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1.
J Food Compost Anal ; 1052022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795468

RESUMO

Pressure-mediated reflection spectroscopy (RS) measures skin carotenoid content (SCC). Continued validation of this method is pertinent to validate its use as an objective measure of fruit and vegetable intake. This study aimed to assess relationships between SCC scores and self-reported dietary carotenoid intake from 3-day food records in community dwelling older adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data among cognitively normal older adults (n=95) participating in the Nutrition Interventions for Cognitive Enhancement (NICE) study. Food-derived vitamin A (R=0.24, p<0.05) and food plus supplemental vitamin A (R=0.29, p<0.01) were correlated with SCC. All food-derived carotenoids (R: 0.20-0.39, p<0.05) except beta-cryptoxanthin and lycopene were correlated with SCC. Lutein + zeaxanthin from food more strongly correlated with SCC (R=0.38, p<0.001) than combined food plus supplemental intake (R=0.31, p=0.002). Correlations for total fruit and SCC (R=0.23, p=0.02), total vegetable and SCC (R= 0.31, p=0.002), and combined total fruit and vegetable and SCC (R=0.35, p<0.001) were significant; no sub-categories of fruit or vegetables except dark green vegetables (Rho=0.4, p<0.001) had significant correlations with SCC. The current study demonstrates RS-derived SCC scores correlate with 3-day self-reported intakes of F/V and certain carotenoids in community dwelling older adults.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 144: 345-352, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735838

RESUMO

Many reports have documented the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. Substance use is commonly comorbid with PTSD and is a risk factor for trauma exposure. The aim of this study was to prospectively examine how recent substance use, abuse, or dependence influenced the development of PTSD in the context of a prior trauma history, including child abuse, and the severity of initial trauma reactions. Participants (N = 81) were recruited and assessed at the emergency department of a large urban hospital in Miami and serum levels of common drugs of abuse were measured. Although substance use appeared to be a risk factor for trauma exposure, neither self-reported nor blood toxicology influenced the development of PTSD. Positive toxicology screens were more likely to be associated with a diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence, χ2 (1) = 4.11, p = .04. Participants with a history of physical abuse were more likely to have a positive toxicology screen, χ2 (1) = 4.03, p = .05. The majority of our trauma-exposed subjects (66%) were found to be positive for one or more illicit substances at presentation at the ED. The current findings provide support for the "high risk" hypothesis in which substance use is associated with increased trauma exposure.

3.
Chronic Stress (Thousand Oaks) ; 5: 24705470211032208, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595364

RESUMO

Women are at higher risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared to men, yet little is known about the biological contributors to this sex difference. One possible mechanism is differential immunological and neuroendocrine responses to traumatic stress exposure. In the current prospective study, we aimed to identify whether sex is indirectly associated with the probability of developing nonremitting PTSD through pro-inflammatory markers and whether steroid hormone concentrations influence this effect. Female (n = 179) and male (n = 197) trauma survivors were recruited from an emergency department and completed clinical assessment within 24 h and blood samples within ∼three hours of trauma exposure. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1 ß , TNF, IFNγ), and steroid hormone (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, cortisol) concentrations were quantified in plasma. Compared to men, women had a higher probability of developing nonremitting PTSD after trauma (p = 0.04), had lower pro-inflammatory cytokines and testosterone (p's<0.001), and had higher cortisol and progesterone (p's<0.001) concentrations. Estradiol concentrations were not different between the sexes (p = 0.24). Pro-inflammatory cytokines were a significant mediator in the relationship between sex and probability of developing nonremitting PTSD (p < 0.05), such that men had higher concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines which were associated with lower risk of nonremitting PTSD development. This effect was significantly moderated by estradiol (p < 0.05), as higher estradiol levels in men were associated with higher pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations and lower risk for developing nonremitting PTSD. The current results suggest that sex differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to trauma exposure partially mediate the probability of developing nonremitting PTSD, and that the protective ability to mount an pro-inflammatory cytokine response in men may depend on higher estradiol levels in the aftermath of trauma exposure.

