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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299794

RESUMO

The development of motor competencies is necessary for participation in the culture of sport, exercise, and physical activity, which in turn supports the development of a healthy lifestyle. A lack of physical activity in childhood and deficits in motor performance emphasize the relevance of interventions for promoting basic motor competencies. However, there are research desiderata with regard to such interventions. This article describes an intervention program for promoting basic motor competencies in middle childhood (around 6 to 10 years of age). The intervention was investigated in a longitudinal study from June 2019 to January 2020 (n = 200; 58% girls, M = 8.84 years, SD = 0.63) at three primary schools. The intervention was conducted once a week in physical education (PE). The comparison group participated in regular PE. The intervention showed significant effects on basic motor competencies in object movement but not in self-movement. The results demonstrate that positive effects on basic motor competencies can be achieved with the help of a relatively simple intervention. Further longitudinal studies are desirable as a means of substantiating the results and developing evidence-based concepts to support children in their development in the best possible way.


Assuntos
Educação Física e Treinamento , Esportes , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas
2.
Pediatr Exerc Sci ; 31(3): 267-281, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955463

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Whereas many studies addressed the relation between acute physical exercise and executive functions (EF) in children, the effects of various modalities of acute exercise on EF still remain unclear. This systematic review investigated the effects of exercise with low and high cognitive demands on speed of processing and accuracy of performance in tasks examining inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility in children. METHOD: A systematic literature research in electronic databases was performed. Controlled trials assessing the effects of acute exercise on EF in a pre-post design were included. RESULTS: Ten studies involving a total of 890 participants revealed positive effects in working memory performance in speed of processing after acute exercises with low cognitive demands compared with seated rest, mixed results for inhibition after exercises with low and high cognitive demands, and mixed results for cognitive flexibility with low cognitive demands. Concerning accuracy, only mixed results were found for inhibition after exercises with low and high cognitive demands. CONCLUSION: The differentiated effects of acute exercises with low and high cognitive demands led to more positive effects in speed of processing compared with accuracy of performance. Further investigations including assessment of neurophysiological parameters of EF are needed.


Assuntos
Cognição , Função Executiva , Exercício Físico , Criança , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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