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1.
Malar J ; 18(1): 389, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biannual mass azithromycin administration to preschool children reduces all-cause mortality, but the mechanism for the effect is not understood. Azithromycin has activity against malaria parasites, and malaria is a leading cause of child mortality in the Sahel. The effect of biannual versus annual azithromycin distribution for trachoma control on serological response to merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-119), a surrogate for malaria incidence, was evaluated among children in Niger. METHODS: Markers of malaria exposure were measured in two arms of a factorial randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate targeted biannual azithromycin distribution to children under 12 years of age compared to annual azithromycin to the entire community for trachoma control (N = 12 communities per arm). Communities were treated for 36 months (6 versus 3 distributions). Dried blood spots were collected at 36 months among children ages 1-5 years, and MSP-119 antibody levels were assessed using a bead-based multiplex assay to measure malaria seroprevalence. RESULTS: Antibody results were available for 991 children. MSP-119 seropositivity was 62.7% in the biannual distribution arm compared to 68.7% in the annual arm (prevalence ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.00). Mean semi-quantitative antibody levels were lower in the biannual distribution arm compared to the annual arm (mean difference - 0.39, 95% CI - 0.05 to - 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Targeted biannual azithromycin distribution was associated with lower malaria seroprevalence compared to that in a population that received annual distribution. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00792922.

2.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804657

RESUMO

Importance: Corneal opacity is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide; however, the specific features of corneal scars, which decrease visual acuity, have not been well characterized. Objective: To investigate which features of a postfungal keratitis corneal scar contribute to decreased visual acuity after an episode of infectious keratitis and evaluate whether any corneal features may be used as outcomes for clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this ancillary, prospective cross-sectional study, a subset of study participants treated for fungal keratitis (n = 71) as part of the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT I) underwent best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and best contact lens-corrected visual acuity examination, Scheimpflug imaging, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography at a referral hospital in India approximately 2 years after enrollment. Data were collected from December 3, 2012, to December 19, 2012, and analyses were performed from December 2, 2013, to October 2, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Linear regression models were used to evaluate the importance of various corneal features for BSCVA and to assess whether these features could be used to differentiate the 2 treatment arms of the MUTT I trial. Results: Seventy-one patients (42 men [59.1%]; median age, 48 [range, 39-60] years) were examined at a median (IQR) time of 1.8 (1.4-2.2) years after enrollment. The mean (SD) logMAR BSCVA was 0.17 (0.19) (Snellen equivalent, 20/32). In multivariable linear regression models, BSCVA was most associated with irregular astigmatism (1.0 line of worse BSCVA per 1-line difference between BSCVA and contact lens visual acuity; 95% CI, 0.6-1.4) and corneal scar density (1.5 lines of worse vision per 10-unit increase in the mean central corneal density; 95% CI, 0.8-2.3). The thinnest point of the cornea was the metric that best discriminated between the natamycin- and voriconazole-treated ulcers in MUTT I, with 29.3 µm (95% CI, 7.1-51.6 µm) less thinning in natamycin-treated eyes. Conclusions and Relevance: Both irregular astigmatism and corneal scar density may be important risk factors for BSCVA in a population with relatively mild, healed fungal corneal ulcers. The thinnest point of the corneal scar may be a cornea-specific outcome that could be used to evaluate treatments for corneal ulcers.

5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 39: 63-68, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Community-level interventions in cluster randomized controlled trials may alter the gut microbiome of individuals. The current method of estimating community diversities uses microbiome data obtained from multiple individual's specimens. Here we propose randomly pooling a number of microbiome samples from the same community into one sample before sequencing to estimate community-level microbiome diversity. METHODS: We design and analyze an experiment to compare community microbiome diversity (gamma-diversity) estimates derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 1) individually sequenced specimens vs. 2) pooled specimens collected from a community. Pool sizes of 10, 20, and 40 are considered. We then compare the gamma-estimates using Pearson's correlation as well as using Bland and Altman agreement analysis for three established diversity indices including richness, Simpson's and Shannon's. RESULTS: The gamma-diversity estimates are highly correlated, with most being statistically significant. All correlations between all three diversity estimates are significant in the 10-pooled data. Pools comprising 40 specimens are closest to the line of agreement, but all pooled samples and individual samples fall within the 95% limits of agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Pooling microbiome samples before DNA amplification and metagenomics sequencing to estimate community-level diversity is a viable measure to consider in population-level association research studies.