4.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 678503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248484

RESUMO

Growing research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a risk factor for poor cardiovascular health, and yet our understanding of who might be at greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after trauma is limited. In this study, we conducted the first examination of the individual and synergistic contributions of PTSD symptoms and blood pressure genetics to continuous blood pressure levels. We harnessed the power of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-PTSD Physical Health Working Group and investigated these associations across 11 studies of 72,224 trauma-exposed individuals of European (n = 70,870) and African (n = 1,354) ancestry. Genetic contributions to blood pressure were modeled via polygenic scores (PGS) for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) that were derived from a prior trans-ethnic blood pressure genome-wide association study (GWAS). Results of trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed significant main effects of the PGS on blood pressure levels [SBP: ß = 2.83, standard error (SE) = 0.06, p < 1E-20; DBP: ß = 1.32, SE = 0.04, p < 1E-20]. Significant main effects of PTSD symptoms were also detected for SBP and DBP in trans-ethnic meta-analyses, though there was significant heterogeneity in these results. When including data from the largest contributing study - United Kingdom Biobank - PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with SBP levels (ß = -1.46, SE = 0.44, p = 9.8E-4) and positively associated with DBP levels (ß = 0.70, SE = 0.26, p = 8.1E-3). However, when excluding the United Kingdom Biobank cohort in trans-ethnic meta-analyses, there was a nominally significant positive association between PTSD symptoms and SBP levels (ß = 2.81, SE = 1.13, p = 0.01); no significant association was observed for DBP (ß = 0.43, SE = 0.78, p = 0.58). Blood pressure PGS did not significantly moderate the associations between PTSD symptoms and blood pressure levels in meta-analyses. Additional research is needed to better understand the extent to which PTSD is associated with high blood pressure and how genetic as well as contextual factors may play a role in influencing cardiovascular risk.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food addiction (FA) is a dysregulated eating pattern characterized by difficulties in controlling the intake of certain foods. There is an overlap in physical and mental health correlates of FA and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in the rates of positive FA status in individuals with threshold/subthreshold PTSD, and to examine sex differences in the physical and mental health correlates of FA. METHODS: Post-9/11 veterans/service members seeking PTSD treatment were recruited. Participants were diagnosed with PTSD via the administration of a clinical interview. FA status was determined using Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale-2, binary sex and body mass index were assessed with demographics questions. RESULTS: Nearly half (43%) of the sample were women. There were no sex differences in the rates of FA, with an overall FA prevalence of 18%. There were no sex differences in FA symptom count in the whole sample (M = 1.63) or those with FA status (M = 6.21). Individuals with FA reported higher frequency of disordered eating, higher severity of PTSD, and depression symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: FA should be assessed in tandem with PTSD symptoms, as its prevalence in that sample is higher than in the general population, and it appears to affect both sexes at similar rates.


Assuntos
Dependência de Alimentos , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/complicações , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
6.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(10): 1811-1820, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188182

RESUMO

Biomarkers that predict symptom trajectories after trauma can facilitate early detection or intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may also advance our understanding of its biology. Here, we aimed to identify trajectory-based biomarkers using blood transcriptomes collected in the immediate aftermath of trauma exposure. Participants were recruited from an Emergency Department in the immediate aftermath of trauma exposure and assessed for PTSD symptoms at baseline, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Three empirical symptom trajectories (chronic-PTSD, remitting, and resilient) were identified in 377 individuals based on longitudinal symptoms across four data points (1, 3, 6, and 12 months), using latent growth mixture modeling. Blood transcriptomes were examined for association with longitudinal symptom trajectories, followed by expression quantitative trait locus analysis. GRIN3B and AMOTL1 blood mRNA levels were associated with chronic vs. resilient post-trauma symptom trajectories at a transcriptome-wide significant level (N = 153, FDR-corrected p value = 0.0063 and 0.0253, respectively). We identified four genetic variants that regulate mRNA blood expression levels of GRIN3B. Among these, GRIN3B rs10401454 was associated with PTSD in an independent dataset (N = 3521, p = 0.04). Examination of the BrainCloud and GTEx databases revealed that rs10401454 was associated with brain mRNA expression levels of GRIN3B. While further replication and validation studies are needed, our data suggest that GRIN3B, a glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit-3B, may be involved in the manifestation of PTSD. In addition, the blood mRNA level of GRIN3B may be a promising early biomarker for the PTSD manifestation and development.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transcriptoma
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(7): 3077-3092, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963278

