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1.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155 Suppl 1: 102-106, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669201

RESUMO

In 2020, more than 600 000 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 342 000 women died worldwide. Without comprehensive control, rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality are expected to worsen. In 2020, the World Health Organization adopted the global strategy to eliminate cervical cancer to the threshold of four cases per 100 000 women within the 21st century, using a triple pillar intervention strategy comprising 90% of girls fully vaccinated by the age of 15 years, 70% of women screened by the age of 35 years and again by 45 years, and 90% of women with precancer treated and 90% of women with invasive cancer managed. In countries with high cervical cancer incidence, a tremendous effort will be needed to overcome the challenges. This article discusses the efforts in place to accelerate achievement of this ambitious goal.

2.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155 Suppl 1: 61-85, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669199

RESUMO

In 2014, FIGO's Committee for Gynecologic Oncology revised the staging of ovarian cancer, incorporating ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer into the same system. Most of these malignancies are high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Stage IC is now divided into three categories: IC1 (surgical spill); IC2 (capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface); and IC3 (malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal washings). The updated staging includes a revision of Stage IIIC based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes alone without intraperitoneal dissemination. This category is now subdivided into IIIA1(i) (metastasis ≤10 mm in greatest dimension), and IIIA1(ii) (metastasis >10 mm in greatest dimension). Stage IIIA2 is now "microscopic extrapelvic peritoneal involvement with or without positive retroperitoneal lymph node" metastasis. This review summarizes the genetics, surgical management, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies for epithelial cancers, and the treatment of ovarian germ cell and stromal malignancies.

3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155 Suppl 1: 5-6, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669207
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17665, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480080

RESUMO

In a previous study, we showed that the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway is aberrantly activated in vulval squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). In this study, we further validated our findings on a prospective cohort of primary VSCC cases, where immunohistochemical staining confirmed that key Hh pathway components were overexpressed in VSCC compared to normal vulval epithelium. We also undertook a series of in vitro studies to determine the extent of Hh pathway activation in VSCC-derived cell lines, and examine the consequences of pathway inhibition on the growth of these cells. We found that of six cell lines tested, four displayed elevated baseline Hh pathway activity that was dependent on SHH ligand, or in one case, a PTCH1 gene mutation. Hh signalling appeared necessary to sustain cell growth, as SHH ligand depletion with Robotikinin or SMO inhibition, either with chemical inhibitors (Itraconazole or LDE-225) or SMO-specific siRNA, attenuated GLI1 activity and cell proliferation in both monolayer and organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, treatment of Hh-dependent cell lines with SMO inhibitors sensitised cells to Cisplatin. Findings from our study offer us the opportunity to explore further the development of targeted chemotherapy for women with VSCC driven by aberrant Hh activation.

5.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 155(1): 43-47, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520062

