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1.
Cornea ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079921

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether there is a benefit to adjuvant corneal cross-linking (CXL) for bacterial keratitis. METHODS: This is an outcome-masked, randomized controlled clinical trial. Consecutive patients presenting with a smear-positive bacterial ulcer at Aravind Eye Hospitals at Madurai, Pondicherry, and Coimbatore in India were enrolled. Study eyes were randomized to topical moxifloxacin 0.5% or topical moxifloxacin 0.5% plus CXL. The primary outcome of the trial was microbiological cure at 24 hours on repeat culture. Secondary outcomes included best spectacle corrected visual acuity at 3 weeks and 3 months, percentage of study participants with epithelial healing at 3 weeks and 3 months, infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, 3-day smear and culture, and adverse events. RESULTS: Those randomized to CXL had 0.60 decreased odds of culture positivity at 24 hours (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-3.50; P = 0.65), 0.9 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution lines worse visual acuity (95% CI: -2.8 to 4.6; P = 0.63), and 0.41-mm larger scar size (95% CI: -0.48 to 1.30; P = 0.38) at 3 months. We note fewer corneal perforations or need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in the CXL group. CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to confirm a benefit to adjuvant CXL in the primary treatment of moderate bacterial keratitis. However, CXL may reduce culture positivity and complication rates; therefore, a larger trial to fully evaluate this is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02570321.

2.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040219, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The majority of blindness worldwide could be prevented or reversed with early diagnosis and treatment, yet identifying at-risk and prevalent cases of eye disease and linking them with care remain important obstacles to addressing this burden. Leading causes of blindness like glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration have detectable early asymptomatic phases and can cause irreversible vision loss. Mass screening for such diseases could reduce visual impairment at the population level. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a parallel-group cluster-randomised trial designed to determine whether community-based screening for glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration reduces population-level visual impairment in Nepal. A door-to-door population census is conducted in all study communities. All adults aged ≥60 years have visual acuity tested at the census visit, and those meeting referral criteria are referred to a local eye care facility for further diagnosis and management. Communities are subsequently randomised to a community-based screening programme or to no additional intervention. The intervention consists of a single round of screening including intraocular pressure and optical coherence tomography assessment of all adults ≥60 years old with enhanced linkage to care for participants meeting referral criteria. Four years after implementation of the intervention, masked outcome assessors conduct a repeat census to collect data on the primary outcome, visual acuity. Individuals with incident visual impairment receive a comprehensive ophthalmological examination to determine the cause of visual impairment. Outcomes are compared by treatment arm according to the originally assigned intervention. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has received ethical approval from the University of California San Francisco Institutional Review Board, Nepal Netra Jyoti Sangh and the Nepal Health Research Council. Results of this trial will be disseminated through publication in peer-reviewed journals and presentation at local and international meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03752840.

3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021196

RESUMO

Conjunctival examination for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) guides public health decisions for trachoma. Smartphone cameras may allow remote conjunctival grading, but previous studies have found low sensitivity. A random sample of 412 children aged 1-9 years received an in-person conjunctival examination and then had conjunctival photographs taken with 1) a single-lens reflex (SLR) camera and 2) a smartphone coupled to a 3D-printed magnifying attachment. Three masked graders assessed the conjunctival photographs for TF. Latent class analysis was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of each grading method for TF. Single-lens reflex photo-grading was 95.0% sensitive and 93.6% specific, and smartphone photo-grading was 84.1% sensitive and 97.6% specific. The sensitivity of the smartphone-CellScope device was considerably higher than that of a previous study using the native smartphone camera, without attachment. Magnification of smartphone images with a simple attachment improved the grading sensitivity while maintaining high specificity in a region with hyperendemic trachoma.

