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1.
J Neural Eng ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413878

RESUMO

Objective Characterize the role of the beta-band (13-30 Hz) in the human hippocampus during the execution of voluntary movement. Approach We recorded electrophysiological activity in human hippocampus during a reach task using stereotactic electroencephalography (SEEG). SEEG has previously been utilized to study the theta band (3-8 Hz) in conflict processing and spatial navigation, but most studies of hippocampal activity during movement have used noninvasive measures such as fMRI. We analyzed modulation in the beta band (13-30 Hz), which is known to play a prominent role throughout the motor system including the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. We conducted the classic "center-out" direct-reach experiment with nine patients undergoing surgical treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Main Results In seven of the nine patients, power spectral analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in power within the beta band (13-30 Hz) during the response phase, compared to the fixation phase, of the center-out direct-reach task using the Wilcoxon signed-rank hypothesis test (p < 0.05). Significance This finding is consistent with previous literature suggesting that the hippocampus may be involved in the execution of movement, and it is the first time that changes in beta-band power have been demonstrated in the hippocampus using human electrophysiology. Our findings suggest that beta-band modulation in the human hippocampus may play a role in the execution of voluntary movement.

2.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stereotactic localization of neurosurgical targets traditionally relies on computed tomography (CT), which is considered the optimal imaging modality for geometric accuracy. However, in-depth investigations that characterize the precision and accuracy of CT images are lacking. We used a CT phantom to examine interscanner precision and interprotocol accuracy in coordinate localization. METHODS: A polymethylacrylate phantom was scanned with Toshiba Aquilion 64 and GE Healthcare LightSpeed 16 CT scanners, using both helical and incremental single-slice (SS) image acquisition protocols. The X, Y, and Z coordinates of 94 points across 6 surfaces of the phantom were physically measured. The CT scan-derived coordinates were compared with the phantom coordinates and with each other to determine accuracy and precision, respectively. RESULTS: Using the SS imaging protocol, the mean (SD) interscanner disparity in localization was 0.93 (0.39) mm, given by the average Euclidean distance between the coordinates of the 2 scanners. This discrepancy significantly varied by axis and surface, with the greatest discrepancy in the Z-axis of 0.30 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.35; P = 0.05) and on the superior surface of 1.30 mm (95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.45; P = 0.05). SS acquisition was significantly more accurate than the helical protocol. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of clinically relevant inconsistency between 2 CT scanners used for stereotactic localization. SS image acquisition was superior to helical scanning with respect to localization accuracy. Interscanner consistency cannot be assumed. Institutions would benefit from identifying the errors inherent in their CT scanners.

3.
J Neural Eng ; 17(2): 026038, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electrocorticogram (ECoG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising platform for the restoration of motor and sensory functions to those with neurological deficits. Such bi-directional BCI operation necessitates simultaneous ECoG recording and stimulation, which is challenging given the presence of strong stimulation artifacts. This problem is exacerbated if the BCI's analog front-end operates in an ultra-low power regime, which is a basic requirement for fully implantable medical devices. In this study, we developed a novel method for the suppression of stimulation artifacts before they reach the analog front-end. APPROACH: Using elementary biophysical considerations, we devised an artifact suppression method that employs a weak auxiliary stimulation delivered between the primary stimulator and the recording grid. The exact location and amplitude of this auxiliary stimulating dipole were then found through a constrained optimization procedure. The performance of our method was tested in both simulations and phantom brain tissue experiments. MAIN RESULTS: The solution found through the optimization procedure matched the optimal canceling dipole in both simulations and experiments. Artifact suppression as large as 28.7 dB and 22.9 dB were achieved in simulations and brain phantom experiments, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: We developed a simple constrained optimization-based method for finding the parameters of an auxiliary stimulating dipole that yields optimal artifact suppression. Our method suppresses stimulation artifacts before they reach the analog front-end and may prevent the front-end amplifiers from saturation. Additionally, it can be used along with other artifact mitigation techniques to further reduce stimulation artifacts.