RESUMO

To revise the FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva using a new approach that involves analyses of prospectively collected data. The FIGO Committee for Gynecologic Oncology reviewed the recent literature to gain an insight into the impact of the 2009 vulvar cancer staging revision. The Committee resolved to revise the staging with a goal of simplification and actively collaborated with the United States National Cancer Database to analyze prospectively collected data on carcinoma of the vulva. Many tumor characteristics were collected for all stages of vulvar cancer treated between 2010 and 2017. Statistical analysis was performed with SAS software. Overall survival was estimated based on tumor characteristics. Log-rank and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze overall survival similarities between and within groups of tumor characteristics. Characteristics with similar survivals were then grouped into the same stages and substages. Kaplan-Meier overall survival curves were generated for the resulting stages and substages. There were 12 063 cases with available data. The resulting new staging for carcinoma of the vulva has two substages in Stage I, no substage in Stage II, three substages in Stage III, and two substages in Stage IV. The Kaplan-Meier overall survival curves showed clear separation between stages and substages. The 2021 vulvar cancer staging is the first from the FIGO Committee for Gynecologic Oncology to be derived from data analyses. This revision has a new definition for depth of invasion, uses the same definition for lymph node metastases utilized in cervical cancer, and allows findings from cross-sectional imaging to be incorporated into vulvar cancer staging. The 2021 FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva is data-derived, validated, and much simpler than earlier revisions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Vulvares , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD005343, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in the majority of women. These women require a combination of surgery and chemotherapy for optimal treatment. Conventional treatment has been to perform surgery first and then give chemotherapy. However, there may be advantages to using chemotherapy before surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there is an advantage to treating women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with chemotherapy before debulking surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT)) compared with conventional treatment where chemotherapy follows debulking surgery (primary debulking surgery (PDS)). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to 9 October 2020: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase via Ovid, MEDLINE (Silver Platter/Ovid), PDQ and MetaRegister. We also checked the reference lists of relevant papers that were identified to search for further studies. The main investigators of relevant trials were contacted for further information. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (Federation of International Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage III/IV) who were randomly allocated to treatment groups that compared platinum-based chemotherapy before cytoreductive surgery with platinum-based chemotherapy following cytoreductive surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in each included trial. We extracted data of overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), adverse events, surgically-related mortality and morbidity and quality of life outcomes.  We used GRADE methods to determine the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 2227 titles and abstracts through our searches, of which five RCTs of varying quality and size met the inclusion criteria. These studies assessed a total of 1774 women with stage IIIc/IV ovarian cancer randomised to NACT followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) or PDS followed by chemotherapy. We pooled results of the four studies where data were available and found little or no difference with regard to overall survival (OS) (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.96, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.08; participants = 1692; studies = 4; high-certainty evidence) or progression-free survival in four trials where we were able to pool data (Hazard Ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.08; participants = 1692; studies = 4; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events, surgical morbidity and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were variably and incompletely reported across studies. There are probably clinically meaningful differences in favour of NACT compared to PDS with regard to overall postoperative serious adverse effects (SAE grade 3+): 6% in NACT group, versus 29% in PDS group, (risk ratio (RR) 0.22, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.38; participants = 435; studies = 2; heterogeneity index (I2) = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence). NACT probably results in a large reduction in the need for stoma formation: 5.9% in NACT group, versus 20.4% in PDS group, (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.74; participants = 632; studies = 2; I2 = 70%; moderate-certainty evidence), and probably reduces the risk of needing bowel resection at the time of surgery: 13.0% in NACT group versus 26.6% in PDS group (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.79; participants = 1565; studies = 4; I2 = 79%; moderate-certainty evidence). NACT reduces postoperative mortality: 0.6% in NACT group, versus 3.6% in PDS group, (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.46; participants = 1623; studies = 5; I2 = 0%; high-certainty evidence). QoL on the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) scale produced inconsistent and imprecise results in three studies (MD -0.29, 95% CI -2.77 to 2.20; participants = 524; studies = 3; I2 = 81%; very low-certainty evidence) but the evidence is very uncertain and should be interpreted with caution. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available high to moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is little or no difference in primary survival outcomes between PDS and NACT. NACT probably reduces the risk of serious adverse events, especially those around the time of surgery, and reduces the risk of postoperative mortality and the need for stoma formation. These data will inform women and clinicians (involving specialist gynaecological multidisciplinary teams) and allow treatment to be tailored to the person, taking into account surgical resectability, age, histology, stage and performance status. Data from an unpublished study and ongoing studies are awaited.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Viés , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161278

RESUMO

High-grade serous tubo-ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) is a major cause of cancer-related death. Treatment is not uniform, with some patients undergoing primary debulking surgery followed by chemotherapy (PDS) and others being treated directly with chemotherapy and only having surgery after three to four cycles (NACT). Which strategy is optimal remains controversial. We developed a mathematical framework that simulates hierarchical or stochastic models of tumor initiation and reproduces the clinical course of HGSC. After estimating parameter values, we infer that most patients harbor chemoresistant HGSC cells at diagnosis and that, if the tumor burden is not too large and complete debulking can be achieved, PDS is superior to NACT due to better depletion of resistant cells. We further predict that earlier diagnosis of primary HGSC, followed by complete debulking, could improve survival, but its benefit in relapsed patients is likely to be limited. These predictions are supported by primary clinical data from multiple cohorts. Our results have clear implications for these key issues in HGSC management.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 149(6): 1239-1246, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990959

