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J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 207-215, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903457


Inborn errors in interleukin 2 receptor, gamma (IL2RG) perturb signaling of the common gamma chain family cytokines and cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Here, we report two brothers suffering from chronic cryptosporidiosis, severe diarrhea, and cholangitis. Pan T, B, and NK cell numbers were normal, but immunophenotyping revealed defective B cell differentiation. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a base pair deletion in the first exon of IL2RG predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop. However, flow cytometry revealed normal surface expression of the IL-2Rγ chain. While IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 signaling showed only mild defects of STAT5 phosphorylation in response to the respective cytokines, IL-4- and IL-21-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and STAT6 was markedly reduced. Examination of RNA isoforms detected alternative splicing downstream of IL2RG exon 1 in both patients resulting in resolution of the predicted frameshift and 16 mutated amino acids. In silico modeling suggested that the IL-2Rγ mutation reduces the stabilization of IL-4 and IL-21 cytokine binding by affecting the N-terminal domain of the IL-2Rγ. Thus, our study shows that IL2RG deficiency can be associated with differential signaling defects. Confounding effects of alternative splicing may partially rescue genetic defects and should be considered in patients with inborn errors of immunity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643


BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435


Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.

Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
Blood Transfus ; 16(4): 397-404, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28488966


BACKGROUND: Acute and delayed haemolysis, alloimmunisation and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) are potential complications after ABO incompatible haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aims of this study were to investigate acute and delayed red blood cell (RBC) antibody-associated complications, including haemolysis, PRCA and alloimmunisation in major and bidirectional ABO incompatible HSCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined the transplant courses of 36 recipients of bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells from ABO incompatible donors and evaluated the current practice of performing plasmapheresis in patients with higher isoagglutinin titres. We investigated the role of ABO incompatibility in haematopoietic recovery, transfusion requirements, alloimmunisation and PRCA. RESULTS: Laboratory signs of acute haemolysis were noted in five (14%) patients, one (3%) of whom had clinically overt haemolysis. Patients with haemolysis had IgM titres ≥1:8 and received >16 mL of RBC in the HSCT. In patients with higher titres, plasmapheresis performed prior to the transplant prevented acute haemolysis. Delayed haemolysis was not recorded in the follow up. Haematopoietic recovery and transfusion requirements did not differ notably between patients with and without haemolysis. De novo RBC antibodies were detected in two (5.5%) patients after HSCT, and PRCA was noted in one (3%) patient. DISCUSSION: Carried out with adequate graft processing, plasmapheresis and blood component support, haemolysis is not a common complication after HSCT. Our results confirm that the occurrence of haemolysis depends on larger RBC volumes and higher isoagglutinin titres. Despite the reduction of patients' isoagglutinin titres by plasmapheresis, we still noted a critical combination for the development of laboratory signs of haemolysis (IgM titre ≥1:8 and RBC volume >16 mL). De novo immunisation to RBC antigens and PRCA are rare events following ABO incompatible HSCT.

Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Isoanticorpos , Aplasia Pura de Série Vermelha , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemólise , Humanos , Isoanticorpos/sangue , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplasia Pura de Série Vermelha/sangue , Aplasia Pura de Série Vermelha/etiologia , Aplasia Pura de Série Vermelha/imunologia
Acta Med Croatica ; 63(3): 255-8, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19827355


Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with primary immunodeficiencies. Best results are achieved with stem cells from a HLA-identical donor, but it is only possible in a small number of patients. Until recently, HLA-mismatched/haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was reserved exclusively for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). However, as there are many haploidentical donors, it has become the treatment of choice for many other severe primary immunodeficiencies. Apart from appropriate choice of the donor, treatment of infections and pre-transplantation patient conditioning have major impact on transplantation outcome in patients with primary immunodeficiencies.

Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Criança , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Transplante Homólogo
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 19(2): 148-56, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18257903


Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) glycoprotein G mimics fractalkine, a CX(3)C chemokine, which mediates chemotaxis of leukocytes expressing its receptor, CX(3)CR1. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between RSV infection and expression of perforin and IFN-gamma in CX(3)CR1-expressing peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells. Samples were collected from infants with RSV bronchiolitis, both in the acute and convalescence phase (n = 12), and from their age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 15). Perforin expression and IFN-gamma secretion in CX(3)CR1(+) CD8(+) T cells were assessed by four-color flow cytometry. The NF-kappaB p50 and p65 subunit levels were also determined as markers of RSV-induced inflammation. Study results showed perforin and CX(3)CR1 expression to be significantly lower in the convalescent phase of infected infants than in healthy controls. There was no significant difference in IFN-gamma secretion and NF-kappaB binding activity between two time-points in RSV-infected infants, or when compared with healthy controls. Infants with prolonged wheezing had lower acute-phase CX(3)CR1 levels in peripheral blood. These data indicate existence of an event persisting after acute RSV infection that is able to modulate effector functions of cytotoxic T cells, and also link disease severity with CX(3)CR1 expression.

Bronquiolite Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bronquiolite Viral/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Convalescença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Masculino , Perforina/biossíntese , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/sangue