4.
J Neural Eng ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131064

RESUMO

The ideal modality for generating sensation in sensorimotor brain computer interfaces (BCI) has not been determined. Here we report the feasibility of using a high-density "mini"-electrocorticography (mECoG) grid in a somatosensory BCI system. Thirteen subjects with intractable epilepsy underwent standard clinical implantation of subdural electrodes for the purpose of seizure localization. An additional high-density mECoG grid was placed (Adtech, 8 by 8, 1.2-mm exposed, 3-mm center-to-center spacing) over the hand area of primary somatosensory cortex. Following implantation, cortical mapping was performed with stimulation parameters of frequency: 50 Hz, pulse-width: 250 µs, pulse duration: 4 s, polarity: alternating, and current that ranged from 0.5 mA to 12 mA at the discretion of the epileptologist. Location of the evoked sensory percepts was recorded along with a description of the sensation. The hand was partitioned into 48 distinct boxes. A box was included if sensation was felt anywhere within the box. The percentage of the hand covered was 63.9% (± 34.4%) (mean ± s.d.). Mean redundancy, measured as electrode pairs stimulating the same box, was 1.9 (± 2.2) electrodes per box; and mean resolution, measured as boxes included per electrode pair stimulation, was 11.4 (± 13.7) boxes with 8.1 (± 10.7) boxes in the digits and 3.4 (± 6.0) boxes in the palm. Functional utility of the system was assessed by quantifying usable percepts. Under the strictest classification, "dermatomally exclusive" percepts, the mean was 2.8 usable percepts per grid. Allowing "perceptually unique" percepts at the same anatomical location, the mean was 5.5 usable percepts per grid. Compared to the small area of coverage and redundancy of a microelectrode system, or the poor resolution of a standard ECoG grid, a mECoG is likely the best modality for a somatosensory BCI system with good coverage of the hand and minimal redundancy.

5.
Neurosurg Focus ; 48(2): E2, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has been successful in evoking artificial somatosensation in both humans and animals, but much is unknown about the optimal stimulation parameters needed to generate robust percepts of somatosensation. In this study, the authors investigated frequency as an adjustable stimulation parameter for artificial somatosensation in a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI) system. METHODS: Three epilepsy patients with subdural mini-electrocorticography grids over the hand area of S1 were asked to compare the percepts elicited with different stimulation frequencies. Amplitude, pulse width, and duration were held constant across all trials. In each trial, subjects experienced 2 stimuli and reported which they thought was given at a higher stimulation frequency. Two paradigms were used: first, 50 versus 100 Hz to establish the utility of comparing frequencies, and then 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, or 100 Hz were pseudorandomly compared. RESULTS: As the magnitude of the stimulation frequency was increased, subjects described percepts that were "more intense" or "faster." Cumulatively, the participants achieved 98.0% accuracy when comparing stimulation at 50 and 100 Hz. In the second paradigm, the corresponding overall accuracy was 73.3%. If both tested frequencies were less than or equal to 10 Hz, accuracy was 41.7% and increased to 79.4% when one frequency was greater than 10 Hz (p = 0.01). When both stimulation frequencies were 20 Hz or less, accuracy was 40.7% compared with 91.7% when one frequency was greater than 20 Hz (p < 0.001). Accuracy was 85% in trials in which 50 Hz was the higher stimulation frequency. Therefore, the lower limit of detection occurred at 20 Hz, and accuracy decreased significantly when lower frequencies were tested. In trials testing 10 Hz versus 20 Hz, accuracy was 16.7% compared with 85.7% in trials testing 20 Hz versus 50 Hz (p < 0.05). Accuracy was greater than chance at frequency differences greater than or equal to 30 Hz. CONCLUSIONS: Frequencies greater than 20 Hz may be used as an adjustable parameter to elicit distinguishable percepts. These findings may be useful in informing the settings and the degrees of freedom achievable in future BCI systems.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871144

