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1.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to describe the cohort profile of the Northern Ireland Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Ageing (NICOLA) and to report the prevalence of, awareness of and associations with glaucoma. METHODS: Using geographic stratification, a representative sample of non-institutionalised Northern Irish adults aged over 50 years was invited to participate. NICOLA participants underwent a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI), a Self-Completion Questionnaire (SCQ) and a health assessment. The CAPI and SCQ collected comprehensive sociodemographic and health-related data. At the health assessment, participants underwent optic disc stereophotography, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement using ocular response analyser (ORA), autorefraction, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and self-reported history of glaucoma. We invited NICOLA participants suspected of having glaucoma due to optic disc appearance or raised IOP for clinical examination by a glaucoma expert and perimetry. Epidemiological definitions by the International Society Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology were used to define glaucoma. RESULTS: Of 3221 NICOLA participants (mean age 64.4, SD 8.5, female sex 51.7%) who attended the health assessment component of the NICOLA study (and had a vertical cup to disc ratio measurement in at least one eye), 91 participants had glaucoma. Overall, the crude prevalence of glaucoma was 2.83% (95% CI 2.31% to 3.46%) and 67% of affected individuals did not give a self-reported history of glaucoma. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of glaucoma in Northern Ireland is comparable with other population-based studies of European populations. Approximately two-thirds of people with glaucoma were undiagnosed.

2.
Trials ; 21(1): 183, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eighty per cent of UK women have at least one baby, making pregnancy an opportunity to help women stop smoking before their health is irreparably compromised. Smoking cessation during pregnancy helps protect infants from miscarriage, still birth, low birth weight, asthma, attention deficit disorder and adult cardiovascular disease. UK national guidelines highlight lack of evidence for effectiveness of financial incentives to help pregnant smokers quit. This includes a research recommendation: within a UK context, are incentives an acceptable, effective and cost-effective way to help pregnant women who smoke to quit? METHODS: The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT) III is a pragmatic, 42-month, multi-centre, parallel-group, individually randomised controlled superiority trial of the effect on smoking status of adding to usual Stop Smoking Services (SSS) support, the offer of up to £400 of financial voucher incentives, compared with usual support alone, to quit smoking during pregnancy. Participants (n = 940) are pregnant smokers (age > 16 years, < 24 weeks pregnant, English speaking), who consent via telephone to take part and are willing to be followed-up in late pregnancy and 6 months after birth. The primary outcome is cotinine/anabasine-validated abstinence from smoking in late pregnancy. Secondary outcomes include engagement with SSS, quit rates at 4 weeks from agreed quit date and 6 months after birth, and birth weight. Outcomes will be analysed by intention to treat, and regression models will be used to compare treatment effects on outcomes. A meta-analysis will include data from the feasibility study in Glasgow. An economic evaluation will assess cost-effectiveness from a UK NHS perspective. Process evaluation using a case-study approach will identify opportunities to improve recruitment and learning for future implementation. Research questions include: what is the therapeutic efficacy of incentives; are incentives cost-effective; and what are the potential facilitators and barriers to implementing incentives in different parts of the UK? DISCUSSION: This phase III trial in Scotland, England and Northern Ireland follows a successful phase II trial in Glasgow, UK. The participating sites have diverse SSS that represent most cessation services in the UK and serve demographically varied populations. If found to be acceptable and cost-effective, this trial could demonstrate that financial incentives are effective and transferable to most UK SSS for pregnant women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN15236311. Registered on 9 October 2017.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974295

RESUMO

The notion of 'precision' public health has been the subject of much debate, with recent articles coming to its defence following the publication of several papers questioning its value.Critics of precision public health raise the following problems and questionable assumptions: the inherent limits of prediction for individuals; the limits of approaches to prevention that rely on individual agency, in particular the potential for these approaches to widen inequalities; the undue emphasis on the supposed new information contained in individuals' molecules and their 'big data' at the expense of their own preferences for a particular intervention strategy and the diversion of resources and attention from the social determinants of health.In order to refocus some of these criticisms of precision public health as scientific questions, this article outlines some of the challenges when defining risk for individuals; the limitations of current theory and study design for precision public health; and the potential for unintended harms.