RESUMO

Cancer stage at diagnosis is important information for management and treatment of individual patients as well as in epidemiological studies to evaluate effectiveness of health care system in managing cancer patients. Population-based studies to examine international disparities on cancer survival by stage, however, has been challenging due to the lack of international standardization on recording stage information and variation in stage completeness across regions and countries. The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) previously assessed the availability and comparability of staging information for colorectal, lung, female breast and ovarian cancers. Stage conversion algorithms were developed to aggregate and map all stage information into a single staging system to allow international comparison by stage at diagnosis. In this article, we developed stage conversion algorithms for three additional cancers, namely oesophageal, gastric and pancreatic cancers. We examined all stage information available, evaluated stage completeness, applied each stage conversion algorithm, and assessed the magnitude of misclassification using data from six Canadian cancer registries (Alberta, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan). In addition, we discussed five recommendations for registries to improve international cancer survival comparison by stage: (a) improve collection and completeness of staging data; (b) promote a comparable definition for stage at diagnosis; (c) promote the use of a common stage classification system; (d) record versions of staging classifications and (e) use multiple data sources for valid staging data.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Benchmarking , Canadá/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD005343, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in the majority of women. These women require surgery and chemotherapy for optimal treatment. Conventional treatment has been to perform surgery first and then give chemotherapy. However, there may be advantages to using chemotherapy before surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there is an advantage to treating women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with chemotherapy before debulking surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT)) compared with conventional treatment where chemotherapy follows debulking surgery (primary debulking surgery (PDS)). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 11 February 2019: CENTRAL, Embase via Ovid, MEDLINE (Silver Platter/Ovid), PDQ and MetaRegister. We also checked the reference lists of relevant papers that were identified to search for further studies. The main investigators of relevant trials were contacted for further information. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (Federation of International Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage III/IV) who were randomly allocated to treatment groups that compared platinum-based chemotherapy before cytoreductive surgery with platinum-based chemotherapy following cytoreductive surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in each included trial. MAIN RESULTS: We found 1952 potential titles, with a most recent search date of February 2019, of which five RCTs of varying quality and size met the inclusion criteria. These studies assessed a total of 1713 women with stage IIIc/IV ovarian cancer randomised to NACT followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) or PDS followed by chemotherapy. We pooled results of the three studies where data were available and found little or no difference with regard to overall survival (OS) (1521 women; Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.95, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.07; I2 = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence) or progression-free survival in four trials where we were able to pool data (1631 women; HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.07; I2 = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events, surgical morbidity and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were poorly and incompletely reported across studies. There may be clinically meaningful differences in favour of NACT compared to PDS with regard to serious adverse effects (SAE grade 3+). These data suggest that NACT may reduce the risk of need for blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 0.80; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.99; four studies,1085 women; low-certainty evidence), venous thromboembolism (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.90; four studies, 1490 women; low-certainty evidence), infection (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.56; four studies, 1490 women; moderate-certainty evidence), compared to PDS. NACT probably reduces the need for stoma formation (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72; two studies, 581 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and bowel resection (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.92; three studies, 1213 women; moderate-certainty evidence), as well as reducing postoperative mortality (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.54:five studies, 1571 women; moderate-certainty evidence). QoL on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale produced inconsistent and imprecise results in two studies (MD -1.34, 95% CI -2.36 to -0.32; participants = 307; very low-certainty evidence) and use of the QLQC-30 and QLQC-Ov28 in another study (MD 7.60, 95% CI 1.89 to 13.31; participants = 217; very low-certainty evidence) meant that little could be inferred. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is little or no difference in primary survival outcomes between PDS and NACT. NACT may reduce the risk of serious adverse events, especially those around the time of surgery, and the need for bowel resection and stoma formation. These data will inform women and clinicians and allow treatment to be tailored to the person, taking into account surgical resectability, age, histology, stage and performance status. Data from an unpublished study and ongoing studies are awaited.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Viés , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 47(6): 1233-1243, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) assay has recently emerged as a rapid molecular diagnostic tool for the detection of lymph node (LN) metastases. It is a molecular technique that analyses the entire LN tissue using a reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction to detect tumour specific cytoceratin 19 mRNA. AIM: To ascertain the diagnostic accuracy of OSNA assay in detecting LN metastases amongst different types of malignancy. DESIGN: We systematically searched MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Cochrane Database, from inception up to August 2020. Quality assessment was performed using the Modified Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). We calculated pooled diagnostic indices using the random-effects model. Meta-regression and sub-group analyses were performed to address heterogeneity. RESULTS: 31 studies were included in this meta-analysis, including four different types of cancer. The risk of bias and the overall quality of included studies was moderate to high. There was no evidence of publication bias. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) for detecting LN metastases in gynaecological, head & neck/thyroid, gastrointestinal and lung cancer were 100.38, 76.17, 275.14, and 305.84, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that OSNA assay had a high diagnostic accuracy in detecting metastatic LNs in different types of malignancy. This evidence is constrained by the limited studies available for few tumour types and the rather high heterogeneity for few outcomes.


