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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a new electrocardiographic (ECG) score reflecting domains of electrical and structural alterations in therapy-naïve cancer patients to assess their risk of cardiotoxicity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 134 therapy-naïve consecutive cancer patients in our two university hospitals concerning four ECG score parameters: Contiguous Q-waves, markers of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, QRS duration and JTc prolongation. Cardiotoxicity was assessed after a short-term follow-up (up to 12 months). RESULTS: Of all the patients (n = 25), 19% reached 0 points, 50% (n = 67) reached 1 point, 25% (n = 33) reached 2 points, 5% (n = 7) reached 3 points and 0.7% reached 4 or 5 points (n = 1 respectively). The incidence of cardiotoxicity (n = 28 [21%]) increased with the ECG score, with 0 points at 0%, 1 point 7.5%, 2 points 55%, 3 points 71% and ≥3 points 50%. In the ROC (Receiver operating curves) analysis, the best cut-off for predicting cardiotoxicity was an ECG score of ≥2 points (sensitivity 82%, specificity 82%, AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92, p < 0.0001) which was then defined as a high-risk score. High-risk patients did not differ concerning their age, LV ejection fraction, classical cardiovascular risk factors or cardiac biomarkers compared to those with a low-risk ECG score. CONCLUSION: ECG scoring prior to the start of anti-cancer therapies may help to identify therapy-naïve cancer patients at a higher risk for the development of cardiotoxicity.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1693, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727531

RESUMO

Proteases are among the largest protein families and critical regulators of biochemical processes like apoptosis and blood coagulation. Knowledge of proteases has been expanded by the development of proteomic approaches, however, technology for multiplexed screening of proteases within native environments is currently lacking behind. Here we introduce a simple method to profile protease activity based on isolation of protease products from native lysates using a 96FASP filter, their analysis in a mass spectrometer and a custom data analysis pipeline. The method is significantly faster, cheaper, technically less demanding, easy to multiplex and produces accurate protease fingerprints. Using the blood cascade proteases as a case study, we obtain protease substrate profiles that can be used to map specificity, cleavage entropy and allosteric effects and to design protease probes. The data further show that protease substrate predictions enable the selection of potential physiological substrates for targeted validation in biochemical assays.