4.
Health Psychol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The physical activity loyalty (PAL) scheme was a cluster randomized controlled trial of a 6-month complex intervention targeting workplace physical activity. Financial incentives were incorporated in an evidence-based behavior change program, including self-regulation techniques. This article examines short-term (< 6 months) and long-term (≥ 6 months) mediation effects on physical activity. METHOD: Participants included 853 adults (457 intervention, 396 control). Physical activity was objectively assessed using pedometers at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Hypothesized short-term mediators (e.g., self-efficacy, intentions) were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks. Hypothesized long-term mediators (e.g., habit, intrinsic motivation) were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Mediation models employed the structural equation modeling product-of-coefficients approach. RESULTS: Intervention participants experienced significant decreases in 6-month pedometer steps/day versus controls (b = -336, p = .02), which were partially mitigated by positive indirect effects through 6-month integrated regulation (ab = 94.7, 95% CI [18.7, 204.4]), intrinsic motivation (ab = 59.0, 95% CI [3.09, 154.5]), and habit (ab = 198.7, 95% CI [84.3, 369.9]). There were no between-groups differences in 12-month pedometer steps/day but positive indirect effects through 6-month integrated regulation (ab = 128.0, 95% CI [27.3, 313.2]), planning (ab = 115.0, 95% CI [3.71, 285.5]), and habit (ab = 153.3, 95% CI [39.3, 333.1]). CONCLUSIONS: Most examined mediators were nonsignificant, and mediation analyses did not explain decreases in physical activity for interventions versus controls. Results show that, contrary to self-determination theory hypotheses, intrinsic motivation is not necessarily adversely impacted if financial incentives are embedded in a complex intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Aging Ment Health ; 24(1): 110-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345800

RESUMO

Objectives: Explorations of relationships between loneliness and depression have focused on loneliness as a uni-dimensional construct. We hypothesised that reciprocal relationships may exist between depressive symptomatology and social and emotional subtypes of loneliness.Methods: Using data from 373 adults aged over 50, who participated in an observational cohort study, we employed a cross-lagged approach within a Structural Equation Modelling framework, to investigate reciprocal links between depressive symptomatology, and social and emotional loneliness, across two waves of data collection, two years apart (controlling for age, sex, education, comorbidities, social network index, and perceived stress).Results: Both depressive symptomatology and loneliness decreased slightly between waves. Auto-regressive effects were strong for all three variables of interest. Cross-lagged pathways were evident, such that depressive symptomatology at baseline predicted both emotional (ß = 0.26, p < 0.05) and social (ß = 0.17, p < 0.05) loneliness at follow-up. Neither emotional (ß = 0.07, p > 0.05) nor social (ß = 0.05, p > 0.05) loneliness at baseline predicted depressive symptomatology at follow-up.Conclusions: Results challenge existing understanding of the associations between loneliness and depression. Further investigation of emotional and social loneliness in individuals with depressive disorders is warranted. Findings are discussed in relation to mechanisms that may explain the relationships observed, and possible implications.

6.
Prev Med ; 130: 105900, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733224

RESUMO

Research has highlighted the importance of peers for determining health behaviors in adolescents, yet these behaviors have typically been investigated in isolation. We need to understand common network processes operating across health behaviors collectively, in order to discern how social network processes impact health behaviors. Thus, this systematic review of studies investigated adolescent peer social networks and health behaviors. A search of six databases (CINAHL, Education Resources Information Centre, Embase, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Medline and PsycINFO) identified 55 eligible studies. The mean age of the participants was 15.1 years (range 13-18; 51.1% female). Study samples ranged from 143 to 20,745 participants. Studies investigated drinking (31%), smoking (22%), both drinking and smoking (13%) substance use (18%), physical activity (9%) and diet or weight management (7%). Study design was largely longitudinal (n = 41, 73%) and cross-sectional (n = 14, 25%). All studies were set in school and all but one study focused on school-based friendship networks. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess risk of bias: studies were assessed as good (51%), fair (16%) or poor (33%). The synthesis of results revolved around two network behavior patterns: 1) health behavior similarity within a social network, driven by homophilic social selection and/or social influence, and 2) popularity: health behavior engagement in relation to changes in social status; or network popularity predicting health behaviors. Adolescents in denser networks had statistically significant lower levels of harmful behavior (n = 2/2, 100%). Findings suggest that social network processes are important factors in adolescent health behaviors.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999806