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating syndrome with substantial morbidity and mortality that occurs in the aftermath of trauma. Symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) are also a frequent consequence of trauma exposure. Identifying novel risk markers in the immediate aftermath of trauma is a critical step for the identification of novel biological targets to understand mechanisms of pathophysiology and prevention, as well as the determination of patients most at risk who may benefit from immediate intervention. Our study utilizes a novel approach to computationally integrate blood-based transcriptomics, genomics, and interactomics to understand the development of risk vs. resilience in the months following trauma exposure. In a two-site longitudinal, observational prospective study, we assessed over 10,000 individuals and enrolled >700 subjects in the immediate aftermath of trauma (average 5.3 h post-trauma (range 0.5-12 h)) in the Grady Memorial Hospital (Atlanta) and Jackson Memorial Hospital (Miami) emergency departments. RNA expression data and 6-month follow-up data were available for 366 individuals, while genotype, transcriptome, and phenotype data were available for 297 patients. To maximize our power and understanding of genes and pathways that predict risk vs. resilience, we utilized a set-cover approach to capture fluctuations of gene expression of PTSD or depression-converting patients and non-converting trauma-exposed controls to find representative sets of disease-relevant dysregulated genes. We annotated such genes with their corresponding expression quantitative trait loci and applied a variant of a current flow algorithm to identify genes that potentially were causal for the observed dysregulation of disease genes involved in the development of depression and PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. We obtained a final list of 11 driver causal genes related to MDD symptoms, 13 genes for PTSD symptoms, and 22 genes in PTSD and/or MDD. We observed that these individual or combined disorders shared ESR1, RUNX1, PPARA, and WWOX as driver causal genes, while other genes appeared to be causal driver in the PTSD only or MDD only cases. A number of these identified causal pathways have been previously implicated in the biology or genetics of PTSD and MDD, as well as in preclinical models of amygdala function and fear regulation. Our work provides a promising set of initial pathways that may underlie causal mechanisms in the development of PTSD or MDD in the aftermath of trauma.

8.
Am Psychol ; 76(2): 314-325, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734797

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) disproportionately impact African Americans because of profound subjection to historical-systemic oppression in addition to personal and intergenerational trauma exposure. This article utilizes a biopsychosocial-cultural framework to understand the correlates of ACE exposure in African Americans and attends to the cultural factors that contribute to resilience. We review the evidence base for culturally informed, preventive-interventions, as well as strategies for bolstering this work by capitalizing on cultural strengths that are salient in the African American community. We also highlight pertinent policy initiatives guided by recent strategic outlines by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. These policies provide the backdrop for the recommendations offered to facilitate the healthy biopsychosocial development of individuals and families. These recommendations can contribute to the expansion and creation of new policies that aim to strengthen individual coping in the face of adversity, enhance family bonds and resilience, and promote community capacity to reduce ACE exposure in African Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Adaptação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Personal Disord ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444034

