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2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 201: 147-154, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcoholism is a multifactorial disorder influenced by multiple gene loci, each with small effect. Studies suggest shared genetic influences across DSM-IV alcohol dependence symptoms, but shared effects across DSM-5 alcohol use disorder remains unknown. We aimed to test the assumption of genetic homogeneity across the 11 criteria of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: Data from 2596 alcohol using individuals of European ancestry from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to examine the genomewide SNP-heritability (h2SNP) and SNP-covariance (rGSNP) between 11 DSM-5 AUD symptoms. Phenotypic relationships between symptoms were examined to confirm an underlying liability of AUD and the SNP-heritability of the observed latent trait and the co-heritabilityamong AUD symptoms was assessed using Genomic-Relatedness-Matrix-Restricted-Maximum-Likelihood. Genetic covariance among symptoms was examined using factor analysis. RESULTS: Phenotypic relationships confirmed a unidimensional underlying liability to AUD. Factor and parallel analyses of the observed genetic variance/covariance provided evidence of genetic homogeneity. Additive genetic effects on DSM-5 AUD symptoms varied from 0.10 to 0.37 and largely overlapped (rG-SNP across symptoms ranged from 0.49 - 0.92). The additive genetic effect on the DSM-5 AUD factor was 0.36, 0.14 for DSM-5 AUD diagnosis, and was 0.22 for DSM-5 AUD severity. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants influence DSM-5 AUD symptoms. Despite evidence for a common AUD factor, the evidence of only partially overlapping genetic effects across AUD symptoms further substantiates the need to simultaneously model common and symptom-specific genetic effects in molecular genetic studies in order to best characterize the genetic liability.

3.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(5): 376-387, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interest in candidate gene and candidate gene-by-environment interaction hypotheses regarding major depressive disorder remains strong despite controversy surrounding the validity of previous findings. In response to this controversy, the present investigation empirically identified 18 candidate genes for depression that have been studied 10 or more times and examined evidence for their relevance to depression phenotypes. METHODS: Utilizing data from large population-based and case-control samples (Ns ranging from 62,138 to 443,264 across subsamples), the authors conducted a series of preregistered analyses examining candidate gene polymorphism main effects, polymorphism-by-environment interactions, and gene-level effects across a number of operational definitions of depression (e.g., lifetime diagnosis, current severity, episode recurrence) and environmental moderators (e.g., sexual or physical abuse during childhood, socioeconomic adversity). RESULTS: No clear evidence was found for any candidate gene polymorphism associations with depression phenotypes or any polymorphism-by-environment moderator effects. As a set, depression candidate genes were no more associated with depression phenotypes than noncandidate genes. The authors demonstrate that phenotypic measurement error is unlikely to account for these null findings. CONCLUSIONS: The study results do not support previous depression candidate gene findings, in which large genetic effects are frequently reported in samples orders of magnitude smaller than those examined here. Instead, the results suggest that early hypotheses about depression candidate genes were incorrect and that the large number of associations reported in the depression candidate gene literature are likely to be false positives.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 963-969, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723318

RESUMO

Some of the most widely studied variants in psychiatric genetics include variable number tandem repeat variants (VNTRs) in SLC6A3, DRD4, SLC6A4, and MAOA. While initial findings suggested large effects, their importance with respect to psychiatric phenotypes is the subject of much debate with broadly conflicting results. Despite broad interest, these loci remain absent from the largest available samples, such as the UK Biobank, limiting researchers' ability to test these contentious hypotheses rigorously in large samples. Here, using two independent reference datasets, we report out-of-sample imputation accuracy estimates of >0.96 for all four VNTR variants and one modifying SNP, depending on the reference and target dataset. We describe the imputation procedures of these candidate variants in 486,551 UK Biobank individuals, and have made the imputed variant data available to UK Biobank researchers. This resource, provided to the scientific community, will allow the most rigorous tests to-date of the roles of these variants in behavioral and psychiatric phenotypes.

