly improves the sensitivity for definite diagnosis in a patient with suspected ITB.

10.
Intest Res ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845546

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), once considered a disease of the Western hemisphere, has emerged as a global disease. As the disease prevalence is on a steady rise, management of IBD has come under the spotlight. 5-Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and biologics are the backbone of treatment of IBD. With the advent of biologics and small molecules, the need for surgery and hospitalization has decreased. However, economic viability and acceptability is an important determinant of local prescription patterns. Nearly one-third of the patients in West receive biologics as the first/initial therapy. The scenario is different in developing countries where biologics are used only in a small proportion of patients with IBD. Increased risk of reactivation of tuberculosis and high cost of the therapy are limitations to their use. Thiopurines hence become critical for optimal management of patients with IBD in these regions. However, approximately one-third of patients are intolerant or develop adverse effects with their use. This has led to suboptimal use of thiopurines in clinical practice. This review article discusses the clinical aspects of thiopurine use in patients with IBD with the aim of optimizing their use to full therapeutic potential.

11.
JGH Open ; 5(4): 420-427, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860091

RESUMO

Background: Unlike perianal fistula, long-term outcomes of nonperianal fistulae (NPF) in Crohn's disease (CD) are not clear. We aimed to compare the outcomes of medical and surgical therapies in patients with NPF. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients of CD with NPF who were prospectively followed from January 2005 to December 2018. Results: Of the 53 patients with NPF [mean age at presentation:29 ± 14 years; 54.7% male; median duration of follow-up: 47 months (interquartile range [IQR]:26-76 months)], enteroenteric fistula (37.8%) was the most common presentation. Of 22 patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy, complete response was achieved in 40.9% (n = 9). Overall probability of maintaining response was similar between the anti-TNF and surgical groups (95.2% vs 82.4%; 71% vs 76%; and 63% vs 69%% [P = 0.8] at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively), with only 13.6% of patients treated with biologicals requiring surgery over 56 months. Twenty-one patients required upfront surgery (small bowel or ileocolonic resection with/without diversion; 28.5% emergent), with 47.6% postoperative recurrence over 36 months, of which nine patients required biologicals (77.7% response to anti-TNF therapy). Long-term outcome was comparable between medically and surgically treated patients; 6.4% developed tuberculosis on anti-TNF therapy. Two patients (3.7%) developed malignancy (one - enteroenteric, one - colovesical). Conclusion: Anti-TNF therapy appears to be as effective as surgery in this retrospective analysis of patients with NPFCD, and it may be indicated in the absence of abscess and other complications. These patients are at higher risk of fistula-associated malignancy, which requires a lower threshold for suspicion, especially over the long term in the presence of nonresponse to medical therapy.

12.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 11(3): 327-333, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519132

RESUMO

Background/Objective: There is a paucity of data on the management of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with Coronavirus disease -2019 (COVID-19) amid concerns about the risk of transmission during endoscopic procedures. We aimed to study the outcomes of conservative treatment for GI bleeding in patients with COVID-19. Methods: In this retrospective analysis, 24 of 1342 (1.8%) patients with COVID-19, presenting with GI bleeding from 22nd April to 22nd July 2020, were included. Results: The mean age of patients was 45.8 ± 12.7 years; 17 (70.8%) were males; upper GI (UGI) bleeding: lower GI (LGI) 23:1. Twenty-two (91.6%) patients had evidence of cirrhosis- 21 presented with UGI bleeding while one had bleeding from hemorrhoids. Two patients without cirrhosis were presumed to have non-variceal bleeding. The medical therapy for UGI bleeding included vasoconstrictors-somatostatin in 17 (73.9%) and terlipressin in 4 (17.4%) patients. All patients with UGI bleeding received proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics. Packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFPs) and platelets were transfused in 14 (60.9%), 3 (13.0%) and 3 (13.0%), respectively. The median PRBCs transfused was 1 (0-3) unit(s). The initial control of UGI bleeding was achieved in all 23 patients and none required an emergency endoscopy. At 5-day follow-up, none rebled or died. Two patients later rebled, one had intermittent bleed due to gastric antral vascular ectasia, while another had rebleed 19 days after discharge. Three (12.5%) cirrhosis patients succumbed to acute hypoxemic respiratory failure during hospital stay. Conclusion: Conservative management strategies including pharmacotherapy, restrictive transfusion strategy, and close hemodynamic monitoring can successfully manage GI bleeding in COVID-19 patients and reduce need for urgent endoscopy. The decision for proceeding with endoscopy should be taken by a multidisciplinary team after consideration of the patient's condition, response to treatment, resources and the risks involved, on a case to case basis.