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has a specified precipitant (i.e., trauma), and thus, is particularly well-suited to examine risk and maintenance factors for the development of the disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorder (AMPD) is based, in part, on a dimensional trait model; previous research suggests that personality traits are related to PTSD symptoms. To date, there is little research examining this model with regard to PTSD symptoms, and such research could elucidate new strategies for identification and prevention. The present study investigates associations between AMPD traits and PTSD symptoms in a cross-sectional high-risk sample (N = 490; 100% female; 97.8% African American) and in a prospective, longitudinal sample of Level 1 trauma center patients (N = 185; 46.8% female; 72.5% African American). The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form domains were significantly associated with PTSD total symptom severity and symptom clusters across both self-report and clinical interview measures. Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism emerged as significant predictors of concurrent PTSD. When prospectively predicting PTSD symptoms in the longitudinal cohort, Negative Affectivity and Psychoticism were significant predictors of PTSD symptom severity. These findings indicate how the DSM-5 AMPD pathological traits are associated with risk for stress-related disorders cross-sectionally and prospectively. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

10.
J Pers Assess ; 103(2): 204-213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995393

RESUMO

In the current study, we used a sample of predominantly African-American women with high rates of trauma exposure (N = 434) to examine psychometric properties of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF). We compared model fit between a model with five correlated latent factors and a higher-order model in which the five latent factors were used to estimate a single "general pathology" factor. Additionally, we computed estimates of internal consistency and domain interrelations and examined indices of convergent/discriminant validity of the PID-5-BF domains by examining their relations to relevant criterion variables. The expected five-factor structure demonstrated good fit indices in a confirmatory factor analysis, and the more parsimonious, higher-order model was retained. Within this higher-order model, the first-order factors accounted for more variance in the criterion variables than the general pathology factor in most instances. The PID-5-BF domains were highly interrelated (rs = .38 to .66), and convergent/discriminant validity of the domains varied: Negative Affectivity and Detachment generally showed the hypothesized pattern of relations with external criteria, while Antagonism and Disinhibition displayed less consistent and discriminant relations. Results are discussed in terms of the costs and benefits of using brief pathological trait measures in samples characterized by high levels of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Problema , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico
11.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(1): 40-47, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many reports have documented the relationship between previous traumatic experiences, including childhood trauma, and the development of later life psychopathology, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identification of individuals at greatest risk for the development of PTSD could lead to preventative interventions. The present study examined the developmental course of PTSD after trauma exposure, using histories of previous traumatic experiences and the severity of the reaction to the trauma as predictors. METHODS: Participants (N = 713) were recruited from Emergency Departments in Miami and Atlanta immediately following a traumatic experience. Histories of previous traumatic experiences and the immediate reaction to the new trauma were examined at baseline. Follow-up assessments of PTSD severity were conducted at 1, 3, and 6 months. RESULTS: Histories of child abuse and pre-existing trauma symptoms predicted the immediate response to stress (R2 = .21, p < .001) and the initial trauma reaction (p < .005).) A mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance found that immediate stress response and a history of prior trauma (p < .001) significantly predicted the course of PTSD symptoms. Area under the curve (AUC) analyses suggested that the presence of PTSD at each successive assessment was predicted most substantially by the severity of PTSD at the immediately prior follow-up assessment (AUC > 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that previous traumatic experiences lead to a greater immediate reaction to trauma and combine to predict the development of PTSD, the maintenance of which is not moderated by these earlier experiences. The identification of people likely to develop PTSD may be aided by the assessment of prior experiences and immediate reactions.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
12.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(12): 1317-1327, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718854

RESUMO

Evidence-based psychotherapies such as prolonged exposure therapy (PE) are recommended by clinical practice guidelines as first-line treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are safe and acceptable for use with older adults. One third to one half of all patients do not achieve a clinically meaningful response to standard outpatient PE and recent research suggests that older adults in particular may experience barriers to full engagement and response. Standard treatment may be challenging in older adults due to cognitive, medical, and psychosocial barriers. This article reviews the current state of the evidence on adjunctive and second-tier interventions that show promise for increasing response and/or engagement in evidence-based psychotherapy for PTSD, including medications such as d-cycloserine and 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and augmentations to the structure and content of psychotherapy, such as intensive outpatient formats. A case illustration of successful application of multiple augmentations to PE with an initially nonresponsive older adult patient is presented. A creative interdisciplinary approach based in available research may be beneficial for older adults who do not respond to first-line treatments.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana
13.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1084-1088, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632194