RESUMO

A dramatic example of translational monkey research is the development of neural prosthetics for assisting paralyzed patients. A neuroprosthesis consists of implanted electrodes that can record the intended movement of a paralyzed part of the body, a computer algorithm that decodes the intended movement, and an assistive device such as a robot limb or computer that is controlled by these intended movement signals. This type of neuroprosthetic system is also referred to as a brain-machine interface (BMI) since it interfaces the brain with an external machine. In this review, we will concentrate on BMIs in which microelectrode recording arrays are implanted in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), a high-level cortical area in both humans and monkeys that represents intentions to move. This review will first discuss the basic science research performed in healthy monkeys that established PPC as a good source of intention signals. Next, it will describe the first PPC implants in human patients with tetraplegia from spinal cord injury. From these patients the goals of movements could be quickly decoded, and the rich number of action variables found in PPC indicates that it is an appropriate BMI site for a very wide range of neuroprosthetic applications. We will discuss research on learning to use BMIs in monkeys and humans and the advances that are still needed, requiring both monkey and human research to enable BMIs to be readily available in the clinic.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional fluoroscopy via the O-arm (Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) has been validated for intraoperative confirmation of successful lead placement in stereotactic electrode implantation. However, its role in registration and targeting has not yet been studied. After frame placement, many stereotactic neurosurgeons obtain a computed tomography (CT) scan and merge it with a preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to generate planning coordinates; potential disadvantages of this practice include increased procedure time and limited scanner availability. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the second-generation O-arm (O2) can be used in lieu of a traditional CT scan to obtain accurate frame-registration scans. METHODS: In 7 patients, a postframe placement CT scan was merged with preoperative MRI and used to generate lead implantation coordinates. After implantation, the fiducial box was again placed on the patient to obtain an O2 confirmation scan. Vector, scalar, and Euclidean differences between analogous X, Y, and Z coordinates from fused O2/MRI and CT/MRI scans were calculated for 33 electrode target coordinates across 7 patients. RESULTS: Marginal means of difference for vector (X = -0.079 ± 0.099 mm; Y = -0.076 ± 0.134 mm; Z = -0.267 ± 0.318 mm), scalar (X = -0.146 ± 0.160 mm; Y = -0.306 ± 0.106 mm; Z = 0.339 ± 0.407 mm), and Euclidean differences (0.886 ± 0.190 mm) remained within the predefined equivalence margin differences of -2 mm and 2 mm. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that O2 may emerge as a viable alternative to the traditional CT scanner for generating planning coordinates. Adopting the O2 as a perioperative tool may offer reduced transport risks, decreased anesthesia time, and greater surgical efficiency.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 68: 13-19, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375306

RESUMO

Implantable neurostimulation devices provide a direct therapeutic link to the nervous system and can be considered brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Under this definition, BCI are not simply science fiction, they are part of existing neurosurgical practice. Clinical BCI are standard of care for historically difficult to treat neurological disorders. These systems target the central and peripheral nervous system and include Vagus Nerve Stimulation, Responsive Neurostimulation, and Deep Brain Stimulation. Recent advances in clinical BCI have focused on creating "closed-loop" systems. These systems rely on biomarker feedback and promise individualized therapy with optimal stimulation delivery and minimal side effects. Success of clinical BCI has paralleled research efforts to create BCI that restore upper extremity motor and sensory function to patients. Efforts to develop closed loop motor/sensory BCI is linked to the successes of today's clinical BCI.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/tendências , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/tendências , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Humanos , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/instrumentação , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos
9.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 832, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440133

RESUMO

Recently, efforts to produce artificial sensation through cortical stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex (PSC) in humans have proven safe and reliable. Changes in stimulation parameters like frequency and amplitude have been shown to elicit different percepts, but without clearly defined psychometric profiles. This study investigates the functionally useful limits of frequency changes on the percepts felt by three epilepsy patients with subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) grids. Subjects performing a hidden target task were stimulated with parameters of constant amplitude, pulse-width, and pulse-duration, and a randomly selected set of two frequencies (20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 100 Hz). They were asked to decide which target had the "higher" frequency. Objectively, an increase in frequency differences was associated with an increase in perceived intensity. Reliable detection of stimulation occurred at and above 40 Hz with a lower limit of detection around 20 Hz and a just-noticeable difference estimated at less than 10 Hz. These findings suggest that frequency can be used as a reliable, adjustable parameter and may be useful in establishing settings and thresholds of functionality in future BCI systems.