6.
Ophthalmology ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619359

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine if there is a benefit to adjuvant corneal crosslinking (CXL) and to compare natamycin versus amphotericin B for filamentous fungal keratitis. DESIGN: Outcome-masked, 2×2 factorial design, randomized controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients presenting with moderate vision loss from a smear-positive fungal ulcer at Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, India. METHODS: Study eyes were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment combinations using an adaptive randomization protocol. The treatment arms included (1) topical natamycin 5% alone, (2) topical natamycin 5% plus CXL, (3) topical amphotericin B 0.15% alone, and (4) topical amphotericin 0.15% plus CXL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of the trial was microbiological cure at 24 hours on repeat culture. Secondary outcomes included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 weeks and 3 months, percentage of study participants with epithelial healing at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months, infiltrate or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, 3-day smear and culture, and adverse events. RESULTS: Those randomized to CXL regardless of medication (topical natamycin or amphotericin) had 1.32-fold increased odds of 24-hour culture positivity, although this was not statistically significant (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-3.06; P = 0.51). We were also unable to find a difference in 24-hour culture positivity between those randomized to amphotericin and those randomized to natamycin when evaluating as a group regardless of whether or not they received CXL (coefficient 1.10; 95% CI, 0.47-2.54; P = 0.84). The BSCVA was approximately 0.22 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (2.2 Snellen lines) worse on average at 3 weeks among those receiving CXL regardless of medication (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.40; P = 0.04) and 0.32 logMAR (3.2 Snellen lines) worse visual acuity at 3 months after controlling for baseline visual acuity (95% CI, 0.03-0.54; P = 0.02). There was no difference in infiltrate or scar size, percentage of epithelialized or adverse events when comparing CXL with no CXL or the 2 topical medications. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no benefit of adjuvant CXL in the primary treatment of moderate filamentous fungal ulcers, and it may result in decreased visual acuity.