5.
PLoS Genet ; 14(7): e1007556, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052639

RESUMO

Inbreeding increases the risk of certain Mendelian disorders in humans but may also reduce fitness through its effects on complex traits and diseases. Such inbreeding depression is thought to occur due to increased homozygosity at causal variants that are recessive with respect to fitness. Until recently it has been difficult to amass large enough sample sizes to investigate the effects of inbreeding depression on complex traits using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data in population-based samples. Further, it is difficult to infer causation in analyses that relate degree of inbreeding to complex traits because confounding variables (e.g., education) may influence both the likelihood for parents to outbreed and offspring trait values. The present study used runs of homozygosity in genome-wide SNP data in up to 400,000 individuals in the UK Biobank to estimate the proportion of the autosome that exists in autozygous tracts-stretches of the genome which are identical due to a shared common ancestor. After multiple testing corrections and controlling for possible sociodemographic confounders, we found significant relationships in the predicted direction between estimated autozygosity and three of the 26 traits we investigated: age at first sexual intercourse, fluid intelligence, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Our findings corroborate those of several published studies. These results may imply that these traits have been associated with Darwinian fitness over evolutionary time. However, some of the autozygosity-trait relationships were attenuated after controlling for background sociodemographic characteristics, suggesting that alternative explanations for these associations have not been eliminated. Care needs to be taken in the design and interpretation of ROH studies in order to glean reliable information about the genetic architecture and evolutionary history of complex traits.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 737-745, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700474

RESUMO

Multiple methods have been developed to estimate narrow-sense heritability, h2, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in unrelated individuals. However, a comprehensive evaluation of these methods has not yet been performed, leading to confusion and discrepancy in the literature. We present the most thorough and realistic comparison of these methods to date. We used thousands of real whole-genome sequences to simulate phenotypes under varying genetic architectures and confounding variables, and we used array, imputed, or whole genome sequence SNPs to obtain 'SNP-heritability' estimates. We show that SNP-heritability can be highly sensitive to assumptions about the frequencies, effect sizes, and levels of linkage disequilibrium of underlying causal variants, but that methods that bin SNPs according to minor allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium are less sensitive to these assumptions across a wide range of genetic architectures and possible confounding factors. These findings provide guidance for best practices and proper interpretation of published estimates.

7.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 121(6): 616-630, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29588506

RESUMO

Heritability is a fundamental parameter in genetics. Traditional estimates based on family or twin studies can be biased due to shared environmental or non-additive genetic variance. Alternatively, those based on genotyped or imputed variants typically underestimate narrow-sense heritability contributed by rare or otherwise poorly tagged causal variants. Identical-by-descent (IBD) segments of the genome share all variants between pairs of chromosomes except new mutations that have arisen since the last common ancestor. Therefore, relating phenotypic similarity to degree of IBD sharing among classically unrelated individuals is an appealing approach to estimating the near full additive genetic variance while possibly avoiding biases that can occur when modeling close relatives. We applied an IBD-based approach (GREML-IBD) to estimate heritability in unrelated individuals using phenotypic simulation with thousands of whole-genome sequences across a range of stratification, polygenicity levels, and the minor allele frequencies of causal variants (CVs). In simulations, the IBD-based approach produced unbiased heritability estimates, even when CVs were extremely rare, although precision was low. However, population stratification and non-genetic familial environmental effects shared across generations led to strong biases in IBD-based heritability. We used data on two traits in ~120,000 people from the UK Biobank to demonstrate that, depending on the trait and possible confounding environmental effects, GREML-IBD can be applied to very large genetic datasets to infer the contribution of very rare variants lost using other methods. However, we observed apparent biases in these real data, suggesting that more work may be required to understand and mitigate factors that influence IBD-based heritability estimates.

8.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 14: 471-493, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401047

RESUMO

Evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary theory to help elucidate why humans are vulnerable to disease and disorders. I discuss two different types of evolutionary explanations that have been used to help understand human psychiatric disorders. First, a consistent finding is that psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable, and many, such as schizophrenia, are also highly disabling and appear to decrease Darwinian fitness. Models used in evolutionary genetics to understand why genetic variation exists in fitness-related traits can be used to understand why risk alleles for psychiatric disorders persist in the population. The usual explanation for species-typical adaptations-natural selection-is less useful for understanding individual differences in genetic risk to disorders. Rather, two other types of models, mutation-selection-drift and balancing selection, offer frameworks for understanding why genetic variation in risk to psychiatric (and other) disorders exists, and each makes predictions that are now testable using whole-genome data. Second, species-typical capacities to mount reactions to negative events are likely to have been crafted by natural selection to minimize fitness loss. The pain reaction to tissue damage is almost certainly such an example, but it has been argued that the capacity to experience depressive symptoms such as sadness, anhedonia, crying, and fatigue in the face of adverse life situations may have been crafted by natural selection as well. I review the rationale and strength of evidence for this hypothesis. Evolutionary hypotheses of psychiatric disorders are important not only for offering explanations for why psychiatric disorders exist, but also for generating new, testable hypotheses and understanding how best to design studies and analyze data.

