Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 128
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(21)2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771524

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgery represents the only curative treatment option for patients with cholangiocarcinoma. However, complete tumor resection requires extensive surgery in many patients, and it is still debated which patients represent the ideal candidates for such therapy in terms of overall survival. Sarcopenia has been associated with an adverse outcome for various malignancies, but its role in the context of patients undergoing tumor resection for cholangiocellular adenocarcinoma (CCA) is only poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the role of sarcopenia in the outcome of CCA patients undergoing radical tumor resection. METHODS: Pre-operative CT scans were used to assess the skeletal muscle index (L3SMI) as well as the psoas muscle index (L3PMI) in n = 76 patients receiving curative intended surgery for CCA. L3SMI and L3PMI were correlated with clinical and laboratory markers. RESULTS: Patients with a skeletal muscle index or psoas muscle index above an established ideal cut-off (54.26 and 1.685 cm2/m2) showed a significantly better overall survival in Kaplan-Meier Curve analyses (L3SMI: 1814 days (95% CI: 520-3108) vs. 467 days (95% CI: 225-709) days; log rank X2(1) = 7.18, p = 0.007; L3PMI: 608 days (95% CI: 297-919) vs. 87 days (95% CI: 33-141), log rank X2(1) = 18.71; p < 0.001). Notably, these findings, especially for L3PMI, were confirmed in univariate (L3SMI: HR 0.962 (0.936-0.989); p = 0.006; L3PMI: HR 0.529 (0.366-0.766); p ≤ 0.001) and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Further analyses revealed that the prognostic value of both L3SMI and L3PMI was restricted to male patients, while in female patients survival was independent of the individual muscle mass. CONCLUSION: Measurement of muscle mass from preoperative CT scans represents an easily obtainable tool to estimate patient prognosis following curative surgery. The prognostic value was restricted to male patients, while in female patients these parameters did not reflect the patient outcome.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard treatment of high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma consists of surgical resection followed by risk-adapted radiation therapy. Further treatment options that may improve local and systemic tumor control, including chemotherapy, are not well established. Due to the heterogeneity of the disease, different systemic approaches as well as their application at different time points have been attempted. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search for randomized clinical trials in the treatment of localized, resectable high-risk adult soft-tissue sarcoma comparing different treatment modalities according to the PRISMA guidelines. We extracted published hazard ratios and number of events for the endpoints overall and disease-free survival (OS; DFS) as well as local and distant recurrence-free interval (LRFI; DRFI). The different modalities were compared in a network meta-analysis against the defined standard treatment surgery ± radiotherapy using the inverse-variance heterogeneity model. RESULTS: The literature search identified 25 trials including 3453 patients. Five different treatment modalities were compared in the network meta-analysis. The addition of adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved OS compared to surgery ± radiotherapy alone (HR = 0.86; CI-95%: 0.75-0.97; p = 0.017). Likewise, neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with regional hyperthermia (naCTx + HTx) also led to superior OS (HR = 0.45; CI-95%: 0.20-1.00; p = 0.049). Both neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone (naCTx) and perioperative chemotherapy (periCTx) did not improve OS (HR = 0.61; CI-95%: 0.29-1.29; p = 0.195 and HR = 0.66; CI-95%: 0.30-1.48; p = 0.317, respectively). Histology-tailored chemotherapy (htCTx) also did not improve survival compared to surgery ± radiotherapy (HR = 1.08; CI-95%: 0.45-2.61; p = 0.868). The network analysis of DFS, LRFI, and DRFI revealed a similar pattern between the different treatment regimens. Adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved DFS, LRFI, and DRFI compared to surgery ± radiotherapy. In direct comparison, this advantage of adjuvant chemotherapy was restricted to male patients (HR = 0.78; CI-95%: 0.65-0.92; p = 0.004) with no effect for female patients (HR = 1.08; CI-95%: 0.90-1.29; p = 0.410). CONCLUSIONS: Standardized chemotherapy in high-risk soft-tissue sarcoma appears to be of added value irrespective of timing. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy seems to be restricted to male patients. The addition of regional hyperthermia to neodjuvant chemotherapy achieved the best effect sizes and might warrant further investigation.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) represents the second most common primary liver cancer and is characterized by a very poor outcome, but reliable prognostic markers are largely missing. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, as well as myosteatosis have been associated with an unfavorable outcome in several clinical conditions, including cancer. Here, we evaluated the prognostic relevance of sarcopenia and myosteatosis using routine abdominal CT (computed tomography) scans in advanced stage CCA patients undergoing palliative treatment. METHODS: Routine abdominal CT scans were used to assess the skeletal muscle and the psoas muscle index (L3SMI/L3PMI) at the level of the third lumbar vertebra as radiological indices for sarcopenia as well as the mean skeletal muscle attenuation (MMA) as a surrogate for myosteatosis. Results were correlated with clinical data and outcomes. RESULTS: Using a calculated optimal cut-off value of 71.95 mm2/cm, CCA patients with an L3SMI value below this cut-off showed a significantly reduced median overall survival (OS) of only 250 days compared to 450 days in patients with a higher L3SMI. Moreover, the median OS of CCA patients with an L3PMI above 6345 mm2/cm was 552 days compared to 252 days in patients with a lower L3PMI. Finally, CCA patients with an MMA above 30.51 Hounsfield Units survived significantly longer (median OS: 430 days) compared to patients with an MMA value below this ideal cut-off (median OS: 215 days). The prognostic relevance of L3SMI, L3PMI, and MMA was confirmed in uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. CONCLUSION: Routine abdominal CT scans represent a unique opportunity to evaluate sarcopenia as well as myosteatosis in advanced CCA patients. We identified the L3SMI/L3PMI as well as the MMA as negative prognostic factors in CCA patients undergoing palliative therapy, arguing that the "opportunistic" evaluation of these parameters might yield important clinical information in daily routine.