RESUMO

Annually, approximately 30 million patients are discharged from the emergency department (ED) after a traumatic event1. These patients are at substantial psychiatric risk, with approximately 10-20% developing one or more disorders, including anxiety, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)2-4. At present, no accurate method exists to predict the development of PTSD symptoms upon ED admission after trauma5. Accurate risk identification at the point of treatment by ED services is necessary to inform the targeted deployment of existing treatment6-9 to mitigate subsequent psychopathology in high-risk populations10,11. This work reports the development and validation of an algorithm for prediction of post-traumatic stress course over 12 months using two independently collected prospective cohorts of trauma survivors from two level 1 emergency trauma centers, which uses routinely collectible data from electronic medical records, along with brief clinical assessments of the patient's immediate stress reaction. Results demonstrate externally validated accuracy to discriminate PTSD risk with high precision. While the predictive algorithm yields useful reproducible results on two independent prospective cohorts of ED patients, future research should extend the generalizability to the broad, clinically heterogeneous ED population under conditions of routine medical care.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Ansiedade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Serv ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658509

RESUMO

High rates of drop-out from treatment of PTSD have challenged implementation. Care models that integrate PTSD focused psychotherapy and complementary interventions may provide benefit in retention and outcome. The first 80 veterans with chronic PTSD enrolled in a 2-week intensive outpatient program combining Prolonged Exposure (PE) and complementary interventions completed symptom and biological measures at baseline and posttreatment. We examined trajectories of symptom change, mediating and moderating effects of a range of patient characteristics. Of the 80 veterans, 77 completed (96.3%) treatment and pre- and posttreatment measures. Self-reported PTSD (p < .001), depression (p < .001) and neurological symptoms (p < .001) showed large reductions with treatment. For PTSD, 77% (n = 59) showed clinically significant reductions. Satisfaction with social function (p < .001) significantly increased. Black veterans and those with a primary military sexual trauma (MST) reported higher baseline severity than white or primary combat trauma veterans respectively but did not differ in their trajectories of treatment change. Greater cortisol response to the trauma potentiated startle paradigm at baseline predicted smaller reductions in PTSD over treatment while greater reductions in this response from baseline to post were associated with better outcomes. Intensive outpatient prolonged exposure combined with complementary interventions shows excellent retention and large, clinically significant reduction in PTSD and related symptoms in two weeks. This model of care is robust to complex presentations of patients with varying demographics and symptom presentations at baseline. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

15.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(5): 429-437, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to a specific event, providing the opportunity to intervene in the immediate aftermath of trauma to prevent the development of this disorder. A previous trial demonstrated that trauma survivors who received three sessions of modified prolonged exposure therapy demonstrated decreased PTSD and depression prospectively compared to assessment only. The present study investigated the optimal dosing of this early intervention to test one versus three sessions of exposure therapy in the immediate aftermath of trauma. METHODS: Participants (n = 95) recruited from a Level 1 Trauma Center were randomly assigned in a 1.5:1.5:1 ratio in a parallel-group design to the three conditions: one-session exposure therapy, three-session exposure therapy, and assessment only. Follow-up assessments were conducted by study assessors blind to study condition. RESULTS: Mixed-effects model results found no significant differences in PTSD or depression symptoms between the control condition and those who received one or three exposure therapy sessions across 1-12-month follow-up assessment. Results indicate that the intervention did not interfere with natural recovery. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses on the screening measure used for study inclusion (Predicting PTSD Questionnaire; PPQ) in the larger sample from which the treatment sample was drawn (n = 481) found that the PPQ was a poor predictor of likely PTSD at all follow-up time points (Area under the curve's = 0.55-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: This likely impacted study results as many participants demonstrated natural recovery. Recommendations for future early intervention research are reviewed, including strategies to identify more accurately those at risk for PTSD and oversampling more severe trauma types.