10.
J Neural Eng ; 16(5): 056003, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In electrophysiology, microelectrodes are the primary source for recording neural data (single unit activity). These microelectrodes can be implanted individually or in the form of arrays containing dozens to hundreds of channels. Recordings of some channels contain neural activity, which are often contaminated with noise. Another fraction of channels does not record any neural data, but only noise. By noise, we mean physiological activities unrelated to spiking, including technical artifacts and neural activities of neurons that are too far away from the electrode to be usefully processed. For further analysis, an automatic identification and continuous tracking of channels containing neural data is of great significance for many applications, e.g. automated selection of neural channels during online and offline spike sorting. Automated spike detection and sorting is also critical for online decoding in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications, in which only simple threshold crossing events are often considered for feature extraction. To our knowledge, there is no method that can universally and automatically identify channels containing neural data. In this study, we aim to identify and track channels containing neural data from implanted electrodes, automatically and more importantly universally. By universally, we mean across different recording technologies, different subjects and different brain areas. APPROACH: We propose a novel algorithm based on a new way of feature vector extraction and a deep learning method, which we call SpikeDeeptector. SpikeDeeptector considers a batch of waveforms to construct a single feature vector and enables contextual learning. The feature vectors are then fed to a deep learning method, which learns contextualized, temporal and spatial patterns, and classifies them as channels containing neural spike data or only noise. MAIN RESULTS: We trained the model of SpikeDeeptector on data recorded from a single tetraplegic patient with two Utah arrays implanted in different areas of the brain. The trained model was then evaluated on data collected from six epileptic patients implanted with depth electrodes, unseen data from the tetraplegic patient and data from another tetraplegic patient implanted with two Utah arrays. The cumulative evaluation accuracy was 97.20% on 1.56 million hand labeled test inputs. SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that SpikeDeeptector generalizes not only to the new data, but also to different brain areas, subjects, and electrode types not used for training. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The clinical trial registration number for patients implanted with the Utah array is NCT01849822. For the epilepsy patients, approval from the local ethics committee at the Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany, was obtained prior to implantation.

11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 64: 214-219, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023574

RESUMO

Previous work in directional tuning for brain machine interfaces has primarily relied on algorithm sorted neuronal action potentials in primary motor cortex. However, local field potential has been utilized to show directional tuning in macaque studies, and inferior parietal cortex has shown increased neuronal activity in reaching tasks that relied on MRI imaging. In this study we utilized local field potential recordings from a human subject performing a delayed reach task and show that high frequency band (76-100 Hz) spectral power is directionally tuned to different reaching target locations during an active reach. We also show that during the delay phase of the task, directional tuning is present in areas of the inferior parietal cortex, in particular, the supramarginal gyrus.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
12.
Neurosurg Clin N Am ; 30(2): 275-281, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898278

RESUMO

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are implantable devices that interface directly with the nervous system. BCI for quadriplegic patients restore function by reading motor intent from the brain and use the signal to control physical, virtual, and native prosthetic effectors. Future closed-loop motor BCI will incorporate sensory feedback to provide patients with an effective and intuitive experience. Development of widely available BCI for patients with neurologic injury will depend on the successes of today's clinical BCI. BCI are an exciting next step in the frontier of neuromodulation.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Quadriplegia/reabilitação , Humanos , Quadriplegia/fisiopatologia
13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 63: 116-121, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711286

RESUMO

Somatosensory feedback is the next step in brain computer interface (BCI). Here, we compare three cortical stimulating array modalities for generating somatosensory percepts in BCI. We compared human subjects with either a 64-channel "mini"-electrocorticography grid (mECoG; 1.2-mm diameter exposed contacts with 3-mm spacing, N = 1) over the hand area of primary somatosensory cortex (S1), or a standard grid (sECoG; 1.5-mm diameter exposed contacts with 1-cm spacing, N = 1), to generate artificial somatosensation through direct electrical cortical stimulation. Finally, we reference data in the literature from a patient implanted with microelectrode arrays (MEA) placed in the S1 hand area. We compare stimulation results to assess coverage and specificity of the artificial percepts in the hand. Using the mECoG array, hand mapping revealed coverage of 41.7% of the hand area versus 100% for the sECoG array, and 18.8% for the MEA. On average, stimulation of a single electrode corresponded to sensation reported in 4.42 boxes (range 1-11 boxes) for the mECoG array, 19.11 boxes (range 4-48 boxes) for the sECoG grid, and 2.3 boxes (range 1-5 boxes) for the MEA. Sensation in any box, on average, corresponded to stimulation from 2.65 electrodes (range 1-5 electrodes) for the mECoG grid, 3.58 electrodes for the sECoG grid (range 2-4 electrodes), and 11.22 electrodes (range 2-17 electrodes) for the MEA. Based on these findings, we conclude that mECoG grids provide an excellent balance between spatial cortical coverage of the hand area of S1 and high-density resolution.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Eletrodos Implantados , Mãos/inervação , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Sensação
14.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(5): 1155-1167, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Restoration of somatosensory deficits in humans requires a clear understanding of the neural representations of percepts. To characterize the cortical response to naturalistic somatosensation, we examined field potentials in the primary somatosensory cortex of humans. METHODS: Four patients with intractable epilepsy were implanted with subdural electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes over the hand area of S1. Three types of stimuli were applied, soft-repetitive touch, light touch, and deep touch. Power in the alpha (8-15 Hz), beta (15-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-50 Hz), and high-gamma (50-125 Hz) frequency bands were evaluated for significance. RESULTS: Seventy-seven percent of electrodes over the hand area of somatosensory cortex exhibited changes in these bands. High-gamma band power increased for all stimuli, with concurrent alpha and beta band power decreases. Earlier activity was seen in these bands in deep touch and light touch compared to soft touch. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with prior literature and suggest a widespread response to focal touch, and a different encoding of deeper pressure touch than soft touch.