4.
Z Gastroenterol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and osteoporosis are common diseases with a rising incidence worldwide. Both diseases occur in similar patient populations, however, data on their mutual influence are conflicting. Here, we aimed to evaluate the impact of NAFLD on the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures by using the Disease Analyzer database featuring data on diagnoses, prescriptions, and demographic aspects of 7.49 million cases followed in general practices in Germany. METHODS: A total of 50,689 patients with NAFLD diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 were matched by age, sex, index year, and 3 comorbidities (obesity, diabetes mellitus, and vitamin D/calcium deficiency) to a cohort of equal size without NAFLD. Incidence of osteoporosis and bone fractures were compared between both groups within 10 years from the index date. RESULTS: Within the observation period, the incidence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in the NAFLD group (6.4%) compared to patients without NAFLD (5.1%; log-rank, p < 0.001). Similar results were observed for bone fractures (12.6 vs. 10.3 %; log-rank p < 0.001). The difference was more pronounced in women compared to men and observed in all age groups >50 years of age. CONCLUSION: Our data show that NAFLD is significantly associated with osteoporosis as well as bone fractures in a large cohort of patients followed in German general practices. This finding suggests that NAFLD patients might benefit from improved monitoring for the occurrence of bone demineralization and osteoporosis, which in turn could trigger preventive therapeutic measures.

6.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the result of a hyper-inflammatory reaction to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The biomarkers of inflammation have been used to risk-stratify patients with COVID-19. Osteopontin (OPN) is an integrin-binding glyco-phosphoprotein involved in the modulation of leukocyte activation; its levels are associated with worse outcomes in patients with sepsis. Whether OPN levels predict outcomes in COVID-19 is unknown. METHODS: We measured OPN levels in serum of 341 hospitalized COVID-19 patients collected within 48 h from admission. We characterized the determinants of OPN levels and examined their association with in-hospital outcomes; notably death, need for mechanical ventilation, and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and as a composite outcome. The risk discrimination ability of OPN was compared with other inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 (mean age 60, 61.9% male, 27.0% blacks) had significantly higher levels of serum OPN compared to healthy volunteers (96.63 vs. 16.56 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Overall, 104 patients required mechanical ventilation, 35 needed dialysis, and 53 died during their hospitalization. In multivariable analyses, OPN levels ≥140.66 ng/mL (third tertile) were associated with a 3.5 × (95%CI 1.44-8.27) increase in the odds of death, and 4.9 × (95%CI 2.48-9.80) increase in the odds of requiring mechanical ventilation. There was no association between OPN and need for RRT. Finally, OPN levels in the upper tertile turned out as an independent prognostic factor of event-free survival with respect to the composite endpoint. CONCLUSION: Higher OPN levels are associated with increased odds of death and mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19, however, their utility in triage is questionable.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503170