Assuntos
Entropia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Peptídeo Hidrolases/sangue , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Coagulação Sanguínea , Fluorescência , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Tromboplastina/metabolismo
3.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 223-234, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined-modality treatment consisting of chemotherapy and consolidation radiotherapy is standard of care for patients with early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the use of radiotherapy can have long-term sequelae, which is of particular concern, as Hodgkin lymphoma is frequently diagnosed in young adults with a median age of approximately 30 years. In the German Hodgkin Study Group HD17 trial, we investigated whether radiotherapy can be omitted without loss of efficacy in patients who have a complete metabolic response after receiving two cycles of escalated doses of etoposide, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin, and regular doses of bleomycin, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (eBEACOPP) plus two cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy (2 + 2). METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, patients (aged 18-60 years) with newly diagnosed early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma (all histologies) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less were enrolled at 224 hospitals and private practices in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and the Netherlands. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either standard combined-modality treatment, consisting of the 2 + 2 regimen (eBEACOPP consisted of 1250 mg/m2 intravenous cyclophosphamide on day 1, 35 mg/m2 intravenous doxorubicin on day 1, 200 mg/m2 intravenous etoposide on days 1-3, 100 mg/m2 oral procarbazine on days 1-7, 40 mg/m2 oral prednisone on days 1-14, 1·4 mg/m2 intravenous vincristine on day 8 [maximum dose of 2 mg per cycle], and 10 mg/m2 intravenous bleomycin on day 8; ABVD consisted of 25 mg/m2 intravenous doxorubicin, 10 mg/m2 intravenous bleomycin, 6 mg/m2 intravenous vinblastine, and 375 mg/m2 intravenous dacarbazine, all given on days 1 and 15) followed by 30 Gy involved-field radiotherapy (standard combined-modality treatment group) or PET4-guided treatment, consisting of the 2 + 2 regimen followed by 30 Gy of involved-node radiotherapy only in patients with positive PET at the end of four cycles of chemotherapy (PET4; PET4-guided treatment group). Randomisation was done centrally and used the minimisation method and seven stratification factors (centre, age, sex, clinical symptoms, disease localisation, albumin concentration, and bulky disease), and patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation until central review of the PET4 examination had been completed. With the final analysis presented here, the primary objective was to show non-inferiority of the PET4-guided strategy in a per-protocol analysis of the primary endpoint of progression-free survival. We defined non-inferiority as an absolute difference of 8% in the 5-year progression-free survival estimates between the two groups. Safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01356680. FINDINGS: Between Jan 13, 2012, and March 21, 2017, we enrolled and randomly assigned 1100 patients to the standard combined-modality treatment group (n=548) or to the PET4-guided treatment group (n=552); two patients in each group were found ineligible after randomisation. At a median follow-up of 46·2 months (IQR 32·7-61·2), 5-year progression-free survival was 97·3% (95% CI 94·5-98·7) in the standard combined-modality treatment group and 95·1% (92·0-97·0) in the PET4-guided treatment group (hazard ratio 0·523 [95% CI 0·226-1·211]). The between-group difference was 2·2% (95% CI -0·9 to 5·3) and excluded the non-inferiority margin of 8%. The most common grade 3 or 4 acute haematological adverse events were leucopenia (436 [83%] of 528 patients in the standard combined-modality treatment group vs 443 [84%] of 529 patients in the PET4-guided treatment group) and thrombocytopenia (139 [26%] vs 176 [33%]), and the most frequent acute non-haematological toxic effects were infection (32 [6%] vs 40 [8%]) and nausea or vomiting (38 [7%] vs 29 [6%]). The most common acute radiotherapy-associated adverse events were dysphagia (26 [6%] in the standard combined-modality treatment group vs three [2%] in the PET4-guided treatment group) and mucositis (nine [2%] vs none). 229 serious adverse events were reported by 161 (29%) of 546 patients in the combined-modality treatment group, and 235 serious adverse events were reported by 164 (30%) of 550 patients in the PET4-guided treatment group. One suspected unexpected serious adverse reaction (infection) leading to death was reported in the PET4-guided treatment group. INTERPRETATION: PET4-negativity after treatment with 2 + 2 chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed early-stage unfavourable Hodgkin lymphoma allows omission of consolidation radiotherapy without a clinically relevant loss of efficacy. PET4-guided therapy could thereby reduce the proportion of patients at risk of the late effects of radiotherapy. FUNDING: Deutsche Krebshilfe.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Dacarbazina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Procarbazina/administração & dosagem , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mol Cell ; 81(6): 1170-1186.e10, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571422

RESUMO

The complex architecture of transmembrane proteins requires quality control (QC) of folding, membrane positioning, and trafficking as prerequisites for cellular homeostasis and intercellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether transmembrane protein-specific QC hubs exist. Here we identify cereblon (CRBN), the target of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), as a co-chaperone that specifically determines chaperone activity of HSP90 toward transmembrane proteins by means of counteracting AHA1. This function is abrogated by IMiDs, which disrupt the interaction of CRBN with HSP90. Among the multiple transmembrane protein clients of CRBN-AHA1-HSP90 revealed by cell surface proteomics, we identify the amino acid transporter LAT1/CD98hc as a determinant of IMiD activity in multiple myeloma (MM) and present an Anticalin-based CD98hc radiopharmaceutical for MM radio-theranostics. These data establish the CRBN-AHA1-HSP90 axis in the biogenesis of transmembrane proteins, link IMiD activity to tumor metabolism, and nominate CD98hc and LAT1 as attractive diagnostic and therapeutic targets in MM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Cadeia Pesada da Proteína-1 Reguladora de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Mieloma Múltiplo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos SCID , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 178: 180-192, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636276