Assuntos
Queratina-19/genética , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(3): 649-654, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgery is the cornerstone of gynecological cancer management, but inpatient treatment may expose both patients and healthcare staff to COVID-19 infections. Plans to mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have been implemented widely, but few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of these plans in maintaining safe surgical care delivery. AIM: To evaluate the effects of mitigating plans implemented on the delivery of gynecological cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A comparative cohort study of patients treated in a high-volume tertiary gyneoncological centre in the United Kingdom. Prospectively-recorded consecutive operations performed and early peri-operative outcomes during the same calendar periods (January-August) in 2019 and 2020 were compared. RESULTS: In total, 585 operations were performed (296 in 2019; 289 in 2020). There was no significant difference in patient demographics. Types of surgery performed were different (p = 0.034), with fewer cytoreductive surgeries for ovarian cancer and laparoscopic procedures (p = 0.002) in 2020. There was no difference in intra-operative complication rates, critical care admission rates or length of stay. One patient had confirmed COVID-19 infection (0.4%). The 30-day post-operative complication rates were significantly higher in 2020 than in 2019 (58 [20.1%] versus 32 [10.8%]; p = 0.002) for both minor and major complications. This increase, primarily from March 2020 onwards, coincided with the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining surgical throughput with meticulous and timely planning is feasible during the COVID-19 pandemic but this was associated with an increase in post-operative complications due to a multitude of reasons.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ginecologia/organização & administração , Oncologia Cirúrgica/organização & administração , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Ginecologia/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Medicina Estatal , Oncologia Cirúrgica/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Reino Unido
12.
J Invest Surg ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of serum albumin (at diagnosis and pre-operatively) on survival in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer(AOC) and whether improvement in albumin achieved following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) affects overall survival (OS). METHODS: Outcomes of 441 patients who underwent cytoreduction for AOC were reviewed. Albumin was recorded at diagnosis and pre-operatively. Further analysis was performed if patients were hypoalbuminaemic at diagnosis.Analysis was stratified according to whether the patientreceived primary debulking surgery (PDS) or interval debulking surgery (IDS) and if their albumin was corrected. RESULTS: 308 patients had a serum albumin level at diagnosis and 400 patients had a pre-operative albumin available for analysis. For patients with an albumin at diagnosis ≤ 35g/L and ≥36 g/L, median OS was 31.5 (95% CI 23.5-39.5) and 50.4 (95% CI 38.9-61.9) months respectively (P = 0.003). Followingmultivariate analysis (MVA), albumin at diagnosis remained statistically significant as an independent marker for survival, even after adjusting for cytoreductive outcome, stage and grade(p = 0.04, Hazard ratio 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.89).Hypoalbuminaemic patients at diagnosis achieved complete cytoreduction in 53% of cases.For PDS patients, median OS was 19.7 months (95% CI 11.5-27.9). For IDS patients, median OS was 27.9 months (n = 1).IDS patients with a corrected albumin had a median OS of 42.9 months (95% CI 31.5-54.3) (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hypoalbuminaemia at diagnosis is a poor prognostic factor in AOC. Normalization of serum albumin after NACT is a potential predictor of survival.

15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(1): 54-58, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345546

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current standard of care for advanced high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) comprises a combination of debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy given in the neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. In the neoadjuvant setting, patients usually undergo 3 cycles of chemotherapy followed by interval cytoreductive surgery (ICS), then 3 further cycles of chemotherapy. However, the optimum timeframe to administer chemotherapy before and after ICS remains unclear. We therefore examine the survival impact of the interval between pre- and post-operative chemotherapy in patients undergoing ICS in a well-established patient cohort. Factors leading to "delays" in recommencing post-operative chemotherapy were also examined. METHODS: The study comprises of a retrospective cohort of 205 cases with FIGO stage III and IV HGSC undergoing ICS. The duration of the interval between pre-operative and post-operative chemotherapy was correlated with progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were constructed to identify factors associated with survival and prolonged chemotherapy interruption. RESULTS: The median interval between pre-operative and post-operative chemotherapy was 63 days. Multivariate analyses revealed macroscopic residual disease (HR:2.280, 95% CI:1.635-3.177, p ≤ 0.001) and interruption of chemotherapy >10 weeks (HR:1.65, 95%CI:1.201-2.290, p = 0.002) were associated with poorer OS. Existing medical comorbidities and longer hospital stay were independent prognostic factors for prolonging the chemotherapy interruption. CONCLUSION: Our study recommends that interruption to chemotherapy to allow patients to undergo ICS should be ≤10 weeks; otherwise, OS is significantly impacted. Patients with pre-existing medical comorbidities should receive additional support pre- and post-operatively to keep the chemotherapy interruption to a minimum.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/tratamento farmacológico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Idoso , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 40(6): 849-855, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933417