RESUMO

Based on biologically plausible mechanisms and previous research, it is possible to hypothesize a reciprocal association between sustained attention and loneliness. We investigated this association using a cross-lagged modeling approach. Using data from 6,239 participants aged over 50 in TILDA, a nationally representative study of aging, we used structural equation models to investigate potential cross-lagged associations between sustained attention and loneliness, measured at baseline and again after four years. Sustained attention at baseline had a small association with loneliness four years later, but loneliness at baseline was not associated with sustained attention at follow-up. Auto-regressive associations were strong for both loneliness over time and sustained attention over time. Sustained attention may account for a small proportion of the variance in loneliness over time among older adults, and may constitute a risk factor in the development of loneliness. Implications for the identification of at-risk individuals and the prevention of loneliness are discussed.

8.
Lancet ; 394(10215): 2173-2183, 2019 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. METHODS: In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. FINDINGS: Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48·7%] women; median age 51·0 years [IQR 40·7-59·7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48·4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49·1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43·6 years (median 13·5 years, IQR 7·0-20·1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease event-rates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7·7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2·6 mmol/L to 33·7% for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 12·8% to 43·6% in men; p<0·0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2·6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1·1, 95% CI 1·0-1·3 for non-HDL cholesterol 2·6 to <3·7 mmol/L to 1·9, 1·6-2·2 for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 1·1, 1·0-1·3 to 2·3, 2·0-2·5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. INTERPRETATION: Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies. FUNDING: EU Framework Programme, UK Medical Research Council, and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 5: 132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31832227

RESUMO

Background: Inactive lifestyles are becoming the norm and creative approaches to encourage adolescents to be more physically active are needed. Little is known about how gamification techniques can be used in physical activity interventions for young people. Such approaches may stimulate interest and encourage physical activity behaviour. The study investigated the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a physical activity intervention for adolescents which included gamification techniques within schools. We tested recruitment and retention strategies for schools and participants, the use of proposed outcome measures, and explored intervention acceptability. Methods: This school-based feasibility study of a randomised cluster trial recruited adolescents aged 12-14 years (n = 224) from five schools (three intervention; two control) in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The 22-week intervention (The StepSmart Challenge) informed by self-determination theory and incorporating gamification strategies involved a school-based pedometer competition. Outcomes, measured at baseline, and post-intervention (at 22 weeks post-baseline and 52 weeks post-baseline) included daily minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (measured using ActiGraph accelerometer), mental wellbeing (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale), social support for physical activity, time preference (for delayed and larger rewards or immediate and smaller rewards), pro-social behaviour (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)) and the influence of social networks. The intervention's acceptability was explored in focus groups. Results: We invited 14 schools to participate; eight showed interest in participating. We recruited the first five who responded; all five completed the trial. Of the 236 pupils invited, 224 participated (94.9%): 84.8% (190/224) provided valid MVPA (minutes/day) at baseline and 57.2% (123/215) at 52 weeks. All other outcomes were well completed apart from the SDQ (65% at baseline). Qualitative data highlighted that participants and teachers found The StepSmart Challenge to be an acceptable intervention. Conclusions: The level of interest and high recruitment and retention rates provide support for the feasibility of this trial. The intervention, incorporating gamification strategies and the recruitment methods, using parental opt-out procedures, were acceptable to participants and teachers. Teachers also suggested that the implementation of The StepSmart Challenge could be embedded in a lifelong learning approach to health within the school curriculum. As young people's lives become more intertwined with technology, the use of innovative gamified interventions could be one approach to engage and motivate health behavioural change in this population. Trial registration: NCT02455986 (date of registration: 28 May 2015).