RESUMO

This study reports the isolation, structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of a novel phosphodiesterase from Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom (CdcPDE). CdcPDE was successfully isolated from whole venom using three chromatographic steps and represented 0.7% of total protein content. CdcPDE was inhibited by EDTA and reducing agents, demonstrating that metal ions and disulfide bonds are necessary for its enzymatic activity. The highest enzymatic activity was observed at pH 8-8.5 and 37 °C. Kinetic parameters indicated a higher affinity for the substrate bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate compared to others snake venom PDEs. Its structural characterization was done by the determination of the protein primary sequence by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry, and completed by the building of molecular and docking-based models. Functional in vitro assays showed that CdcPDE is capable of inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated that CdcPDE is cytotoxic to human keratinocytes. CdcPDE was recognized by the crotalid antivenom produced by the Instituto Butantan. These findings demonstrate that the study of snake venom toxins can reveal new molecules that may be relevant in cases of snakebite envenoming, and that can be used as molecular tools to study pathophysiological processes due to their specific biological activities.

6.
Curr Opin Chem Biol ; 60: 89-96, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220627

RESUMO

Proteome dynamics is governed by transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. Limited proteolysis is an irreversible post-translational modification that generates multiple but unique proteoforms from almost every native protein. Elucidating these proteoforms and understanding their dynamics at a system-wide level is of utmost importance because uncontrolled proteolytic cleavages correlate with many pathologies. Mass spectrometry-based degradomics has revolutionized protease research and invented workflows for global identification of protease substrates with resolution down to precise cleavage sites. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies in protease substrate degradomics and introduce the concept of workflow, mass spectrometry-based and in silico enrichment of protein termini with the perspective of full deconvolution of digital proteome maps for precision medicine, and degradomics biomarker diagnostics.

8.
Matrix Biol ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246101

RESUMO

Identification of early processes leading to complex tissue pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, poses a major scientific and clinical challenge that is imperative for improved diagnosis and treatment. Most studies of inflammation onset focus on cellular processes and signaling molecules, while overlooking the environment in which they take place, the continuously remodeled extracellular matrix. In this study, we used colitis models for investigating extracellular-matrix dynamics during disease onset, while treating the matrix as a complete and defined entity. Through the analysis of matrix structure, stiffness and composition, we unexpectedly revealed that even prior to the first clinical symptoms, the colon displays its own unique extracellular-matrix signature and found specific markers of clinical potential, which were also validated in human subjects. We also show that the emergence of this pre-symptomatic matrix is mediated by subclinical infiltration of immune cells bearing remodeling enzymes. Remarkably, whether the inflammation is chronic or acute, its matrix signature converges at pre-symptomatic states. We suggest that the existence of a pre-symptomatic extracellular-matrix is general and relevant to a wide range of diseases.

9.
Mol Oncol ; 14(12): 3048-3064, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099868

RESUMO

The myelocytomatosis oncogene (MYC) is an important driver in a subtype of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, MYC remains a challenging therapeutic target; therefore, identifying druggable synthetic lethal interactions in MYC-active PDAC may lead to novel precise therapies. First, to identify networks with hyperactive MYC, we profiled transcriptomes of established human cell lines, murine primary PDAC cell lines, and accessed publicly available repositories to analyze transcriptomes of primary human PDAC. Networks active in MYC-hyperactive subtypes were analyzed by gene set enrichment analysis. Next, we performed an unbiased pharmacological screen to define MYC-associated vulnerabilities. Hits were validated by analysis of drug response repositories and genetic gain- and loss-of-function experiments. In these experiments, we discovered that the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib triggers a MYC-associated vulnerability. In addition, by integrating publicly available data, we found the unfolded protein response as a signature connected to MYC. Furthermore, increased sensitivity of MYC-hyperactive PDACs to bortezomib was validated in genetically modified PDAC cells. In sum, we provide evidence that perturbing the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) might be an option to target MYC-hyperactive PDAC cells. Our data provide the rationale to further develop precise targeting of the UPS as a subtype-specific therapeutic approach.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071285