RESUMO

Outcomes of secondary cytoreduction surgery (SCS) were evaluated for morbidity, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) and factors influencing results were explored. Retrospective analysis of all cases of SCS for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was performed from October 2010 to December 2017. 62 patients were prospectively identified as candidates for SCS and 57 underwent SCS. 20(35%) patients required bowel resection/s, 24(42%) had nodal resections and 11(19%) had extensive upper abdominal surgery. 51(89%) achieved complete cytoreduction. After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 9-95 months), median PFS was 32 months (CI 17-76 months) and median OS has not reached. Seventeen patients have died and 32 have progressed. Three patients had Clavien-Dindo grade-3 and two had grade-4 morbidity. Patients who had multi-site recurrence had shorter median PFS (p = 0.04) and patients who required bowel resections had lower median OS (p = 0.009) compared to rest of the cohort.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Retrospective studies have confirmed survival advantage for recurrence in epithelial ovarian cancer and recommend SCS for carefully selected patients. This finding is being evaluated in randomised control trials currently.What do the results of this study add? This study presents excellent results for survival outcomes after SCS and highlights importance of careful selection of patients with a goal to achieve complete cytoreduction. In addition, for the first time in literature, this study also explores various factors that may influence results and finds that there are no differences in survival outcomes whether these patients had early stage or advanced stage disease earlier. Patients who have multisite recurrence tend to have shorter PFS but no difference were noted for overall survival. Patients who have recurrence in bowels necessitating resection/s have a shorter median OS compared to rest of cohorts, however, still achieving a good survival time.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? These findings will raise awareness for the clinicians and patients while discussing surgical outcomes and would set an achievable standard to improve cancer services. The pattern of recurrence and associated outcomes also point towards difference in biological nature of recurrent disease and could provide an opportunity for scientists to study the biological makeup of these recurrent tumours.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Ovário/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ovário/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
17.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 444-449, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987600

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) commonly metastasises through groin lymphatics. However, the use of pre-operative imaging in detecting inguinal nodal metastasis before staging surgery or to triage patients for sentinel node biopsy remains unclear. Here, we investigated if pre-operative CT scan, the imaging choice in our cancer centre, influences the overall course of VSCC management in those patients without clinical evidence of groin lymphadenopathy. METHOD: The study comprised of a prospective cohort of 225 patients with VSCC who underwent staging surgery within a regional tertiary gynaecological cancer centre. Comprehensive information of the cohort's demography, clinicopathological variables and outcome data were collected and analysed. Findings of pre-operative imaging were compared with histological findings of inguinal lymph nodes following groin lymphadenectomy. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V24. RESULTS: Pre-operative CT scan was performed on 116 (56.6%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of cross-sectional imaging in detecting groin lymphatic metastasis were 59.1% and 77.8%, respectively; while the positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 61.9% and 75.7%, respectively. In patients who had sentinel inguinal nodes biopsy, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CT scan in detecting inguinal node metastasis were 30.0%, 85.7%, 33.3% and 83.7%, respectively. There was no difference in disease-free and overall survival in those who received pre-operative imaging when compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative CT scan may be omitted in early stage VSCC prior to surgical staging as it does not affect overall management and surgical outcomes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Vulvares/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Virilha , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pelve , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias Vulvares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/cirurgia
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer presents at an advanced stage in the majority of women. These women require surgery and chemotherapy for optimal treatment. Conventional treatment has been to perform surgery first and then give chemotherapy. However, there may be advantages to using chemotherapy before surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether there is an advantage to treating women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer with chemotherapy before debulking surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT)) compared with conventional treatment where chemotherapy follows debulking surgery (primary debulking surgery (PDS)). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 11 February 2019: CENTRAL, Embase via Ovid, MEDLINE (Silver Platter/Ovid), PDQ and MetaRegister. We also checked the reference lists of relevant papers that were identified to search for further studies. The main investigators of relevant trials were contacted for further information. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (Federation of International Gynaecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) stage III/IV) who were randomly allocated to treatment groups that compared platinum-based chemotherapy before cytoreductive surgery with platinum-based chemotherapy following cytoreductive surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias in each included trial. MAIN RESULTS: We found 1952 potential titles, with a most recent search date of February 2019, of which five RCTs of varying quality and size met the inclusion criteria. These studies assessed a total of 1713 women with stage IIIc/IV ovarian cancer randomised to NACT followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) or PDS followed by chemotherapy. We pooled results of the three studies where data were available and found little or no difference with regard to overall survival (OS) (1521 women; hazard ratio (HR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.19, I2 = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence) or progression-free survival in four trials where we were able to pool data (1631 women; HR 1.02; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.13, I2 = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events, surgical morbidity and quality of life (QoL) outcomes were poorly and incompletely reported across studies. There may be clinically meaningful differences in favour of NACT compared to PDS with regard to serious adverse effects (SAE grade 3+). These data suggest that NACT may reduce the risk of need for blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 0.80; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.99; four studies,1085 women; low-certainty evidence), venous thromboembolism (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.90; four studies, 1490 women; low-certainty evidence), infection (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.56; four studies, 1490 women; moderate-certainty evidence), compared to PDS. NACT probably reduces the need for stoma formation (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.72; two studies, 581 women; moderate-certainty evidence) and bowel resection (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.92; three studies, 1213 women; moderate-certainty evidence), as well as reducing postoperative mortality (RR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.54:five studies, 1571 women; moderate-certainty evidence). QoL on the EORTC QLQ-C30 scale produced inconsistent and imprecise results in two studies (MD -1.34, 95% CI -2.36 to -0.32; participants = 307; very low-certainty evidence) and use of the QLQC-30 and QLQC-Ov28 in another study (MD 7.60, 95% CI 1.89 to 13.31; participants = 217; very low-certainty evidence) meant that little could be inferred. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The available moderate-certainty evidence suggests there is little or no difference in primary survival outcomes between PDS and NACT. NACT may reduce the risk of serious adverse events, especially those around the time of surgery, and the need for bowel resection and stoma formation. These data will inform women and clinicians and allow treatment to be tailored to the person, taking into account surgical resectability, age, histology, stage and performance status. Data from an unpublished study and ongoing studies are awaited.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(5): 1261-1270, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414175