10.
Europace ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740944

RESUMO

AIMS: Limited evidence is available on the temporal relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischaemic stroke and their impact on mortality in the community. We sought to understand the temporal relationship of AF and ischaemic stroke and to determine the sequence of disease onset in relation to mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Across five prospective community cohorts of the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) project we assessed baseline cardiovascular risk factors in 100 132 individuals, median age 46.1 (25th-75th percentile 35.8-57.5) years, 48.4% men. We followed them for incident ischaemic stroke and AF and determined the relation of subsequent disease diagnosis with overall mortality. Over a median follow-up of 16.1 years, N = 4555 individuals were diagnosed solely with AF, N = 2269 had an ischaemic stroke but no AF diagnosed, and N = 898 developed both, ischaemic stroke and AF. Temporal relationships showed a clustering of diagnosis of both diseases within the years around the diagnosis of the other disease. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses with time-dependent covariates subsequent diagnosis of AF after ischaemic stroke was associated with increased mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-7.54; P < 0.001] which was also apparent when ischaemic stroke followed after the diagnosis of AF (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.90-5.00; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The temporal relations of ischaemic stroke and AF appear to be bidirectional. Ischaemic stroke may precede detection of AF by years. The subsequent diagnosis of both diseases significantly increases mortality risk. Future research needs to investigate the common underlying systemic disease processes.

12.
Frontline Gastroenterol ; 10(4): 445-446, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656576
13.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(687): e706-e714, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the importance of secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke is recognised, research is sparse regarding novel, effective ways in which to intervene in a primary care context. AIM: To pilot a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a novel home-based prevention programme (The Healthy Brain Rehabilitation Manual) for patients with TIA or 'minor' stroke. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pilot RCT, home-based, undertaken in Northern Ireland between May 2017 and March 2018. METHOD: Patients within 4 weeks of a first TIA or 'minor' stroke received study information from clinicians in four hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: standard care (control group) (n = 12); standard care with manual and GP follow-up (n = 14); or standard care with manual and stroke nurse follow-up (n = 14). Patients in all groups received telephone follow-up at 1, 4, and 9 weeks. Eligibility, recruitment, and retention were assessed; stroke/cardiovascular risk factors measured at baseline and 12 weeks; and participants' views were elicited about the study via focus groups. RESULTS: Over a 32-week period, 28.2% of clinic attendees (125/443) were eligible; 35.2% of whom (44/125) consented to research contact; 90.9% of these patients (40/44) participated, of whom 97.5% (39/40) completed the study. After 12 weeks, stroke risk factors [cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure and measures of physical activity] improved in both intervention groups. The research methods and the programme were acceptable to patients and health professionals, who commented that the programme 'filled a gap' in current post-TIA management. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that implementation of this novel cardiac rehabilitation programme, and of a trial to evaluate its effectiveness, is feasible, with potential for clinically important benefits and improved secondary prevention after TIA or 'minor' stroke.