RESUMO

The rates of microscopic incomplete resections (R1/R0CRM+) in patients receiving standard pancreaticoduodenectomy for PDAC remain very high. One reason may be the reported high rates of mesopancreatic fat infiltration. In this large cohort study, we used available histopathological specimens of the retropancreatic fat and correlated high resolution CT-scans with the microscopic tumor infiltration of this area. We found that preoperative MDCT scans are suitable to detect cancerous infiltration of this mesopancreatic tissue and this, in turn, was a significant indicator for both incomplete surgical resection (R1/R0CRM+) and worse overall survival. These findings indicate that a neoadjuvant treatment in PDAC patients with CT-morphologically positive infiltration of the mesopancreas may result in better local control and thus improved resection rates. Mesopancreatic fat stranding should thus be considered in the decision for neoadjuvant therapy. Background: Due to the persistently high rates of R1 resections, neoadjuvant treatment and mesopancreatic excision (MPE) for ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head (hPDAC) have recently become a topic of interest. While radiographic cut-off for borderline resectability has been described, the necessary extent of surgery has not been established. It has not yet been elucidated whether pre-operative multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) staging reliably predicts local mesopancreatic (MP) fat infiltration and tumor extension. Methods: Two hundred and forty two hPDAC patients that underwent MPE were analyzed. Radiographic re-evaluation was performed on (1) mesopancreatic fat stranding (MPS) and stranding to peripancreatic vessels, as well as (2) tumor diameter and anatomy, including contact to peripancreatic vessels (SMA, GDA, CHA, PV, SMV). Routinely resected mesopancreatic and perivascular (SMA and PV/SMV) tissue was histopathologically re-analyzed and histopathology correlated with radiographic findings. A logistic regression of survival was performed. Results: MDCT-predicted tumor diameter correlated with pathological T-stage, whereas presumed tumor contact and fat stranding to SMA and PV/SMV predicted and correlated with histological cancerous infiltration. Importantly, mesopancreatic fat stranding predicted MP cancerous infiltration. Positive MP infiltration was evident in over 78%. MPS and higher CT-predicted tumor diameter correlated with higher R1 resection rates. Patients with positive MP stranding had a significantly worse overall survival (p = 0.023). Conclusions: A detailed preoperative radiographic assessment can predict mesopancreatic infiltration and tumor morphology and should influence the decision for primary surgery, as well as the extent of surgery. To increase the rate of R0CRM- resections, MPS should be considered in the decision for neoadjuvant therapy.

8.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 107, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the pandemic disease caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2, may take highly variable clinical courses, ranging from symptom-free and pauci-symptomatic to fatal disease. The goal of the current study was to assess the association of COVID-19 clinical courses controlled by patients' adaptive immune responses without progression to severe disease with patients' Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) genetics, AB0 blood group antigens, and the presence or absence of near-loss-of-function delta 32 deletion mutant of the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). PATIENT AND METHODS: An exploratory observational study including 157 adult COVID-19 convalescent patients was performed with a median follow-up of 250 days. The impact of different HLA genotypes, AB0 blood group antigens, and the CCR5 mutant CD195 were investigated for their role in the clinical course of COVID-19. In addition, this study addressed levels of severity and morbidity of COVID-19. The association of the immunogenetic background parameters were further related to patients' humoral antiviral immune response patterns by longitudinal observation. RESULTS: Univariate HLA analyses identified putatively protective HLA alleles (HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01, with a trend for DRB1*03:01). They were associated with reduced durations of disease instead decreased (rather than increased) total anti-S IgG levels. They had a higher virus neutralizing capacity compared to non-carriers. Conversely, analyses also identified HLA alleles (HLA class II DQB1*03:02 und HLA class I B*15:01) not associated with such benefit in the patient cohort of this study. Hierarchical testing by Cox regression analyses confirmed the significance of the protective effect of the HLA alleles identified (when assessed in composite) in terms of disease duration, whereas AB0 blood group antigen heterozygosity was found to be significantly associated with disease severity (rather than duration) in our cohort. A suggestive association of a heterozygous CCR5 delta 32 mutation status with prolonged disease duration was implied by univariate analyses but could not be confirmed by hierarchical multivariate testing. CONCLUSION: The current study shows that the presence of HLA class II DRB1*01:01 and HLA class I B*35:01 is of even stronger association with reduced disease duration in mild and moderate COVID-19 than age or any other potential risk factor assessed. Prospective studies in larger patient populations also including novel SARS-CoV-2 variants will be required to assess the impact of HLA genetics on the capacity of mounting protective vaccination responses in the future.