9.
10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2(12): 948-954, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988446

RESUMO

Preference for mates with similar phenotypes; that is, assortative mating, is widely observed in humans1-5 and has evolutionary consequences6-8. Under Fisher's classical theory6, assortative mating is predicted to induce a signature in the genome at trait-associated loci that can be detected and quantified. Here, we develop and apply a method to quantify assortative mating on a specific trait by estimating the correlation (θ) between genetic predictors of the trait from single nucleotide polymorphisms on odd- versus even-numbered chromosomes. We show by theory and simulation that the effect of assortative mating can be quantified in the presence of population stratification. We applied this approach to 32 complex traits and diseases using single nucleotide polymorphism data from ~400,000 unrelated individuals of European ancestry. We found significant evidence of assortative mating for height (θ = 3.2%) and educational attainment (θ = 2.7%), both of which were consistent with theoretical predictions. Overall, our results imply that assortative mating involves multiple traits and affects the genomic architecture of loci that are associated with these traits, and that the consequence of mate choice can be detected from a random sample of genomes.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Casamento , Alelos , Estatura/genética , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
11.
Addict Biol ; 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178570

RESUMO

Alcohol dependence (AD) affects individuals from all racial/ethnic groups, and previous research suggests that there is considerable variation in AD risk between and among various ancestrally defined groups in the United States. Although the reasons for these differences are likely due in part to contributions of complex sociocultural factors, limited research has attempted to examine whether similar genetic variation plays a role across ancestral groups. Using a pooled sample of individuals of African and European ancestry (AA/EA) obtained through data shared within the Database for Genotypes and Phenotypes, we estimated the extent to which additive genetic similarity for AD between AA and EAs using common single nucleotide polymorphisms overlapped across the two populations. AD was represented as a factor score by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual dependence criteria, and genetic data were imputed by using the 1000 Genomes Reference Panel. Analyses revealed a significant single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of 17 percent (SE = 5) in EAs and 24 percent (SE = 15) in AAs. Further, a significant genetic correlation of 0.77 (SE = 0.46) suggests that the allelic architecture influencing the AD factor for EAs and AAs is largely similar across the two populations. Analyses indicated that investigating the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence in different ethnic groups may serve to highlight core etiological factors common to both groups and unique etiological factors specific to each ethnic group.