RESUMO

An urgent medical need to develop novel treatment strategies for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists. However, despite various efforts in the histopathological and molecular subtyping of PDAC, novel targeted or specific therapies have not been established. Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) with ubiquitin-like proteins, including small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs), mediate numerous processes that can contribute to the fitness and survival of cancer cells. The contribution of SUMOylation to transcriptional control, DNA repair pathways, mitotic progression, and oncogenic signalling has been described. Here we review functions of the SUMO pathway in PDAC, with a special focus on its connection to an aggressive subtype of the disease characterised by high MYC activity, and discuss SUMOylation inhibitors under development for precise PDAC therapies.

11.
Blood ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113552

RESUMO

Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the cancer type most susceptible to anti-programmed-death-receptor-1 (PD1) treatment and characterized by scarce Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells (HRSC) perpetuating a unique tumor microenvironment (TME). Whilst in solid tumors anti-PD1 effects appear largely mediated by cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells, HRSC frequently lack major histocompatibility complex expression and the mechanism of anti-PD1 efficacy in cHL is unclear. Rapid clinical response and high interim complete response rate to anti-PD1 based 1st-line treatment was recently reported for patients with early-stage unfavorable cHL treated in the GHSG phase II NIVAHL trial. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this very early response to anti-PD1 treatment, we analyzed paired biopsies and blood samples obtained in NIVAHL patients before and during the first days of nivolumab 1st-line cHL therapy. Mirroring the rapid clinical response, HRSC had disappeared from the tissue within days after the first nivolumab application. The TME shows a reduction of Tr1 T-cells and PD-L1+ tumor associated macrophages (TAM) already at this early timepoint of treatment. Interestingly, neither a cytotoxic immune-response nor a clonal T-cell expansion was observed in the tumors or peripheral blood. These early changes of the TMA were distinct from alterations found in a separate set of cHL biopsies at relapse during anti-PD1 therapy. We identify a unique very early histologic response pattern to anti-PD1 therapy in cHL suggestive for withdrawal of pro-survival factors rather than induction of an adaptive anti-tumor immune response as main mechanism of action.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A primary analysis of the ongoing NIVAHL trial demonstrated unexpectedly high interim complete response rates to nivolumab-based first-line treatment in early-stage unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma. However, biomarkers such as metabolic tumor volume (MTV) or total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and their change under treatment (ΔMTV and ΔTLG), measured on PET, might provide additional relevant information for response assessment in this setting. Hence, the current analysis aimed to investigate early response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy beyond conventional criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: NIVAHL is a prospective, randomized phase II trial that recruited between April 2017 and October 2018. Patients in arms A and B were assessed for early treatment response after two courses of doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine with two concomitant nivolumab infusions per cycle (2 × N-AVD) and 4 × nivolumab, respectively. In the current analysis, we included all 59 individuals with PET images available to the central review panel for quantitative analysis before April 30, 2019. RESULTS: At interim restaging, we determined a mean ΔMTV and ΔTLG of -99.8% each in arm A after 2 × N-AVD, compared with -91.4% and -91.9%, respectively, for treatment group B undergoing 4 × nivolumab. This high decrease in MTV and TLG was observed regardless of the initial lymphoma burden. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that nivolumab-based first-line treatment leads to rapid, near-complete reduction of tumor metabolism in early-stage unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma. Thus, PET-derived biomarkers might allow reduction or even omission of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Furthermore, MTV and TLG could be also used to optimize immune checkpoint-targeting treatments in other cancers.