Assuntos
Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , COVID-19/etiologia , Antígenos HLA/genética , Receptores CCR5/genética , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mutação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Hepatol Commun ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558834

RESUMO

Mouse models are frequently used to study chronic liver diseases (CLDs). To assess their translational relevance, we quantified the similarity of commonly used mouse models to human CLDs based on transcriptome data. Gene-expression data from 372 patients were compared with data from acute and chronic mouse models consisting of 227 mice, and additionally to nine published gene sets of chronic mouse models. Genes consistently altered in humans and mice were mapped to liver cell types based on single-cell RNA-sequencing data and validated by immunostaining. Considering the top differentially expressed genes, the similarity between humans and mice varied among the mouse models and depended on the period of damage induction. The highest recall (0.4) and precision (0.33) were observed for the model with 12-months damage induction by CCl4 and by a Western diet, respectively. Genes consistently up-regulated between the chronic CCl4 model and human CLDs were enriched in inflammatory and developmental processes, and mostly mapped to cholangiocytes, macrophages, and endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Down-regulated genes were enriched in metabolic processes and mapped to hepatocytes. Immunostaining confirmed the regulation of selected genes and their cell type specificity. Genes that were up-regulated in both acute and chronic models showed higher recall and precision with respect to human CLDs than exclusively acute or chronic genes. Conclusion: Similarly regulated genes in human and mouse CLDs were identified. Despite major interspecies differences, mouse models detected 40% of the genes significantly altered in human CLD. The translational relevance of individual genes can be assessed at https://saezlab.shinyapps.io/liverdiseaseatlas/.

12.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592166

RESUMO

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/genética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
13.
Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines ; 7(1): 23, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of dengue virus infections imported into Germany, knowledge about the different phases of the disease and possible complications is essential for the treatment of patients. The virus is endemic in the tropics and subtropics and up to 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present a German traveller with dengue shock syndrome after returning from Thailand. After hospitalization the patient developed acute upper abdominal pain. The ultrasound findings were consistent with an acute acalculous cholecystitis, but were interpreted as dengue associated gallbladder wall thickening (GBWT). Therefore a surgical intervention was not indicated and would have been associated with an higher risk of complications in this situation. Under supportive care spontaneous regression of GBWT could be documented by sonography four days later as well as complete resolution of clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: GBWT in dengue virus infection mimicking acute cholecystitis is a differential diagnosis one should take into consideration in travellers returning from endemic areas and should be managed conservatively because of an high risk of bleeding and increased mortality under surgical therapy.

14.
Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd ; 81(8): 922-939, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393256

RESUMO

Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disease specific to pregnancy. The cardinal symptom of pruritus and a concomitant elevated level of bile acids in the serum and/or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are suggestive for the diagnosis. Overall, the maternal prognosis is good. The fetal outcome depends on the bile acid level. ICP is associated with increased risks for adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm delivery, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and stillbirth. Acute fetal asphyxia and not chronic uteroplacental dysfunction leads to stillbirth. Therefore, predictive fetal monitoring is not possible. While medication with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) improves pruritus, it has not been shown to affect fetal outcome. The indication for induction of labour depends on bile acid levels and gestational age. There is a high risk of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies.