4.
Cornea ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038151

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to assess the reproducibility of a novel standardized technique for capturing corneal subbasal nerve plexus images with in vivo corneal confocal microscopy and to compare nerve metrics captured with this method in participants with dry eye and control participants. METHODS: Cases and controls were recruited based on their International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) diagnoses. Participants completed the following 3 ocular symptom questionnaires: the Ocular Surface Disease Index, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, and Dry Eye Questionnaire 5. A novel eye fixation-grid system was used to capture 30 standardized confocal microscopy images of the central cornea. Each participant was imaged twice by different operators. Seven quantitative nerve metrics were analyzed using automated software (ACCmetrics, Manchester, United Kingdom) for all 30 images and a 6-image subset. RESULTS: Forty-seven participants were recruited (25 classified as dry eye and 22 controls). The most reproducible nerve metrics were corneal nerve fiber length [intraclass correlation (ICC) = 0.86], corneal nerve fiber area (ICC = 0.86), and fractal dimension (ICC = 0.90). Although differences were not statistically significant, all mean nerve metrics were lower in those with dry eye compared with controls. Questionnaire scores did not significantly correlate with nerve metrics. Reproducibility of nerve metrics was similar when comparing the entire 30-image montage to a central 6-image subset. CONCLUSIONS: A standardized confocal imaging technique coupled with quantitative assessment of corneal nerves produced reproducible corneal nerve metrics even with different operators. No statistically significant differences in in vivo corneal confocal microscopy nerve metrics were observed between participants with dry eye and control participants.

6.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003285, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual azithromycin distribution has been shown to reduce child mortality as well as increase antimicrobial resistance. Targeting distributions to vulnerable subgroups such as malnourished children is one approach to reaching those at the highest risk of mortality while limiting selection for resistance. The objective of this analysis was to assess whether the effect of azithromycin on mortality differs by nutritional status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A large simple trial randomized communities in Niger to receive biannual distributions of azithromycin or placebo to children 1-59 months old over a 2-year timeframe. In exploratory subgroup analyses, the effect of azithromycin distribution on child mortality was assessed for underweight subgroups using weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) thresholds of -2 and -3. Modification of the effect of azithromycin on mortality by underweight status was examined on the additive and multiplicative scale. Between December 2014 and August 2017, 27,222 children 1-11 months of age from 593 communities had weight measured at their first study visit. Overall, the average age among included children was 4.7 months (interquartile range [IQR] 3-6), 49.5% were female, 23% had a WAZ < -2, and 10% had a WAZ < -3. This analysis included 523 deaths in communities assigned to azithromycin and 661 deaths in communities assigned to placebo. The mortality rate was lower in communities assigned to azithromycin than placebo overall, with larger reductions among children with lower WAZ: -12.6 deaths per 1,000 person-years (95% CI -18.5 to -6.9, P < 0.001) overall, -17.0 (95% CI -28.0 to -7.0, P = 0.001) among children with WAZ < -2, and -25.6 (95% CI -42.6 to -9.6, P = 0.003) among children with WAZ < -3. No statistically significant evidence of effect modification was demonstrated by WAZ subgroup on either the additive or multiplicative scale (WAZ < -2, additive: 95% CI -6.4 to 16.8, P = 0.34; WAZ < -2, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.8 to 1.4, P = 0.50, WAZ < -3, additive: 95% CI -2.2 to 31.1, P = 0.14; WAZ < -3, multiplicative: 95% CI 0.9 to 1.7, P = 0.26). The estimated number of deaths averted with azithromycin was 388 (95% CI 214 to 574) overall, 116 (95% CI 48 to 192) among children with WAZ < -2, and 76 (95% CI 27 to 127) among children with WAZ < -3. Limitations include the availability of a single weight measurement on only the youngest children and the lack of power to detect small effect sizes with this rare outcome. Despite the trial's large size, formal tests for effect modification did not reach statistical significance at the 95% confidence level. CONCLUSIONS: Although mortality rates were higher in the underweight subgroups, this study was unable to demonstrate that nutritional status modified the effect of biannual azithromycin distribution on mortality. Even if the effect were greater among underweight children, a nontargeted intervention would result in the greatest absolute number of deaths averted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The MORDOR trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02047981.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/mortalidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Peso Corporal , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/mortalidade , Níger/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Magreza
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008647, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877398