Assuntos
Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobreviventes , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Advocates of massed prolonged exposure (PE) argue an intensive approach may address between-session distraction, avoidance, and demotivation that can result in dropout or interference with treatment engagement. Despite growing empirical support for the efficacy and effectiveness of massed PE, little evidence suggests massed PE matches patient preferences. Further, program evaluation efforts have not assessed unforeseen or underestimated benefits and drawbacks of massed PE. The current study is the first known study to assess patient reactions to massed PE. METHOD: Participants were 25 military veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder who were accepted into a 2-week massed PE program. After the final session, participants completed a written survey using open-ended questions regarding their perceived benefits and drawbacks of massing the full PE protocol into 2 weeks. After demonstrating interrater reliability, coders used a thematic analysis approach to identify themes and subthemes in the qualitative data. RESULTS: Overall, participant reactions were much more positive (51.27%) than negative (17.77%). Participants identified benefits that are largely consistent with the justification for massed PE: (a) The structure limits distractions and avoidance, and (b) quick gains enhance motivation and engagement. With respect to drawbacks, participants identified that massed PE causes short-term discomfort and is demanding in terms of effort and time, which is also consistent with clinical theory of PE and justification for massed delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Participant reactions correspond to the rationale for massed PE; that is, participants identified that despite short-term discomfort and demands, they tend to like and benefit from the intensity of massed PE. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 121: 222-228, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865212

RESUMO

While emotion dysregulation is associated with many psychological disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it remains uncertain whether pre-existing emotion dysregulation increases individual risk for prospectively developing PTSD in the aftermath of trauma exposure. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether emotion dysregulation could prospectively predict the development of chronic PTSD symptoms following a traumatic event above and beyond other known associated factors, including depressive symptoms, baseline PTSD symptoms, total traumas experienced, and exposure to interpersonal trauma. Participants (N = 135) were recruited from the emergency department (ED) at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta and follow-up assessments were conducted at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-months following trauma exposure. Latent Growth Mixture Modeling was used to identify PTSD symptom trajectories based on symptoms assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; three trajectories emerged: "chronic", "recovery", and "resilient". For the present study, probability of chronic PTSD symptoms was used as the outcome variable of interest. Linear regression modeling showed that emotion dysregulation was significantly associated with probability of developing chronic PTSD symptoms (p = 0.001) and accounted for an additional 7% of unique predictive variance when controlling for trauma exposure, baseline PTSD, and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation can be used as both a predictor of chronic PTSD and as a treatment target. Thus, identifying individuals with high levels of emotion dysregulation at the time of trauma and implementing treatments designed to improve emotion regulation could aid in decreasing the development of chronic PTSD among these at-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Trauma Psicológico/complicações , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/classificação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Resiliência Psicológica , Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia
18.
Immunohematology ; 36(4): 146-151, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544620

RESUMO

CONCLUSIONS: The D antigen is highly immunogenic and may cause alloimmunization to occur after blood transfusion or pregnancy. Some RHD variant alleles express a D antigen that is missing one or more epitopes, thus putting a presumed D+ patient at risk for alloanti-D and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. It is generally accepted that individuals who have a serologic weak D phenotype due to one of three alleles common in Caucasians, RHD*weak D types 1, 2, or 3, are not at risk for alloimmunization. In this study, blood samples from 46 obstetrics patients from a local health system were identified based on discrepant results between automated gel and manual tube testing (n = 20) or based on presentation with a serologic weak D phenotype (n = 26). RHD genotyping was performed using commercial and laboratory-developed tests. Of the 26 serologic weak D samples, 18 (69.2%) were found to carry alleles RHD*weak D type 1, 2, or 3. The remaining eight samples (30.8%) were found to carry partial D alleles. Of the 20 samples submitted because of D typing discrepancy, 7 (35%) carried alleles RHD*weak D type 1, 2, or 3, while 13 (65%) carried partial RHD alleles. This report summarizes the findings of one hospital system and its approach to integrating RHD genotyping into its assessment of risk of alloimmunization in obstetrics patients. It demonstrates that individuals with partial RHD alleles can present with serologic weak D phenotype, such that, without RHD genotyping, these individuals may not be identified as candidates for Rh immune globulin. The study also demonstrates that use of two methods (automated gel and tube testing) allows for identification of partial D cases that would otherwise be missed. I.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Obstetrícia/métodos , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/genética , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Rh-Hr/imunologia , Imunoglobulina rho(D)/genética , Imunoglobulina rho(D)/imunologia , Alelos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fenótipo , Gravidez
19.
J Anxiety Disord ; 68: 102147, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669786