15.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 98, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a wide clinical spectrum of skin manifestations, including urticarial, vesicular, vasculitic and chilblain-like lesions. Recently, delayed skin reactions have been reported in 1% individuals following mRNA vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The exact pathophysiology and the risk factors still remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 6821 employees and patients were vaccinated at our institutions between February and June 2021. Every patient received two doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in our hospitals, and reported back in case of any side effects which were collected in our hospital managed database. RESULTS: Eleven of 6821 vaccinated patients (0.16%) developed delayed skin reactions after either the first or second dose of the mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Eight of 11 patients (73%) developed a rash after the first dose, while in 3/11 (27%), the rash occurred after the second dose. More females (9/11) were affected. Four of 11 patients required antihistamines, with two needing additional topical steroids. All the cutaneous manifestations resolved within 14 days. None of the skin reactions after the first dose of the vaccine prevented the administration of the second dose. There were no long-term cutaneous sequelae in any of the affected individuals. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that skin reactions after the use of mRNA-1273 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 are possible, but rare. Further studies need to be done to understand the pathophysiology of these lesions.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dermatite/etiologia , Eritema/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Eritema/tratamento farmacológico , Eritema/epidemiologia , Feminino , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Vacinação/efeitos adversos
16.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 87, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection is a major threat to patients and health care providers around the world. One solution is the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive query of the latest publications on the prevention of viral infections including the recent vaccination program and its side effects. RESULTS: The situation is evolving rapidly and there is no reasonable alternative to population-scale vaccination programs as currently enrolled. CONCLUSION: Therefore, regulatory authorities should consider supplementing their conventional mandate of post-approval pharmacovigilance, which is based on the collection, assessment, and regulatory response to emerging safety findings.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Farmacovigilância , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/normas , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Revelação , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has evolved as a standard treatment option in patients with intermediate stage, unresectable HCC [Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B] as well as in patients with liver metastases, when surgery or systemic therapy is considered not appropriate. Concentration and sizes of extracellular vesicles (EVs) recently emerged as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with liver cancer, but no data on its prognostic relevance in the context of TACE exists. Here, we evaluate pre-interventional EVs as a potential biomarker in patients undergoing TACE for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. METHODS: Vesicle size distribution and concentration were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) in patient sera before and after TACE in 38 patients. RESULTS: Extracellular vesicle size distribution measured before TACE is of prognostic significance with respect to overall survival in patients after TACE. Overall survival is significantly reduced when initial vesicle size (X50) is in the upper quartile (>145.65nm). Median overall survival in patients in the upper quartile was only 314 days, compared to 799 days in patients with vesicle size in the first to third quartile (<145.65nm; p = 0.007). Vesicle size was also shown to be a significant prognostic marker for overall survival in Cox regression analysis [HR 1.089, 95% CI: 1.021-1.162, p = 0.010]. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between initial EVs concentration/BMI (rS = 0.358, p = 0.029), X50/IL-8-concentration (rS = 0.409, p = 0.011) and X50/CRP-concentration (rS = 0.404, p = 0.016). In contrast, with regard to immediate tumor response after TACE, EVs concentration and size did not differ. SUMMARY: Sizes (but not concentrations) of EVs represent a novel prognostic marker in patients receiving TACE for primary and secondary hepatic malignancies since patients with enlarged EVs display a significantly impaired prognosis after TACE.

18.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100164, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278371

RESUMO

Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been introduced as a promising new therapeutic approach against SARS-CoV-2. At present, there is little experience regarding their clinical effects in patient populations underrepresented in clinical trials, e.g. immunocompromised patients. Additionally, it is not well known to what extent SARS-CoV-2 treatment with monoclonal antibodies could trigger the selection of immune escape viral variants. Methods: After identifying immunocompromised patients with viral rebound under treatment with bamlanivimab, we characterized the SARS-CoV-2-isolates by whole genome sequencing. Viral load measurements and sequence analysis were performed consecutively before and after bamlanivimab administration. Findings: After initial decrease of viral load, viral clearance was not achieved in five of six immunocompromised patients treated with bamlanivimab. Instead, viral replication increased again over the course of the following one to two weeks. In these five patients, the E484K substitution - known to confer immune escape - was detected at the time of viral rebound but not before bamlanivimab treatment. Interpretation: Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with bamlanivimab in immunocompromised patients results in the rapid development of immune escape variants in a significant proportion of cases. Given that the E484K mutation can hamper natural immunity, the effectiveness of vaccination as well as antibody-based therapies, these findings may have important implications not only for individual treatment decisions but may also pose a risk to general prevention and treatment strategies. Funding: All authors are employed and all expenses covered by governmental, federal state, or other publicly funded institutions.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...