12.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(10): 702-708, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent analysis of 25 historical candidate gene polymorphisms for schizophrenia in the largest genome-wide association study conducted to date suggested that these commonly studied variants were no more associated with the disorder than would be expected by chance. However, the same study identified other variants within those candidate genes that demonstrated genome-wide significant associations with schizophrenia. As such, it is possible that variants within historic schizophrenia candidate genes are associated with schizophrenia at levels above those expected by chance, even if the most-studied specific polymorphisms are not. METHODS: The present study used association statistics from the largest schizophrenia genome-wide association study conducted to date as input to a gene set analysis to investigate whether variants within schizophrenia candidate genes are enriched for association with schizophrenia. RESULTS: As a group, variants in the most-studied candidate genes were no more associated with schizophrenia than were variants in control sets of noncandidate genes. While a small subset of candidate genes did appear to be significantly associated with schizophrenia, these genes were not particularly noteworthy given the large number of more strongly associated noncandidate genes. CONCLUSIONS: The history of schizophrenia research should serve as a cautionary tale to candidate gene investigators examining other phenotypes: our findings indicate that the most investigated candidate gene hypotheses of schizophrenia are not well supported by genome-wide association studies, and it is likely that this will be the case for other complex traits as well.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 659, 2017 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human oral microbiome is formed early in development. Its composition is influenced by environmental factors including diet, substance use, oral health, and overall health and disease. The influence of human genes on the composition and stability of the oral microbiome is still poorly understood. We studied both environmental and genetic characteristics on the oral microbiome in a large twin sample as well as in a large cohort of unrelated individuals. We identify several significantly heritable features of the oral microbiome. The heritability persists in twins even when their cohabitation changes. The heritability of these traits correlates with the cumulative genetic contributions of over half a million single nucleotide sequence variants measured in a different population of unrelated individuals. Comparison of same-sex and opposite sex cotwins showed no significant differences. We show that two new loci on chromosomes 7 and 12 are associated with the most heritable traits. RESULTS: An analysis of 752 twin pairs from the Colorado Twin Registry, shows that the beta-diversity of monozygotic twins is significantly lower than for dizygotic or unrelated individuals. This is independent of cohabitation status. Intraclass correlation coefficients of nearly all taxa examined were higher for MZ than DZ twin pairs. A comparison of individuals sampled over 2-7 years confirmed previous reports that the oral microbiome remains relatively more stable in individuals over that time than to unrelated people. Twin modeling shows that a number of microbiome phenotypes were more than 50% heritable consistent with the hypothesis that human genes influence microbial populations. To identify loci that could influence microbiome phenotypes, we carried out an unbiased GWAS analysis which identified one locus on chromosome 7 near the gene IMMPL2 that reached genome-wide significance after correcting for multiple testing. Another locus on chromosome 12 near the non-coding RNA gene INHBA-AS1 achieved genome-wide significance when analyzed using KGG4 that sums SNP significance across coding genes. DISCUSSION: Using multiple methods, we have demonstrated that some aspects of the human oral microbiome are heritable and that with a relatively small sample we were able to identify two previously unidentified loci that may be involved.


Assuntos
Microbiota/genética , Boca/microbiologia , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(5): 617-624, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176766

RESUMO

Identical by descent (IBD) segments are used to understand a number of fundamental issues in genetics. IBD segments are typically detected using long stretches of identical alleles between haplotypes in phased, whole-genome SNP data. Phase or SNP call errors in genomic data can degrade accuracy of IBD detection and lead to false-positive/negative calls and to under/overextension of true IBD segments. Furthermore, the number of comparisons increases quadratically with sample size, requiring high computational efficiency. We developed a new IBD segment detection program, FISHR (Find IBD Shared Haplotypes Rapidly), in an attempt to accurately detect IBD segments and to better estimate their endpoints using an algorithm that is fast enough to be deployed on very large whole-genome SNP data sets. We compared the performance of FISHR to three leading IBD segment detection programs: GERMLINE, refined IBD, and HaploScore. Using simulated and real genomic sequence data, we show that FISHR is slightly more accurate than all programs at detecting long (>3 cm) IBD segments but slightly less accurate than refined IBD at detecting short (~1 cm) IBD segments. More centrally, FISHR outperforms all programs in determining the true endpoints of IBD segments, which is crucial for several applications of IBD information. FISHR takes two to three times longer than GERMLINE to run, whereas both GERMLINE and FISHR were orders of magnitude faster than refined IBD and HaploScore. Overall, FISHR provides accurate IBD detection in unrelated individuals and is computationally efficient enough to be utilized on large SNP data sets >60 000 individuals.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Linhagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 58(3): 328-330, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194762

RESUMO

Moore and Thoemmes elaborate on one particular source of difficulty in the study of candidate gene-by-environment interactions (cG × E): how different biologically plausible configurations of gene-environment covariation can bias estimates of cG × E when not explicitly modeled. However, even if cG × E investigators were able to account for the sources of bias Moore and Thoemmes elaborate, it is unlikely that conventional approaches would yield reliable results. Published cG × E findings to date have generally employed inadequate analytic procedures, have relied on samples orders of magnitude too small to detect plausible effects, and have relied on a particular candidate gene approach that has been unfruitful and largely jettisoned in mainstream genetic analyses of complex traits. Analytic procedures for the study of gene-environment interplay must evolve to meet the challenges that the genetic architecture of complex traits presents, and investigators must collaborate on grander scales if we hope to begin to understand how specific genes and environments combine to affect behavior.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Fenótipo
16.
Bioinformatics ; 33(2): 294-296, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659450