RESUMO

The transmission of trachoma, caused by repeat infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, and many enteropathogens are linked to water quantity. We hypothesized that children living further from a water source would have higher exposure to C. trachomatis and enteric pathogens as determined by antibody responses. We used a multiplex bead assay to measure IgG antibody responses to C. trachomatis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Vibrio cholerae in eluted dried blood spots collected from 2267 children ages 0-9 years in 40 communities in rural Ethiopia in 2016. Linear distance from the child's house to the nearest water source was calculated. We derived seroprevalence cutoffs using external negative control populations, if available, or by fitting finite mixture models. We used targeted maximum likelihood estimation to estimate differences in seroprevalence according to distance to the nearest water source. Seroprevalence among 1-9-year-olds was 43% for C. trachomatis, 28% for S. enterica, 70% for E. histolytica, 54% for G. intestinalis, 96% for C. jejuni, 76% for ETEC and 94% for C. parvum. Seroprevalence increased with age for all pathogens. Median distance to the nearest water source was 473 meters (IQR 268, 719). Children living furthest from a water source had a 12% (95% CI: 2.6, 21.6) higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and a 12.7% (95% CI: 2.9, 22.6) higher seroprevalence of G. intestinalis compared to children living nearest. Seroprevalence for C. trachomatis and enteropathogens was high, with marked increases for most enteropathogens in the first two years of life. Children living further from a water source had higher seroprevalence of S. enterica and G. intestinalis indicating that improving access to water in the Ethiopia's Amhara region may reduce exposure to these enteropathogens in young children.

8.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996444

RESUMO

There is a lack of empirical, prospective human data on the gut microbiome and its relationship with growth, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively assessed the association between gut microbial diversity and short-term growth in a cohort of preschool children in Burkina Faso to better characterize whether there is any evidence that changes in gut microbial diversity may affect growth. Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of antibiotic administration on gut microbial diversity in preschool children. We followed up the enrolled children for 35 days, with anthropometric measurements at baseline and day 35 and microbial diversity measured at baseline and day 9 (analytic sample, N = 155). We estimated linear mixed-effects regression models with household random intercepts to assess the association of Simpson's and Shannon's alpha diversity with measures of change in anthropometry (e.g., ponderal growth since baseline) and absolute anthropometric measurements (e.g., day 35 weight). We did not find evidence that alpha gut microbial diversity was associated with growth or absolute anthropometric measurements after adjusting for confounding variables. Effect estimates were close to the null (P ≥ 0.15 for all fully adjusted comparisons), with the association between Simpson's alpha diversity and day 35 height (cm) farthest from the null (coefficient = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.07, 0.01). The change in gut microbial diversity also was not associated with the change in anthropometry in crude or adjusted models. Future research is needed to explore whether gut diversity has an impact on growth over a longer time period, in both healthy and malnourished children.

9.
J Glaucoma ; 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890103

RESUMO

PRéCIS:: In a case control study, skin pigmentation was not statistically significantly different when comparing glaucoma patients to those without glaucoma. PURPOSE: Darker skin color has been implicated as a risk factor for glaucoma based on previous studies' subjective assessments of skin pigmentation. This study used objective measurements to determine whether cutaneous pigmentation is a risk factor for glaucoma. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at Menelik II Tertiary Referral Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients aged 40 years or older from the glaucoma clinic who were being scheduled for trabeculectomy were enrolled as cases and age-matched patients without glaucoma from other clinics at Menelik II Tertiary Referral Hospital were enrolled as controls. A Dermacatch device was used to capture melanin measurements in triplicate from the inner arm of each participant. The exposure variable of interest was the median of the triplicate skin melanin measurements, in arbitrary units. The outcome of interest was presence of glaucoma. RESULTS: Agreement between the triplicate inner arm melanin measurements was high, with an intra-class correlation (ICC) of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-0.99). Mean melanin values were 704 units (standard deviation [SD] 94) in 76 cases and 694 units (SD 93) in 152 controls. Melanin was not statistically significantly associated with glaucoma after adjusting for sex and season of measurement (i.e., dry vs. rainy), with an odds ratio of 1.15 (95% CI, 0.59-2.24) per 100 units of inner arm melanin. CONCLUSION: This study failed to find a significant association between skin pigmentation and glaucoma using an objective and reproducible assessment of pigmentation.