14.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002890, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a growing interest in understanding the effects of social networks on health-related behaviour, with a particular backdrop being the emerging prominence of complexity or systems science in public health. Social network interventions specifically use or alter the characteristics of social networks to generate, accelerate, or maintain health behaviours. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate health behaviour outcomes of social network interventions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched eight databases and two trial registries from 1990 to May 28, 2019, for English-language reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and before-and-after studies investigating social network interventions for health behaviours and outcomes. Trials that did not specifically use social networks or that did not include a comparator group were excluded. We screened studies and extracted data from published reports independently. The primary outcome of health behaviours or outcomes at ≤6 months was assessed by random-effects meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes included those measures at >6-12 months and >12 months. This study is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO: CRD42015023541. We identified 26,503 reports; after exclusion, 37 studies, conducted between 1996 and 2018 from 11 countries, were eligible for analysis, with a total of 53,891 participants (mean age 32.4 years [SD 12.7]; 45.5% females). A range of study designs were included: 27 used RCT/cluster RCT designs, and 10 used other study designs. Eligible studies addressed a variety of health outcomes, in particular sexual health and substance use. Social network interventions showed a significant intervention effect compared with comparator groups for sexual health outcomes. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 1.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.11; I2 = 76%) for sexual health outcomes at ≤6 months and OR 1.51 (95% CI 1.27-1.81; I2 = 40%) for sexual health outcomes at >6-12 months. Intervention effects for drug risk outcomes at each time point were not significant. There were also significant intervention effects for some other health outcomes including alcohol misuse, well-being, change in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and smoking cessation. Because of clinical and measurement heterogeneity, it was not appropriate to pool data on these other behaviours in a meta-analysis. For sexual health outcomes, prespecified subgroup analyses were significant for intervention approach (p < 0.001), mean age of participants (p = 0.002), and intervention length (p = 0.05). Overall, 22 of the 37 studies demonstrated a high risk of bias, as measured by the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The main study limitations identified were the inclusion of studies of variable quality; difficulty in isolating the effects of specific social network intervention components on health outcomes, as interventions included other active components; and reliance on self-reported outcomes, which have inherent recall and desirability biases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that social network interventions can be effective in the short term (<6 months) and longer term (>6 months) for sexual health outcomes. Intervention effects for drug risk outcomes at each time point were not significant. There were also significant intervention effects for some other health outcomes including alcohol misuse, well-being, change in HbA1c, and smoking cessation.

15.
Eye (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the agreement between Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and Ocular Response Analyser (ORA) intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, and patients' preferences. METHODS: Both eyes of participants in the 'Glaucoma within the Northern Ireland Cohort for the Longitudinal Study of Ageing' (GwNICOLA) were included. Participants underwent GAT by a glaucoma expert and ORA tonometry in a random order. Investigators were masked to measurements between devices. Participants were asked which tonometer, if any, they would prefer. We estimated the 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA) and the variables that influence agreement between tonometers. RESULTS: There were 228 eyes of 120 participants included in this study. Mean age of participants was 68.0 years (SD 8.79) and 52.5% were female. For GAT-ORA IOPcc the mean difference with GAT (95% CI) was -0.23 mmHg (-0.57 mmHg, 0.11 mmHg) and the 95% LoA (95% CIs) were from 4.82 mmHg (5.15 mmHg, 4.48 mmHg) to -5.28 mmHg (-5.61 mmHg, -4.94 mmHg). 40.8% of eyes had an IOP difference of 2 mmHg or more between GAT and ORA IOPcc. Corneal resistance factor (CRF) as estimated by ORA influenced the agreement between GAT and ORA IOPcc. There were no differences in preference for method of tonometry. CONCLUSIONS: Although ORA IOPcc measurements with ORA did not show significant bias compared with GAT, the relatively large proportion of measurement differences between ORA IOPcc and GAT that were >2 mmHg indicates that GAT and ORA IOP measurements may not be interchangeable. There were no differences in preference for method of tonometry.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1182, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An adolescent's perceptions of their family's and friends' smoking attitudes and behaviour can influence their own uptake of smoking. There are two broad sources of such social influence: observing the behaviour directly, and assimilating attitudes. METHODS: We analysed data collected for the evaluation of Dead Cool, a school based smoking prevention intervention in Northern Ireland (n=480 in 20 clusters). The main analysis fits three nested logistic regression models predicting pre-intervention susceptibility to taking up smoking, as reflected in responses to three attitudinal questions. Model 1 includes only personal characteristics as explanatory factors. Model 2 adds the behaviour of friends and family that would provide an opportunity for social influence through observational learning. Model 3 adds the susceptibility of friends. RESULTS: Each additional group of variables improved the model fit (with reduced AIC and BIC). However, in the final model, only three variables were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) in predicting susceptibility to smoking initiation: rebelliousness (OR [1.1,1.3]) from the personal characteristics group; and, in the observational learning group, being friends with a smoker (OR [1.0,2.9]) and frequency of being in the same room or car with someone smoking (OR [2.0,9.0] for most frequent). Adding the two measures of diffusion of susceptibility through the friendship network improved the model fit, but neither was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis provides additional evidence to support policies that could reduce children's exposure to smoking behaviour, and potential subsequent smoking initiation. No conclusions could be drawn about the diffusion of smoking attitudes through the school friendship networks of children.