Assuntos
Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Eletrocorticografia/métodos , Mãos/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos Implantados , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684944

RESUMO

Closed-loop brain-responsive neurostimulation via the RNS System is a treatment option for adults with medically refractory focal epilepsy. Using a novel technique, 2 RNS Systems (2 neurostimulators and 4 leads) were successfully implanted in a single patient with bilateral parietal epileptogenic zones. In patients with multiple epileptogenic zones, this technique allows for additional treatment options. Implantation can be done successfully, without telemetry interference, using proper surgical planning and neurostimulator positioning.Trajectories for the depth leads were planned using neuronavigation with CT and MR imaging. Stereotactic frames were used for coordinate targeting. Each neurostimulator was positioned with maximal spacing to avoid telemetry interference while minimizing patient discomfort. A separate J-shaped incision was used for each neurostimulator to allow for compartmentalization in case of infection. In order to minimize surgical time and risk of infection, the neurostimulators were implanted in 2 separate surgeries, approximately 3 weeks apart.The neurostimulators and leads were successfully implanted without adverse surgical outcomes. The patient recovered uneventfully, and the early therapy settings over several months resulted in preliminary decreases in aura and seizure frequency. Stimulation by one of the neurostimulators did not result in stimulation artifacts detected by the contralateral neurostimulator.

16.
Front Syst Neurosci ; 12: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915532

RESUMO

Sensory feedback is a critical aspect of motor control rehabilitation following paralysis or amputation. Current human studies have demonstrated the ability to deliver some of this sensory information via brain-machine interfaces, although further testing is needed to understand the stimulation parameters effect on sensation. Here, we report a systematic evaluation of somatosensory restoration in humans, using cortical stimulation with subdural mini-electrocorticography (mini-ECoG) grids. Nine epilepsy patients undergoing implantation of cortical electrodes for seizure localization were also implanted with a subdural 64-channel mini-ECoG grid over the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). We mapped the somatotopic location and size of receptive fields evoked by stimulation of individual channels of the mini-ECoG grid. We determined the effects on perception by varying stimulus parameters of pulse width, current amplitude, and frequency. Finally, a target localization task was used to demonstrate the use of artificial sensation in a behavioral task. We found a replicable somatotopic representation of the hand on the mini-ECoG grid across most subjects during electrical stimulation. The stimulus-evoked sensations were usually of artificial quality, but in some cases were more natural and of a cutaneous or proprioceptive nature. Increases in pulse width, current strength and frequency generally produced similar quality sensations at the same somatotopic location, but with a perception of increased intensity. The subjects produced near perfect performance when using the evoked sensory information in target acquisition tasks. These findings indicate that electrical stimulation of somatosensory cortex through mini-ECoG grids has considerable potential for restoring useful sensation to patients with paralysis and amputation.