10.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although tremendous progress towards the 2020 goal of global elimination of trachoma as a public health problem has been made, it will not be achieved. Future targets are now being considered. One option is changing the goal to eradication. We surveyed trachoma experts to assess beliefs related to trachoma eradication and determine perceived obstacles to achieving it. METHODS: We conducted a survey at the beginning of a trachoma eradication session at the 2019 Coalition for Operational Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases meeting in National Harbor, Maryland, USA. We asked respondents what the most important goal of azithromycin mass drug administration was for trachoma (control, elimination of infection or eradication) and if and when they believed trachoma eradication would occur. We then asked what the biggest obstacles were to global eradication. RESULTS: Fifty-six surveys were returned (95%). Most (91%) participants reported that the most important goal of azithromycin mass drug administration was control or elimination of infection, and 24% of participants reported that global eradication was not possible. Of the 76% who reported a year by which they believed trachoma could be eradicated, most fell between 2040 and 2050. Commonly cited barriers to global eradication included lack of surveillance tools to confirm eradication or monitor for infection recrudescence (32%) and lack of resources (23%). CONCLUSIONS: Development of alternative indicators for trachoma surveillance and continued investment in trachoma programmes, particularly focused support in the most heavily affected populations, might increase enthusiasm for the feasibility of eradication.

13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1694-1696, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700676

RESUMO

Medical shops in Nepal are a main point of treatment for many diseases including ophthalmic conditions. We sought to evaluate pharmaceutical shop worker knowledge of corneal ulcers and abrasions. A pharmaceutical shop worker from each of 117 different pharmacies surrounding Bharatpur, Nepal, was presented four different eye photographs (i.e., corneal ulcer, corneal abrasion, conjunctivitis, and a normal eye) and asked about diagnosis and management. Of 117 participants, 86 (74%) identified conjunctivitis correctly but few were able to identify corneal abrasion (50/117; 43%) or corneal infection (47/117; 40%). When presented with an illustrated diagram of potential medications to dispense, 15 (13%) participants chose a topical medication containing a corticosteroid for the corneal abrasion and 25 (21%) did so for the corneal ulcer. The appropriate use of corticosteroids for external eye infections is an important topic for additional training, given the potential for these medications to worsen corneal abrasions and ulcers.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1276-1282, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524959

RESUMO

Though bulk stool remains the gold standard specimen type for enteropathogen diagnosis, rectal swabs may offer comparable sensitivity with greater ease of collection for select pathogens. This study sought to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of rectal swabs as a sample collection method for the molecular diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis. Paired rectal swab and bulk stool samples were collected from 86 children ages 0-4 years living in southwest Niger, with duplicate samples collected among a subset of 50 children. Infection was detected using a previously validated real-time PCR diagnostic targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 65.5% (55/84) of bulk stool samples and 44.0% (37/84) of swab samples. The kappa evaluating test agreement was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.54-1.00) among duplicate stool samples (N = 49) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.47-1.00) among duplicate rectal swabs (N = 48). Diagnostic sensitivity was 93% (95% CI: 84-98) by bulk stool and 63% (95% CI: 49-75) by rectal swabs. When restricting to the lowest three quartiles of bulk stool quantitation cycle values (an indication of relatively high parasite load), sensitivity by rectal swabs increased to 78.0% (95% CI: 64-89, P < 0.0001). These findings suggest that rectal swabs provide less sensitive and reproducible results than bulk stool for the real-time PCR diagnosis of G. duodenalis. However, their fair sensitivity for higher parasite loads suggests that swabs may be a useful tool for detecting higher burden infections when stool collection is excessively expensive or logistically challenging.

15.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(10): 718-720, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503041

RESUMO

Pit latrines are promoted in resource-limited settings, but unpleasant odours may deter their use. In this study, latrines in rural Ethiopia were randomized to the addition of cooking ash, the addition of boiling water or neither. Study staff ranked odour on a 6-point scale before and approximately 24 h after intervention. Following intervention, odour grades were on average 0.2 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.7 lower to 0.3 higher) in ash-treated latrines and 0.4 points lower (95% CI 0.9 lower to 0.1 higher) in boiled water-treated latrines, although the difference between the three groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.21). Larger studies might detect a smaller difference.