RESUMO

While exposure-based psychotherapy is recommended as a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) given strong evidence for its effectiveness, some patients fail to receive full benefit. Psychophysiological data may be important complementary indices for investigating variability in treatment response and changes over the course of treatment. The focus of the present investigation was to examine change in psychophysiological indices pre- to post-treatment and to investigate if changes differed for high versus low PTSD treatment responders. Participants included veterans with primary PTSD diagnoses who received a two-week intensive prolonged exposure (PE) treatment. Psychophysiological assessment included trauma-potentiated startle, heart rate, and skin conductance recordings during presentation of three standard virtual reality (VR)-based, trauma-relevant scenes presented through a head mounted display. Results indicate that 48.6% were classified as high treatment responders (≥50% reduction in PCL-5 from baseline). Trauma-potentiated startle was observed in all patients at pre-treatment, F = 13.58, p < .001, in that startle magnitude was increased during VR stimuli relative to baseline regardless of responder status. However, in high treatment responders, there was an interaction of VR with time, F = 14.10, p = .001; VR scenes did not potentiate startle post-treatment. Specifically, high treatment responders were less reactive to trauma stimuli following PE treatment. There was no effect of time in the low responder group. Heart rate reactivity data revealed a significant main effect of treatment, F = 45.7, p = .035, but no significant interaction with responder status. Skin conductance reactivity did not significantly change from pre to post-treatment. These results suggest that trauma-potentiated startle may represent an objective marker of fear- and anxiety-related symptom reduction that is sensitive to both traditional outpatient as well as intensive treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca , Terapia Implosiva , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicofisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Appetite ; 141: 104317, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185252

RESUMO

Food addiction (FA) describes a group of disordered eating behaviors. Childhood trauma has been associated with adult FA and trauma has known effects on the endocrine system, but it is unclear whether FA is associated with insulin resistance. We hypothesized that severity of childhood trauma will be associated with FA and higher insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a sample of obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and that FA will mediate the association between childhood trauma and HOMA-IR. Women with a diagnosis of T2DM (N = 73; MBMI = 35.86, SDBMI = 7.72; Mage = 50.59, SDage = 9.72) were recruited from a diabetes clinic at a county hospital. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 64 participants to assess plasma hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin and glucose (used to calculate HOMA-IR); Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) was performed to measure change in glucose and insulin secretion. 48% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for FA. Women with FA reported significantly higher HOMA-IR (F = 25.692, p < 0.001, df = 1,62), HbA1c (F = 4.358, p = 0.041, df = 1,62), and OGGT glucose (F = 5.539, p = 0.022, df = 1,62) as well as severity of childhood trauma (F = 10.453, p = 0.002, df = 1,71). In a hierarchical linear regression controlling for BMI, income level, and T2DM treatment, the severity of childhood trauma did not contribute to the prediction of HOMA-IR (ß = -0.011, p = 0.942) whereas FA did (ß = 0.422, p = 0.007). In a bootstrapped mediation analysis, the association between childhood trauma and HOMA-IR was mediated by FA severity (b = 0.596, p = 0.020). Understanding the psychological factors that contribute to HOMA-IR in an underserved population of African American women may lead to more effective diabetes management and prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade
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