13.
Oncotarget ; 11(41): 3688-3697, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110476

RESUMO

Despite recent advances, the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains an area of high unmet medical need. HNSCC is frequently associated with either amplification or mutational changes in the PI3K pathway, making PI3K an attractive target particularly in cetuximab-resistant tumors. Here, we explored the antitumor activity of the selective, pan-class I PI3K inhibitor copanlisib with predominant activity towards PI3Kα and δ in monotherapy and in combination with cetuximab using a mouse clinical trial set-up with 33 patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models with known HPV and PI3K mutational status and available data on cetuximab sensitivity. Treatment with copanlisib alone resulted in moderate antitumor activity with 12/33 PDX models showing either tumor stabilization or regression. Combination treatment with copanlisib and cetuximab was superior to either of the monotherapies alone in the majority of the models (21/33), and the effect was particularly pronounced in cetuximab-resistant tumors (14/16). While no correlation was observed between PI3K mutation status and response to either cetuximab or copanlisib, increased PI3K signaling activity evaluated through gene expression profiling showed a positive correlation with response to copanlisib. Together, these data support further investigation of PI3K inhibition in HNSCC and suggests gene expression patterns associated with PI3K signaling as a potential biomarker for predicting treatment responses.

14.
Front Psychol ; 11: 2190, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973639

RESUMO

There is no consensus on which statistical model estimates school value-added (VA) most accurately. To date, the two most common statistical models used for the calculation of VA scores are two classical methods: linear regression and multilevel models. These models have the advantage of being relatively transparent and thus understandable for most researchers and practitioners. However, these statistical models are bound to certain assumptions (e.g., linearity) that might limit their prediction accuracy. Machine learning methods, which have yielded spectacular results in numerous fields, may be a valuable alternative to these classical models. Although big data is not new in general, it is relatively new in the realm of social sciences and education. New types of data require new data analytical approaches. Such techniques have already evolved in fields with a long tradition in crunching big data (e.g., gene technology). The objective of the present paper is to competently apply these "imported" techniques to education data, more precisely VA scores, and assess when and how they can extend or replace the classical psychometrics toolbox. The different models include linear and non-linear methods and extend classical models with the most commonly used machine learning methods (i.e., random forest, neural networks, support vector machines, and boosting). We used representative data of 3,026 students in 153 schools who took part in the standardized achievement tests of the Luxembourg School Monitoring Program in grades 1 and 3. Multilevel models outperformed classical linear and polynomial regressions, as well as different machine learning models. However, it could be observed that across all schools, school VA scores from different model types correlated highly. Yet, the percentage of disagreements as compared to multilevel models was not trivial and real-life implications for individual schools may still be dramatic depending on the model type used. Implications of these results and possible ethical concerns regarding the use of machine learning methods for decision-making in education are discussed.

15.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(8): 674, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826880

RESUMO

Proteases modulate critical processes in cutaneous tissue repair to orchestrate inflammation, cell proliferation and tissue remodeling. However, the functional consequences and implications in healing impairments of most cleavage events are not understood. Using iTRAQ-based Terminal Amine Isotopic Labeling of Substrates (TAILS) we had characterized proteolytic signatures in a porcine wound healing model and identified two neo-N termini derived from proteolytic cleavage of the focal adhesion protein and mechanotransducer zyxin. Here, we assign these proteolytic events to the activity of either caspase-1 or serine protease HtrA1 and analyze the biological relevance of the resultant zyxin truncations. By cellular expression of full-length and truncated zyxin proteins, we demonstrate nuclear translocation of a C-terminal zyxin fragment that could also be generated in vitro by HtrA1 cleavage and provide evidence for its anti-apoptotic activities, potentially by regulating the expression of modulators of cell proliferation, protein synthesis and genome stability. Targeted degradomics correlated endogenous generation of the same zyxin fragment with increased cell density in human primary dermal fibroblasts. Hence, this newly identified HtrA1-zyxin protease signaling axis might present a novel mechanism to transiently enhance cell survival in environments of increased cell density like in wound granulation tissue.