16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1266-1269, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524948

RESUMO

Campylobacter has emerged as a potential important cause of childhood morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Biannual mass azithromycin distribution has previously been shown to reduce all-cause child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Burkina Faso in which children were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to a 5-day course of azithromycin or placebo to investigate the effect of oral antibiotics on the gut microbiome. We evaluated the changes in the gut microbiome of preschool children treated with azithromycin using metagenomic DNA sequencing. We found that three Campylobacter species were reduced with azithromycin treatment compared with placebo. These results were consistent with other studies that have shown decreases in Campylobacter species after azithromycin treatment, generating the hypothesis that a decrease in Campylobacter may contribute to observations of reduction in mortality following azithromycin distribution.

18.
Int Health ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use by one individual may affect selection for antimicrobial resistance in close contacts. Here we evaluated whether oral antibiotic treatment of one child within a household affected the gut resistome of an untreated cohabiting child. METHODS: Households with at least two children <5 y of age were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to a 5d course of azithromycin or placebo. To evaluate indirect effects of azithromycin treatment on the gut resistome, we randomly assigned one child in the house to azithromycin and one to placebo. In placebo households, each child received placebo. We performed DNA sequencing of rectal swabs collected 5 d after the last antibiotic dose. We estimated risk ratios for the presence of genetic resistance determinants at the class level using modified Poisson models for children in azithromycin households compared with placebo households and assessed the composition of the resistome using permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA). RESULTS: Of 58 children (n = 30 azithromycin households, n = 28 placebo households) with post-treatment rectal swabs, genetic resistance determinants were common but there was no significant difference at the class (p = 0.54 for macrolides) or gene (p = 0.94 for structure by PERMANOVA, p = 0.94 for diversity) level between untreated children in azithromycin households compared with placebo households. CONCLUSIONS: The results are encouraging that one child's antibiotic use may not influence the resistome of another child. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03187834.

19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306215

RESUMO

We evaluated the potential antiviral effects of azithromycin on the nasopharyngeal virome of Nigerien children who had received multiple rounds of mass drug administration. We found that the respiratory burden of non-SARS coronaviruses was decreased with azithromycin distributions.

20.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430472

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major human pathogen producing structurally diverse capsular polysaccharides. Widespread use of highly successful pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting pneumococcal capsules has greatly reduced infections by the vaccine types but increased infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Herein, we report a new and the 100th capsule type, named serotype 10D, by determining its unique chemical structure and biosynthetic roles of all capsule synthesis locus (cps) genes. The name 10D reflects its serologic cross-reaction with serotype 10A and appearance of cross-opsonic antibodies in response to immunization with 10A polysaccharide in a 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Genetic analysis showed that 10D cps has three large regions syntenic to and highly homologous with cps loci from serotype 6C, serotype 39, and an oral streptococcus strain (S. mitis SK145). The 10D cps region syntenic to SK145 is about 6 kb and has a short gene fragment of wciNα at the 5' end. The presence of this nonfunctional wciNα fragment provides compelling evidence for a recent interspecies genetic transfer from oral streptococcus to pneumococcus. Since oral streptococci have a large repertoire of cps loci, widespread PCV usage could facilitate the appearance of novel serotypes through interspecies recombination.IMPORTANCE The polysaccharide capsule is essential for the pathogenicity of pneumococcus, which is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide each year. Currently available pneumococcal vaccines are designed to elicit antibodies to the capsule polysaccharides of the pneumococcal isolates commonly causing diseases, and the antibodies provide protection only against the pneumococcus expressing the vaccine-targeted capsules. Since pneumococci can produce different capsule polysaccharides and therefore reduce vaccine effectiveness, it is important to track the appearance of novel pneumococcal capsule types and how these new capsules are created. Herein, we describe a new and the 100th pneumococcal capsule type with unique chemical and serological properties. The capsule type was named 10D for its serologic similarity to 10A. Genetic studies provide strong evidence that pneumococcus created 10D capsule polysaccharide by capturing a large genetic fragment from an oral streptococcus. Such interspecies genetic exchanges could greatly increase diversity of pneumococcal capsules and complicate serotype shifts.

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