7.
JAMA ; 322(10): 936-945, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503307

RESUMO

Importance: Methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil are commonly used immunomodulatory therapies for achieving corticosteroid-sparing control of noninfectious uveitis, but there is uncertainty about which drug is more effective. Objective: To compare the effect of methotrexate and mycophenolate for achieving corticosteroid-sparing control of noninfectious intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, and panuveitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: The First-line Antimetabolites as Steroid-sparing Treatment (FAST) uveitis trial screened 265 adults with noninfectious uveitis requiring corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy from 9 referral eye centers in India, the United States, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and Mexico between August 22, 2013, and August 16, 2017. Follow-up ended on August 20, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive oral methotrexate, 25 mg weekly (n = 107), or oral mycophenolate mofetil, 3 g daily (n = 109). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was treatment success at 6 months, which was defined as having control of inflammation in both eyes, no more than 7.5 mg prednisone daily and less than or equal to 2 drops of prednisolone acetate 1%, and no treatment failure due to safety or intolerability. Patients underwent follow-up to 12 months while receiving the same treatment or switched to the other antimetabolite, depending on their 6-month outcome. Results: Among 216 patients who were randomized (median age, 38 years; 135 (62.5%) women), 194 (89.8%) completed follow-up through 6 months. Treatment success occurred in 64 (66.7%) patients in the methotrexate group vs 56 (57.1%) in the mycophenolate group (difference, 9.5% [95% CI, -5.3% to 21.8%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.50 [95% CI, 0.81 to 2.81]; P = .20). Among patients with posterior uveitis or panuveitis, treatment success was achieved in 58 (74.4%) in the methotrexate group vs 42 (55.3%) in the mycophenolate group (difference, 19.1% [95% CI, 3.6% to 30.6%]; OR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.16 to 4.90]; P = .02); whereas among patients with intermediate uveitis treatment success occurred in 6 (33.3%) in the methotrexate group vs 14 (63.6%) in the mycophenolate group (difference, -30.3% [95% CI, -51.6% to 1.1%]; OR, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.08 to 1.05]; P = .07; P for interaction = .004). Elevated liver enzymes were the most common nonserious laboratory adverse event, occurring in 14 patients (13.0%) in the methotrexate group and 8 patients (7.4%) in the mycophenolate group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with noninfectious uveitis, the use of mycophenolate mofetil compared with methotrexate as first-line corticosteroid-sparing treatment did not result in superior control of inflammation. Further research is needed to determine if either drug is more effective based on the anatomical subtype of uveitis. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01829295.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem
8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-6, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we aimed to compare anthropometric indicators as predictors of mortality in a community-based setting. DESIGN: We conducted a population-based longitudinal study nested in a cluster-randomized trial. We assessed weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) on children 12 months after the trial began and used the trial's annual census and monitoring visits to assess mortality over 2 years. SETTING: Niger. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged 6-60 months during the study. RESULTS: Of 1023 children included in the study at baseline, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score and MUAC classified 777 (76·0 %), 630 (61·6 %), 131 (12·9 %) and eighty (7·8 %) children as moderately to severely malnourished, respectively. Over the 2-year study period, fifty-eight children (5·7 %) died. MUAC had the greatest AUC (0·68, 95 % CI 0·61, 0·75) and had the strongest association with mortality in this sample (hazard ratio = 2·21, 95 % CI 1·26, 3·89, P = 0·006). CONCLUSIONS: MUAC appears to be a better predictor of mortality than other anthropometric indicators in this community-based, high-malnutrition setting in Niger.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029634, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nutrition has profound effects on children's health outcomes and is linked to weight gain and cognitive development. We used data from a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the prospective associations between dietary, socioeconomic and demographic factors and short-term weight gain during the lean season in a rural area of Burkina Faso. DESIGN: Prospective cohort data arising from a randomised controlled trial of the effect of antibiotic distribution on child growth and intestinal microbial diversity. SETTING: Two rural communities in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. PARTICIPANTS: 246 children aged 6-59 months living in the study communities were enrolled in the study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric measurements, including weight and height, were obtained at baseline and 1 month. RESULTS: Of 246 children, the median weight for wasted children at baseline (weight-for-height z-score <-2) was 9.7 kg (IQR 8.65-10.8) and the weight of non-wasted children was 12.8 kg (IQR 10.9-14.75). Food insecurity was significantly associated with decreased weight gain velocity (mean difference -0.03 g/kg/day, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.006, p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Experiences of household food insecurity before the beginning of the lean season were associated with decreased weight gain in children in rural Burkina Faso during the lean season, although the mean difference was small. Understanding the relationship between timing of food insecurity and anthropometric outcomes may help to develop policies and health programme that address both of these issues. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03187834.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393904

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glaucoma screening can be performed by assessing the vertical-cup-to-disk ratio (VCDR) of the optic nerve head from fundus photography, but VCDR grading is inherently subjective. This study investigated whether computer software could improve the accuracy and repeatability of VCDR assessment. METHODS: In this cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study, 5 ophthalmologists independently assessed the VCDR from a set of 200 optic disk images, with the median grade used as the reference standard for subsequent analyses. Eight non-ophthalmologists graded each image by two different methods: by visual inspection and with assistance from a custom-made publicly available software program. Agreement with the reference standard grade was assessed for each method by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the sensitivity and specificity determined relative to a median ophthalmologist grade of ≥0.7. RESULTS: VCDR grades ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 for visual assessment and from 0.1 to 1.0 for software-assisted grading, with a median grade of 0.4 for each. Agreement between each of the 8 graders and the reference standard was higher for visual inspection (median ICC 0.65, interquartile range 0.57 to 0.82) than for software-assisted grading (median ICC 0.59, IQR 0.44 to 0.71); P = 0.02, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Visual inspection and software assistance had similar sensitivity and specificity for detecting glaucomatous cupping. CONCLUSION: The computer software used in this study did not improve the reproducibility or validity of VCDR grading from fundus photographs compared with simple visual inspection. More clinical experience was correlated with higher agreement with the ophthalmologist VCDR reference standard.

11.
Int Health ; 11(6): 613-615, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Validation of trachoma elimination requires monitoring after discontinuation of trachoma program activities, though such evaluations are not commonly done. METHODS: Conjunctival examinations and smartphone photography were performed on a random sample of pre-school children from 15 villages in a region of Burkina Faso thought to have eliminated trachoma. RESULTS: No clinically active trachoma was detected by in-field or photographic evaluation. Smartphone images demonstrated high agreement with field grading (>99% concordance). CONCLUSIONS: Trachoma appears to have been eliminated from this area of Burkina Faso. Smartphone cameras may be a useful aid for monitoring in resource-limited settings.