Assuntos
Atitude , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
17.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
18.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e027073, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203243

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SITLESS is a randomised controlled trial determining whether exercise referral schemes can be enhanced by self-management strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity in the long term, in community-dwelling older citizens. The intervention is complex and requires a process evaluation to understand how implementation, causal mechanisms and context shape outcomes. The specific aims are to assess fidelity and reach of the implementation, understand the contextual aspects of each intervention site, evaluate the mechanisms of impact, and explore perceived effects. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Following the Medical Research Council guidance on complex interventions, a combination of qualitative and quantitative procedures is applied, including observational checklists and attendance registries, standardised scales (ie, Marcus's Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale and the Lubben Social Network Scale) at baseline, postintervention and follow-up assessments, semistructured questionnaires gathering contextual characteristics, and participant observations of the sessions. Semistructured interviews and focus groups with the participants and trainers are conducted at postintervention and during the follow-up to explore their experiences. Outcomes from the standardised scales are analysed as moderators within the impact evaluation. Descriptive results on context and perceived effects complement results on impact. The qualitative and quantitative findings will help to refine the logic model to finally support the interpretation of the results on the effectiveness of the intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study design was approved by the respective Ethical Committee of Ramon Llull University, Southern Denmark, Northern Ireland and Ulm University. Participation is voluntary, and all participants are asked to sign informed consent before starting the study. A dissemination plan operationalises how to achieve a social impact by reaching academic and non-academic stakeholders. A data management plan describes the specific data sets and regulates its deposition and curation. All publications will be open access. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02629666; Pre-results.

20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(7): e968-e978, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma, particularly primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), is a leading cause of global blindness. Nearly half of all people with PACG are of Chinese descent. Population-level glaucoma screening has generally not been found to be cost-effective in high-income countries; however, this assessment has rarely been done in low-income or middle-income countries. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of population-level glaucoma screening in China. METHODS: We developed decision-analytic Markov models for separate and combined screening for PACG and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) to evaluate costs and benefits of community-level screening versus opportunistic case finding from a societal perspective. A cohort of individuals was followed in the model from age 50 years through a total of 30 1-year Markov cycles. Analyses were done separately for rural and urban settings. We did a meta-analysis of glaucoma prevalence studies in China to obtain prevalence estimates for PACG and POAG. Screening costs were taken from a Chinese screening programme and treatment costs from a tertiary Chinese eye hospital. Main outcomes were incremental cost-utility ratios (ICURs) using quality-adjusted life-years and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) using years of blindness avoided. We did one-way deterministic and simulated probabilistic sensitivity analyses to reflect uncertainty around ICURs and ICERs. FINDINGS: Compared with no screening, combined screening of POAG and PACG in rural China is predicted to result in an ICUR of US$569 (95% CI 17 to 4180) and an ICER of $1280 (-58 to 7940), both of which are below the WHO cost-effectiveness threshold of one to three times rural gross domestic product. For the urban China setting, combined screening is predicted to result in fewer net costs and greater gain in health benefits than no screening. Findings were robust in all sensitivity analyses. Over 30 years, a total of 246 (95% CI 63 to 628) and 1325 (510 to 2828) years of blindness are predicted to be avoided for every 100 000 rural and urban residents screened, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Population screening for glaucoma (POAG and PACG combined) is likely to be cost-effective in both urban and rural China. Future studies should investigate the effectiveness of interventions to improve acceptance of definitive care among people screened. FUNDING: Ulverscroft Foundation, Wenzhou Medical University Research Fund, Zhejiang Province Health Innovation Talents Project, and Wenzhou's Ten Major Livelihood Issues 2015.

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