17.
Cureus ; 10(4): e2459, 2018 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888163

RESUMO

Traditional still cameras can only focus on a single plane for each image while rendering everything outside of that plane out of focus. However, new light-field imaging technology makes it possible to adjust the focus plane after an image has already been captured. This technology allows the viewer to interactively explore an image with objects and anatomy at varying depths and clearly focus on any feature of interest by selecting that location during post-capture viewing. These images with adjustable focus can serve as valuable educational tools for neurosurgical residents. We explore the utility of light-field cameras and review their strengths and limitations compared to other conventional types of imaging. The strength of light-field images is the adjustable focus, as opposed to the fixed-focus of traditional photography and video. A light-field image also is interactive by nature, as it requires the viewer to select the plane of focus and helps with visualizing the three-dimensional anatomy of an image. Limitations include the relatively low resolution of light-field images compared to traditional photography and video. Although light-field imaging is still in its infancy, there are several potential uses for the technology to complement traditional still photography and videography in neurosurgical education.

18.
Elife ; 72018 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633714

RESUMO

Pioneering work with nonhuman primates and recent human studies established intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) in primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a method of inducing discriminable artificial sensation. However, these artificial sensations do not yet provide the breadth of cutaneous and proprioceptive percepts available through natural stimulation. In a tetraplegic human with two microelectrode arrays implanted in S1, we report replicable elicitations of sensations in both the cutaneous and proprioceptive modalities localized to the contralateral arm, dependent on both amplitude and frequency of stimulation. Furthermore, we found a subset of electrodes that exhibited multimodal properties, and that proprioceptive percepts on these electrodes were associated with higher amplitudes, irrespective of the frequency. These novel results demonstrate the ability to provide naturalistic percepts through ICMS that can more closely mimic the body's natural physiological capabilities. Furthermore, delivering both cutaneous and proprioceptive sensations through artificial somatosensory feedback could improve performance and embodiment in brain-machine interfaces.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Eletrodos Implantados , Mãos/fisiologia , Microeletrodos , Propriocepção , Pele/fisiopatologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Potenciais Somatossensoriais Evocados , Humanos , Pele/inervação , Percepção do Tato
19.
Epilepsy Behav Case Rep ; 8: 123-127, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204348

RESUMO

The focal and network concepts of epilepsy present different aspects of electroclinical phenomenon of seizures. Here, we present a 23-year-old man undergoing surgical evaluation with left fronto-temporal electrocorticography (ECoG) and microelectrode-array (MEA) in the middle temporal gyrus (MTG). We compare action-potential (AP) and local field potentials (LFP) recorded from MEA with ECoG. Seizure onset in the mesial-temporal lobe was characterized by changes in the pattern of AP-firing without clear changes in LFP or ECoG in MTG. This suggests simultaneous analysis of neuronal activity in differing spatial scales and frequency ranges provide complementary insights into how focal and network neurophysiological activity contribute to ictal activity.

20.
J Neural Eng ; 14(4): 044001, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epileptiform discharges, an electrophysiological hallmark of seizures, can propagate across cortical tissue in a manner similar to traveling waves. Recent work has focused attention on the origination and propagation patterns of these discharges, yielding important clues to their source location and mechanism of travel. However, systematic studies of methods for measuring propagation are lacking. APPROACH: We analyzed epileptiform discharges in microelectrode array recordings of human seizures. The array records multiunit activity and local field potentials at 400 micron spatial resolution, from a small cortical site free of obstructions. We evaluated several computationally efficient statistical methods for calculating traveling wave velocity, benchmarking them to analyses of associated neuronal burst firing. MAIN RESULTS: Over 90% of discharges met statistical criteria for propagation across the sampled cortical territory. Detection rate, direction and speed estimates derived from a multiunit estimator were compared to four field potential-based estimators: negative peak, maximum descent, high gamma power, and cross-correlation. Interestingly, the methods that were computationally simplest and most efficient (negative peak and maximal descent) offer non-inferior results in predicting neuronal traveling wave velocities compared to the other two, more complex methods. Moreover, the negative peak and maximal descent methods proved to be more robust against reduced spatial sampling challenges. Using least absolute deviation in place of least squares error minimized the impact of outliers, and reduced the discrepancies between local field potential-based and multiunit estimators. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that ictal epileptiform discharges typically take the form of exceptionally strong, rapidly traveling waves, with propagation detectable across millimeter distances. The sequential activation of neurons in space can be inferred from clinically-observable EEG data, with a variety of straightforward computation methods available. This opens possibilities for systematic assessments of ictal discharge propagation in clinical and research settings.


Assuntos
Eletrodos Implantados , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Regressão
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