12.
Cornea ; 38(10): 1309-1313, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306283

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether combinations of commonly used antiamoebic agents display synergy in their ability to kill Acanthamoeba cysts in vitro. METHODS: Synergy testing was performed with a microdilution checkerboard assay on 10 clinical Acanthamoeba keratitis isolates collected at the Proctor Foundation from 2008 to 2012. Each isolate was exposed to pairwise combinations of chlorhexidine, propamidine, and voriconazole. The minimum cysticidal concentration (MCC) for each drug pair was estimated for each isolate, and the summed fractional cysticidal concentration (ΣFCC) was calculated for each drug combination in the checkerboard, with synergy defined as a lack of growth at a ΣFCC ≤ 0.5 and antagonism as growth at a ΣFCC > 4. RESULTS: Chlorhexidine and propamidine were cysticidal, with median MCCs of 12.5 (range 1.5-50) and 11.7 (range 0.2-250), respectively. Voriconazole was not cysticidal, with a median MCC of >10,000 µg/mL. The combination of chlorhexidine and propamidine did not markedly change the cysticidal activity compared with either drug alone. By contrast, voriconazole antagonized the cysticidal activity of both chlorhexidine and propamidine, with Acanthamoeba growth observed at antagonistic ΣFCCs in 27 of 49 (55.1%, 95% confidence interval 35.7%-78.6%) checkerboard combinations of voriconazole and chlorhexidine and in 58 of 147 (39.5%, 95% confidence interval 14.3%-50.3%) combinations of voriconazole and propamidine. CONCLUSIONS: In an in vitro assay, voriconazole reduced the cysticidal activity of 2 commonly used antiamoebic drugs. Although the in vivo drug interactions could be different, these observations may be useful in cases of nonhealing Acanthamoeba keratitis being treated with combination therapies that include voriconazole.

13.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002835, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass azithromycin distributions have been shown to reduce mortality in preschool children, although the factors mediating this mortality reduction are not clear. This study was performed to determine whether mass distribution of azithromycin, which has modest antimalarial activity, reduces the community burden of malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cluster-randomized trial conducted from 23 November 2014 until 31 July 2017, 30 rural communities in Niger were randomized to 2 years of biannual mass distributions of either azithromycin (20 mg/kg oral suspension) or placebo to children aged 1 to 59 months. Participants, field staff, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary malaria outcome was the community prevalence of parasitemia on thick blood smear, assessed in a random sample of children from each community at study visits 12 and 24 months after randomization. Analyses were performed in an intention-to-treat fashion. At the baseline visit, a total of 1,695 children were enumerated in the 15 azithromycin communities, and 3,029 children were enumerated in the 15 placebo communities. No communities were lost to follow-up. The mean prevalence of malaria parasitemia at baseline was 8.9% (95% CI 5.1%-15.7%; 52 of 552 children across all communities) in the azithromycin-treated group and 6.7% (95% CI 4.0%-12.6%; 36 of 542 children across all communities) in the placebo-treated group. In the prespecified primary analysis, parasitemia was lower in the azithromycin-treated group at month 12 (mean prevalence 8.8%, 95% CI 5.1%-14.3%; 51 of 551 children across all communities) and month 24 (mean 3.5%, 95% CI 1.9%-5.5%; 21 of 567 children across all communities) than it was in the placebo-treated group at month 12 (mean 15.3%, 95% CI 10.8%-20.6%; 81 of 548 children across all communities) and month 24 (mean 4.8%, 95% CI 3.3%-6.4%; 28 of 592 children across all communities) (P = 0.02). Communities treated with azithromycin had approximately half the odds of parasitemia compared to those treated with placebo (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.97). Parasite density was lower in the azithromycin group than the placebo group at 12 and 24 months (square root-transformed outcome; density estimates were 7,540 parasites/µl lower [95% CI -350 to -12,550 parasites/µl; P = 0.02] at a mean parasite density of 17,000, as was observed in the placebo arm). No significant difference in hemoglobin was observed between the 2 treatment groups at 12 and 24 months (mean 0.34 g/dL higher in the azithromycin arm, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.75 g/dL; P = 0.10). No serious adverse events were reported in either group, and among children aged 1 to 5 months, the most commonly reported nonserious adverse events (i.e., diarrhea, vomiting, and rash) were less common in the azithromycin-treated communities. Limitations of the trial include the timing of the treatments and monitoring visits, both of which took place before the peak malaria season, as well as the uncertain generalizability to areas with different malaria transmission dynamics. CONCLUSIONS: Mass azithromycin distributions were associated with a reduced prevalence of malaria parasitemia in this trial, suggesting one possible mechanism for the mortality benefit observed with this intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02048007).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Níger/epidemiologia , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149703