16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With improvement of cancer-specific survival, comorbidities and treatment-related side effects, particularly cardiovascular toxicities, need close attention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of cancer patients requiring coronary angiography during inpatient care. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients hospitalized between 02/2011 and 02/2018 in our two university hospital cancer centers. From a cohort of 60,676 cancer patients, we identified 153 patients (65.7 ± 11.6 years, 73.2% male), who underwent coronary angiography and were eligible for analysis. These were compared to a control group of 153 non-cancer patients pair-matched with respect to age, sex, and indication for catheterization. RESULTS: Cancer patients presented in 66% with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The most prevalent cancer entities were lymphoma (19%) and lung cancer (18.3%). The rate of primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) was significantly lower in the cancer cohort (40.5% vs. 53.6%, p = 0.029), although manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and PCI results were comparable (SYNergy between PCI with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX)-score, delta pre- and post-PCI - 9.8 vs. - 8.0, p = 0.2). Mortality was remarkably high in cancer patients (1-year mortality 46% vs. 8% in non-cancer patients, p < 0.001), particularly with troponin-positive ACS (5-year mortality 71%). CONCLUSION: Strategies to effectively control cardiovascular risks in cancer patients are needed. Additionally, suspected CAD in cancer patients should not prevent prompt diagnostic clarification and optimal revascularization as PCI results in cancer patients are comparable to non-cancer patients and occurrence of troponin-positive ACS leads to a significantly increased risk of mortality.

17.
Hemasphere ; 4(3): e398, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647802

RESUMO

In this phase I/II study, we explored the combination of Temsirolimus with Bendamustine and Rituximab (BeRT) in patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) follicular lymphoma (FL) or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Patients with 1 to 3 previous therapies received Bendamustine (90 mg/m2, day 1 + 2) and Rituximab (375 mg/m2, day 1) with Temsirolimus in doses from 25 to 75 mg in phase I and 50 mg Temsirolimus in phase II, added on day 1, 8, 15 of a 28 days cycle. The primary endpoint of the phase II was ORR at the end of treatment. Overall, 39 (29 MCL, 10 FL) patients were included. Median age was 71 years and median pretreatment number was 2. Grade 3/4 non-hematologic adverse events were rare and included hyperglycemia in 3 patients (7%) and angioedema in 2 patients (5%). Infectious complications grade 3/4 were observed in 9 patients (23%). Hematologic grade 3/4 events included leukopenia in 22 (56%), neutropenia in 18 (46%), lymphopenia in 16 (41%) and thrombocytopenia in 14 patients (36%). An objective response (best response) was observed in 33/39 patients (89%; 24 MCL (89%) and 9 FL (90%)), including 14 CR (38%; 12 MCL (36%) and 2 FL (20%)). Median PFS is 1.5y for MCL and 1.82 years for FL, and median OS has not been reached for either entity. This data demonstrates promising efficacy of Temsirolimus in r/r MCL and FL with acceptable toxicity. The BeRT regimen may be used as a treatment option for both entities.

18.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(6): 872-880, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352505