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Computer simulations are excellent tools for understanding the evolutionary and genetic consequences of complex processes that cannot be analytically predicted and for creating realistic genetic data. There are many software packages that simulate genetic data, but they are typically not fast or memory efficient enough to simulate realistic, individual-level genome-wide SNP/sequence data. RESULTS: GeneEvolve is a user-friendly and efficient population genetics simulator that handles complex evolutionary and life history scenarios and generates individual-level phenotypes and realistic whole-genome sequence or SNP data. GeneEvolve runs forward-in-time, which allows it to provide a wide range of scenarios for mating systems, selection, population size and structure, migration, recombination and environmental effects. The software is designed to use as input data from real or previously simulated phased haplotypes, allowing it to mimic very closely the properties of real genomic data. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: GeneEvolve is freely available at https://github.com/rtahmasbi/GeneEvolve CONTACT: Rasool.Tahmasbi@Colorado.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genoma , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software , Evolução Biológica , Haplótipos , Recombinação Genética
17.
Behav Genet ; 47(1): 11-24, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27743041

RESUMO

Executive functions (EFs) have been proposed as an endophenotype for psychopathology because EF deficits are associated with most psychiatric disorders. To examine this hypothesis, we derived polygenic risk scores for autism, attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), and schizophrenia, using genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as discovery samples. We then examined the relationships between these polygenic risk scores and three separable EF components measured with a latent variable model. We also examined the relationship between genetic risk for ADHD and MDD and their respective symptom counts and lifetime diagnoses. We found no evidence for larger effect sizes for EFs as endophenotypes for psychiatric disorders. However, larger sample sizes will be important in examining this relationship further.


Assuntos
Cognição , Função Executiva , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/genética , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Genet ; 12(10): e1006343, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27792727

RESUMO

It is well known that inbreeding increases the risk of recessive monogenic diseases, but it is less certain whether it contributes to the etiology of complex diseases such as schizophrenia. One way to estimate the effects of inbreeding is to examine the association between disease diagnosis and genome-wide autozygosity estimated using runs of homozygosity (ROH) in genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Using data for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 21,868), Keller et al. (2012) estimated that the odds of developing schizophrenia increased by approximately 17% for every additional percent of the genome that is autozygous (ß = 16.1, CI(ß) = [6.93, 25.7], Z = 3.44, p = 0.0006). Here we describe replication results from 22 independent schizophrenia case-control datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (n = 39,830). Using the same ROH calling thresholds and procedures as Keller et al. (2012), we were unable to replicate the significant association between ROH burden and schizophrenia in the independent PGC phase II data, although the effect was in the predicted direction, and the combined (original + replication) dataset yielded an attenuated but significant relationship between Froh and schizophrenia (ß = 4.86,CI(ß) = [0.90,8.83],Z = 2.40,p = 0.02). Since Keller et al. (2012), several studies reported inconsistent association of ROH burden with complex traits, particularly in case-control data. These conflicting results might suggest that the effects of autozygosity are confounded by various factors, such as socioeconomic status, education, urbanicity, and religiosity, which may be associated with both real inbreeding and the outcome measures of interest.


Assuntos
Consanguinidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Esquizofrenia/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Genômica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/patologia
19.
J Trauma Stress ; 29(3): 197-204, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27214850

RESUMO

Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with an increased risk for drug dependence and poorer response to substance abuse treatment (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002; Jaycox, Ebener, Damesek, & Becker, 2004). Despite this evidence, the reasons for the observed associations of trauma and the general tendency to be dependent upon drugs of abuse remain unclear. Data (N = 2,596) from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to analyze (a) the degree to which commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; minor allele frequency > 1%) in the human genome explains exposure to interpersonal traumatic experiences, and (b) the extent to which additive genetic effects on trauma are shared with additive genetic effects on drug dependence. Our results suggested moderate additive genetic influences on interpersonal trauma, h(2) SNP-Interpersonal = .47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.10, .85], that are partially shared with additive genetic effects on generalized vulnerability to drug dependence, h(2) SNP-DD = .36, 95% CI [.11, .61]; rG-SNP = .49, 95% CI [.02, .96]. Although the design/technique does not exclude the possibility that substance abuse causally increases risk for traumatic experiences (or vice versa), these findings raise the possibility that commonly occurring SNPs influence both the general tendency towards drug dependence and interpersonal trauma.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência do Gene , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
20.
Evol Hum Behav ; 37(1): 61-66, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858521

RESUMO

Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample (N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.

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