RESUMO

We evaluated the effect of systemic antibiotics (azithromycin, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, or placebo) on the gut resistome in children aged 6-59 months in a randomized controlled trial. Azithromycin and cotrimoxazole led to an increase in macrolide and sulfonamide resistance determinants. Resistome expansion can be induced with a single course of antibiotics.

16.
N Engl J Med ; 380(23): 2207-2214, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MORDOR I trial (Macrolides Oraux pour Réduire les Décès avec un Oeil sur la Résistance) showed that in Niger, mass administration of azithromycin twice a year for 2 years resulted in 18% lower postneonatal childhood mortality than administration of placebo. Whether this benefit could increase with each administration or wane owing to antibiotic resistance was unknown. METHODS: In the Niger component of the MORDOR I trial, we randomly assigned 594 communities to four twice-yearly distributions of either azithromycin or placebo to children 1 to 59 months of age. In MORDOR II, all these communities received two additional open-label azithromycin distributions. All-cause mortality was assessed twice yearly by census workers who were unaware of participants' original assignments. RESULTS: In the MORDOR II trial, the mean (±SD) azithromycin coverage was 91.3±7.2% in the communities that received twice-yearly azithromycin for the first time (i.e., had received placebo for 2 years in MORDOR I) and 92.0±6.6% in communities that received azithromycin for the third year (i.e., had received azithromycin for 2 years in MORDOR I). In MORDOR II, mortality was 24.0 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.1 to 26.3) in communities that had originally received placebo in the first year and 23.3 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 21.4 to 25.5) in those that had originally received azithromycin in the first year, with no significant difference between groups (P = 0.55). In communities that had originally received placebo, mortality decreased by 13.3% (95% CI, 5.8 to 20.2) when the communities received azithromycin (P = 0.007). In communities that had originally received azithromycin and continued receiving it for an additional year, the difference in mortality between the third year and the first 2 years was not significant (-3.6%; 95% CI, -12.3 to 4.5; P = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the effect of mass administration of azithromycin on childhood mortality in Niger waned in the third year of treatment. Childhood mortality decreased when communities that had originally received placebo received azithromycin. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02047981.).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Mortalidade da Criança , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Níger/epidemiologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(6): e0007442, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mass azithromycin distributions have been shown to reduce mortality among pre-school children in sub-Saharan Africa. It is unclear what mediates this mortality reduction, but one possibility is that antibiotics function as growth promoters for young children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 24 rural Ethiopian communities that had received biannual mass azithromycin distributions over the previous four years were enrolled in a parallel-group, cluster-randomized trial. Communities were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either continuation of biannual oral azithromycin (20mg/kg for children, 1 g for adults) or to no programmatic antibiotics over the 36 months of the study period. All community members 6 months and older were eligible for the intervention. The primary outcome was ocular chlamydia; height and weight were measured as secondary outcomes on children less than 60 months of age at months 12 and 36. Study participants were not masked; anthropometrists were not informed of the treatment allocation. Anthropometric measurements were collected for 282 children aged 0-36 months at the month 12 assessment and 455 children aged 0-59 months at the month 36 assessment, including 207 children who had measurements at both time points. After adjusting for age and sex, children were slightly but not significantly taller in the biannually treated communities (84.0 cm, 95%CI 83.2-84.8, in the azithromycin-treated communities vs. 83.7 cm, 95%CI 82.9-84.5, in the untreated communities; mean difference 0.31 cm, 95%CI -0.85 to 1.47, P = 0.60). No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Periodic mass azithromycin distributions for trachoma did not demonstrate a strong impact on childhood growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The TANA II trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01202331.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Estatura/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Tracoma/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antropometria , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , População Rural
18.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 26(4): 231-237, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957594