13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(10): 1491-1498, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia and visceral fat independently predict poor outcomes in Crohn's disease (CD). However, combined influence of these parameters on outcomes is unknown, and was investigated in the present study. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated skeletal muscle index (SMI-cross-sectional area of five skeletal muscles normalized for height), visceral and subcutaneous fat area and their ratio (VF/SC) on single-slice computed tomography (CT) images at L3 vertebrae in CD patients (CT done: January 2012-December 2015, patients followed till December 2019). Sarcopenia was defined as SMI < 36.5 cm2/m2 and 30.2 cm2/m2 for males and females, respectively. Disease severity, behavior, and long-term outcomes (surgery and disease course) were compared with respect to sarcopenia and VF/SC ratio. RESULTS: Forty-four patients [age at onset: 34.4 ± 14.1 years, median disease duration: 48 (24-95) months, follow-up duration: 32 (12-53.5) months, males: 63.6%] were included. Prevalence of sarcopenia was 43%, more in females, but independent of age, disease severity, behavior and location. More patients with sarcopenia underwent surgery (31.6% vs 4%, p = 0.01). VF/SC was significantly higher in patients who underwent surgery (1.76 + 1.31 vs 0.9 + 0.41, p = 0.002), and a cutoff of 0.88 could predict surgery with sensitivity and specificity of 71% and 65% respectively. On survival analysis, probability of remaining free of surgery was lower in patients with sarcopenia (59.6% vs 94.1% p = 0.01) and those with VF/SC > 0.88 (66.1% vs 91.1%, p = 0.1), and still lower in those with both sarcopenia and VF/SC > 0.88 than those with either or none (38% vs 82% vs 100%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Combination of sarcopenia and high visceral fat predict worse outcomes in CD than either.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Sarcopenia , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia
14.
Intest Res ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525859

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Infliximab (IFX) has been used to induce and maintain remission in patients with severe steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Long-term use of biologics in developing countries is limited by high cost and frequent side effects. An optimal maintenance strategy in these patients needs to be established. Methods: A retrospective analysis of maintenance of clinical remission with combination of azathioprine (AZA) and 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) in patients with severe steroidrefractory UC where IFX (5 mg/kg intravenously at weeks 0, 2, 6) had been used only as an induction therapy was done at 2 centers in India. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients maintaining corticosteroid-free sustained clinical remission (SCR) at the end of study period. Rates of relapse and cost of therapy were also analyzed. Results: Of the 137 patients who received rescue IFX induction therapy, 77 (56.2%) achieved clinical remission (mean age 34.81 ± 13.32 years, 68.83% males, median follow-up 4 years, range 3 months to 6 years) and were included. Cumulative corticosteroid-free SCR was maintained in 68%, 59%, 42%, and 35% patients at 1, 2, 4, and 6 years respectively. Sixty-seven relapses were observed in 33 patients. Majority of the relapses (45/67, 67.16%) occurred within first 2 years of follow-up. Two relapses were managed with re-induction with IFX, one required colectomy, whereas all other responded to repeat course(s) of corticosteroids. Annual per capita maintenance therapy with 5-ASA and AZA was cheaper by US$ 4,526 compared to maintaining remission with IFX. Conclusions: Clinical remission achieved with IFX induction therapy in severe steroid-refractory UC can be sustained over long time with a combination of AZA and 5-ASA.

16.
17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(5): 568-576, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), but 30%-40% of patients fail to respond. AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) as adjunctive therapy to intravenous corticosteroids in patients with ASUC. METHODS: This was an open-label randomised controlled trial, in which patients who were admitted with ASUC between August 2018 and May 2020 were randomised 1:1 to EEN or standard of care (SOC). Patients on EEN received a semi-elemental formula for 7 days along with SOC. The primary outcome was corticosteroid failure, defined by the need for salvage medical therapy or colectomy. Faecal microbial analysis was performed on day 1 and day 7 by 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing in some patients. RESULTS: Of 62 patients (mean age 35.3 ± 12.1 years, 40% male), 32 were randomised to EEN and 30 to SOC. Corticosteroid failure was lower on EEN compared to SOC (intention-to-treat analysis 25% vs 43%, P = 0.051; per protocol analysis 19% vs 43%, P = 0.04), without any difference in colectomy rate (9% vs 13%; P = 0.41). Patients on EEN had a shorter hospital stay [median (range) 10 (8-17) vs 13 (8-24) days; P = 0.04], higher day 7 albumin level (34 ± 4 vs 29 ± 3 g/L, P < 0.01), greater reduction in serum C-reactive protein and faecal calprotectin levels (both P = 0.04) and a lower composite outcome of colectomy/hospitalisation at 6 months (16% vs 39%; P = 0.045) compared to SOC. Patients on EEN showed increased abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae on day 7, with reduced Bifidobacterium and Veillonellaceae compared to SOC. CONCLUSIONS: EEN for 7 days may augment corticosteroid responsiveness in patients with ASUC. (REF/2018/05/019844; CTRI/2020/06/025989).