RESUMO

Importance: In early-stage unfavorable classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), conventional therapy induces high cure rates but also relevant acute and long-term toxic effects. Nivolumab is well tolerated and highly effective in relapsed/refractory cHL but has not been adequately studied in first-line treatment of early-stage cHL. The NIVAHL trial evaluated nivolumab in this setting with the aim to develop a highly effective yet tolerable systemic therapy to ultimately mitigate morbidity in patients who survive cHL. Objective: To evaluate efficacy of 2 experimental nivolumab-based first-line treatment strategies in patients with early-stage unfavorable cHL. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was an open-label, multicenter, phase 2 randomized clinical trial, open between April 2017 and October 2018. The trial took place at 35 trial centers across Germany, ranging from academic centers to private offices. Eligibility was defined by age 18 to 60 years, cHL confirmed by expert pathology review, early-stage unfavorable disease by German Hodgkin Study Group criteria (stage I to II with risk factor[s]), and absence of serious concomitant disease or organ dysfunction. Among 110 enrolled patients, 109 were eligible. Interventions: Systemic therapy, per random assignment (1:1) to either concomitant treatment with 4 cycles of nivolumab and doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (N-AVD) or sequential treatment with 4 doses of nivolumab, 2 cycles of N-AVD, and 2 cycles of AVD at standard doses, followed by 30-Gy involved-site radiotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Complete remission (CR) rate after study treatment, aiming at excluding a CR rate of 80% or lower via a 2-sided 95% CI for each treatment group. Results: Of 109 patients included in this study, 65 (59.6%) were women, and the median (range) age was 27 (18-60) years. At interim staging after 2 cycles of N-AVD or 4 doses of nivolumab monotherapy, 54 of 54 (100%) and 49 of 51 (96%) response-eligible patients, respectively, achieved an objective response, with CR in 47 (87%) and 26 (51%) patients, respectively. Among 101 patients eligible for primary end point analysis, 46 of 51 (90%; 95% CI, 79%-97%) patients receiving concomitant therapy and 47 of 50 (94%; 95% CI, 84%-99%) patients receiving sequential therapy achieved CR after study treatment. With a median follow-up of 13 months, 12-month progression-free survival was 100% for patients receiving concomitant treatment and 98% (95% CI, 95%-100%) for patients receiving sequential therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Both strategies combining nivolumab and AVD are feasible and resulted in high remission rates. Despite narrowly missing the efficacy benchmark in the concomitant group, the excellent 12-month progression-free survival and the unexpectedly high CR rate after 4 doses of nivolumab monotherapy warrant further evaluation of this approach in the first-line treatment of patients with early-stage cHL. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03004833.

19.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457615

RESUMO

Toxin synergism is a complex biochemical phenomenon, where different animal venom proteins interact either directly or indirectly to potentiate toxicity to a level that is above the sum of the toxicities of the individual toxins. This provides the animals possessing venoms with synergistically enhanced toxicity with a metabolic advantage, since less venom is needed to inflict potent toxic effects in prey and predators. Among the toxins that are known for interacting synergistically are cytotoxins from snake venoms, phospholipases A2 from snake and bee venoms, and melittin from bee venom. These toxins may derive a synergistically enhanced toxicity via formation of toxin complexes by hetero-oligomerization. Using a human keratinocyte assay mimicking human epidermis in vitro, we demonstrate and quantify the level of synergistically enhanced toxicity for 12 cytotoxin/melittin-PLA2 combinations using toxins from elapids, vipers, and bees. Moreover, by utilizing an interaction-based assay and by including a wealth of information obtained via a thorough literature review, we speculate and propose a mechanistic model for how toxin synergism in relation to cytotoxicity may be mediated by cytotoxin/melittin and PLA2 complex formation.

20.
J Nucl Med ; 61(12): 1765-1771, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332145

RESUMO

C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a transmembrane chemokine receptor involved in growth, survival, and dissemination of cancer, including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. MRI is the standard imaging technology for central nervous system (CNS) involvement of B-cell lymphoma and provides high sensitivity but moderate specificity. Therefore, novel molecular and functional imaging strategies are urgently required. Methods: In this proof-of-concept study, 11 patients with lymphoma of the CNS (8 primary and 3 secondary involvement) were imaged with the CXCR4-directed PET tracer 68Ga-pentixafor. To evaluate the predictive value of this imaging modality, treatment response, as determined by MRI, was correlated with quantification of CXCR4 expression by 68Ga-pentixafor PET in vivo before initiation of treatment in 7 of 11 patients. Results: 68Ga-pentixafor PET showed excellent contrast with the surrounding brain parenchyma in all patients with active disease. Furthermore, initial CXCR4 uptake determined by PET correlated with subsequent treatment response as assessed by MRI. Conclusion: 68Ga-pentixafor PET represents a novel diagnostic tool for CNS lymphoma with potential implications for theranostic approaches as well as response and risk assessment.

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