RESUMO

Purpose: The clinical sign trachomatous inflammation - follicular (TF) is used to monitor indication for and response to mass azithromycin distribution in trachoma-endemic communities. Here, we assess the relationship between TF, trachomatous inflammation - intense (TI), and infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis over time during annual mass azithromycin distribution. Methods: We used data from a cluster-randomized trial of mass azithromycin distribution for trachoma control in a mesoendemic region of Niger. This study includes 24 communities that received 3 years of annual mass azithromycin distribution. TF, TI, and ocular chlamydia infection were monitored among children aged 0-5 years. We assessed the correlation between the prevalence of ocular chlamydia infection and 1) TF and 2) TI prevalence over time. Results: At baseline, ocular chlamydia prevalence was 21.2% (95% CI 14.3-28.1%), TF prevalence was 27.7% (95% CI 21.2-34.2%), and TI prevalence was 8.3% (95% CI 5.2-11.5%). The prevalence of all three measures decreased significantly over time (P < 0.001). At baseline, ocular chlamydia infection prevalence was strongly correlated with both TF (rho = 0.78, P < 0.0001) and TI (rho = 0.76, P < 0.0001). The correlation between ocular chlamydia infection and both TF and TI was weak at months 12 and 24. At 36 months, when TF prevalence had dropped below 10%, ocular chlamydia infection and TF were moderately correlated (rho = 0.70, P= 0.0002). Conclusions: Both TF and TI are good indicators of infection prevalence prior to mass azithromycin distribution. However, this relationship may be affected by repeated rounds of mass azithromycin distribution.

19.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 26(4): 251-256, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018742

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and Scheimpflug photography for several measurements of corneal scars, including scar size, scar depth, and corneal thickness. Methods: A series of patients treated for fungal keratitis at a tertiary eye care center in South India were recalled two years after successful treatment. Eyes with corneal scars had a slit lamp examination performed by two ophthalmologists masked to the other's examination. For AS-OCT and Scheimpflug photography, each eye had two scans taken by one technician and a third scan taken by a separate technician. Scar measurements were subsequently assessed from AS-OCT images by three graders masked to each other's results. Repeatability and reproducibility were assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) from mixed effects linear regression models. Results: Fifty eyes had all measurements taken. The corneal scar size, measured as the geometric mean of the two longest perpendicular meridians, ranged from 0.8 to 5.4 (mean 2.8 mm, 95%CI 2.6 to 3.1). Scar size measurements taken by two separate individuals were most reproducible when the border of the scar was traced from the OCT (ICC 0.90, 95%CI 0.86 to 0.94), and least repeatable when assessed from slit lamp examination (ICC 0.80, 95%CI 0.70 to 0.90). Conclusions: AS-OCT and Scheimpflug imaging of corneal scars produced measurements with acceptable reproducibility that could be useful as cornea-specific outcomes for clinical trials.

20.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 204: 124-129, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902692

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare longitudinal outcomes of visual acuity after fungal corneal ulcers with those of bacterial ulcers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary eye hospital in South India. The population consisted of 100 of 152 individuals whose fungal or bacterial keratitis had been diagnosed 4 years prior and had been enrolled in 1 of 2 concurrent randomized trials. Causative organisms of infectious keratitis were either bacterial or fungal. Presenting visual acuity consisted of best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and hard contact lens-corrected visual acuity (CLVA). RESULTS: Fifty study participants with prior fungal keratitis and 50 with prior bacterial keratitis were enrolled. Four years after treatment for keratitis, participants' presenting vision in the better eye was worse than 20/60 for 12 individuals (24.0%) in the fungal group and 10 individuals (20.0%) in the bacterial group. Median BSCVA in the affected eye at the 4-year visit in the fungal group was similar to that in the bacterial group (Snellen equivalent, 20/32 for each), although vision worse than 20/400 was more common in the fungal ulcer group after spectacle correction (odds ratio [OR] 4.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-15.8) and contact lens correction (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.37-24.1). CONCLUSIONS: In this South Indian population with a previous episode of fungal or bacterial keratitis, correctable bilateral visual impairment was common. Although long-term visual outcomes were, on average, similar between fungal and bacterial ulcers, fungal ulcers were more likely to produce severe visual impairment.

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