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Adulto , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Nutrição Enteral , Fezes , Feminino , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Intest Res ; 19(3): 291-300, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), an established modality for pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) is seldomly utilized in adults. The present study reports the outcome of EEN in adult CD patients at a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of CD patients who received EEN as a sole modality/adjunct to other treatment. The primary and secondary outcomes changed in Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and clinical response (decline in CDAI > 70), respectively, at 4 and 8 weeks. Subgroup analysis evaluated response across different phenotypes, EEN formulations and prior treatment. Linear mixed effect model was created to assess the predictors of EEN response. RESULTS: Thirty-one CD patients received EEN over median duration of 4 weeks (range, 2-6 weeks). CDAI showed a significant improvement post EEN at 4 (baseline 290 [260-320] vs. 240 [180-280], P= 0.001) and 8 weeks (baseline 290 [260-320] vs. 186 [160-240], P= 0.001), respectively. The cumulative clinical response rates at 4 and 8 weeks were 37.3% and 80.4% respectively. The clinical response rates at 8 weeks across B1 (n = 4), B2 (n = 18) and B3 (n = 9) phenotypes were 50%, 78.8% and 100% respectively (log-rank test, P= 0.093). The response rates at 8 weeks with polymeric (n = 8) and semi-elemental diet (n = 23) were 75% and 82.6%% respectively (log-rank test, P= 0.49). Baseline CDAI (odds ratio, 1.008; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.017; P= 0.046) predicted response to EEN. CONCLUSIONS: EEN was effective in inducing clinical response across different phenotypes of CD. Baseline disease activity remained the most important predictor of clinical response to EEN.

19.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(3): 731-739, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870508

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although the gut microbiome of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) has been characterized, no study has characterized the gut microbiome in acute severe colitis (ASC). We compared the gut microbiome of patients with UC, ASC, and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: Patients with mild to moderate UC (n = 24), ASC (n = 19 with 21 episodes) and HCs (n = 50) were recruited prospectively. A 16SrDNA amplicon approach was used to explore gut microbial diversity and taxonomic repertoires. UC was diagnosed using European Crohn's and Colitis Organization guidelines, and ASC was diagnosed using Truelove and Witts' criteria. RESULTS: The normalized alpha diversity was significantly lower in ASC than mild-moderately active UC (P < 0.05) or HC (P < 0.001). The gut microbiome in ASC was highly unstable, as characterized by high intracohort variation (analyzed using J-divergence measure), which was significantly greater than in UC or HC. On principal coordinate analysis, the microbiome of HC and UC were similar, with the ASC cohort being distinct from both. Comparison of ranked abundances identified four distinct clusters of genera (G1, G2, G3, and G4), with specific trends in their abundance across three groups: G1/G2A clusters had the least, whereas G3 had the highest abundance in the ASC cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbial diversity is lower in ASC than mild-moderate UC or HCs. Gut microbiome composition is increasingly unstable in ASC, with a distinct abundance of specific genera varying between HCs and ASC. Mild-moderate UC lies within the spectrum.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/microbiologia , Colite/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Intest Res ; 19(4): 438-447, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Predictors of short-term outcome of intravenous (IV) steroid therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) have been well described, but the impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a predictor of outcome remains debatable. We investigated the role of quantitative CMV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a predictor of short-term outcome in patients with ASUC. METHODS: Consecutive patients with ASUC satisfying Truelove and Witts criteria hospitalized at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) from May 2016 to July 2019 were included; all received IV steroid. The primary outcome measure was steroid-failure defined as the need for rescue therapy (with ciclosporin or infliximab) or colectomy during admission. AIIMS' index (ulcerative colitis index of severity > 6 at day 1+fecal calprotectin > 1,000 µg/g at day 3), with quantitative CMV PCR on biopsy samples obtained at initial sigmoidoscopy were correlated with the primary outcome. RESULTS: Thirty of 76 patients (39%) failed IV corticosteroids and 12 (16%) underwent surgery. Patients with steroid failure had a significantly higher mucosal CMV DNA than responders (3,454 copies/mg [0-2,700,000] vs. 116 copies/mg [0-27,220]; P< 0.01). On multivariable analysis, mucosal CMV DNA load > 2,000 copies/mg (odds ratio [OR], 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-39.7; P< 0.01) and AIIMS' index (OR, 39.8; 95% CI, 4.4-364.4; P< 0.01) were independent predictors of steroid-failure and need for colectomy. The combination correctly predicted outcomes in 84% of patients with ASUC. CONCLUSIONS: High mucosal CMV DNA ( > 2,000 copies/mg) independently predicts failure of IV corticosteroids and short-term risk of colectomy and it has an additional value to the established markers of disease severity in patients with ASUC.

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