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Survival difference between socioeconomic groups with ovarian cancer has persisted in the United Kingdom despite efforts to reduce disparities in care. Our aim was to delineate critical episodes in the patient journey, where deprivation has most impact on survival. METHODS: A retrospective review of 834 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) between 16/8/07-16/2/17 at a large cancer centre serving one of the most deprived areas of the UK. Using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), patients were categorised into five groups. RESULTS: Surgery was more common in less deprived patients (p < 0.00001). Across IMD groups, there were no differences in complete (R0) cytoreduction rate (r = 0.18, p > 0.05), age, or comorbidity. The R0/total cohort rate increased with increasing IMD group (p < 0.0001). Patients refusing any intervention belonged exclusively to the three most deprived groups; 5/7 patients who refused surgery belonged to the most deprived IMD group. Overall survival in the total patient group was less in IMD group 1-2 compared to 9-10 (p = 0.002). On multivariate analysis, IMD group was not an independent predictor of survival (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic differences in survival manifest in patients not receiving surgical treatment for AOC and are not purely explained by comorbidity, age, stage, or histological factors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 29(8): 1285-1291, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life after ovarian cancer treatment is an important goal for patients. Complex debulking surgeries and platinum based chemotherapy are often required but quality of life after surgery is rarely reported. OBJECTIVES: To describe quality of life outcomes after surgery for advanced ovarian cancer in a systematic review and meta-analysis. SEARCH STRATEGY: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL through March 2019 with no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Included studies reported quality of life in women diagnosed with primary advanced ovarian cancer, fallopian tube carcinoma or primary peritoneal cancer undergoing cytoreduction surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data on extent and timing of surgery, quality of life outcomes, and surgical complications were extracted and study quality assessed. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials comparing primary surgery to neoadjuvant chemotherapy had heterogeneous quality of life outcomes with no difference between arms, although there was a clinical improvement in global quality of life scores in both arms at 6 months compared with baseline. Data from two observational studies showed no meaningful difference in quality of life scores between patients undergoing standard or extensive surgery at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clinically important difference in the quality of life of patients undergoing either primary debulking surgery or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There is insufficient evidence on quality of life outcomes of patients undergoing extensive or ultra-radical surgery compared with those undergoing less extensive surgery. Quality of life outcomes matter to patients, but there is little evidence to inform patient choice regarding the extent of surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/cirurgia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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