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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 205: 107520, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707267

RESUMO

AIMS: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease burden among youth. This study estimated sex differences in the prevalence of alcohol use and consequences among adolescents living in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). DESIGN: Multi-staged cross-sectional international standardized self-report questionnaires administered in the classroom. SETTING: The Global school-based student health survey (GSHS) comprised adolescents from 68 LMIC between 2003-2014. PARTICIPANTS: 271,156 students aged 13-17 years old. MEASUREMENTS: Alcohol measures included: past month alcohol consumption, history of intoxication and alcohol-related problems. Regions were based on the World Health Organization definitions: Africa, America, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-east Asia, and Western Pacific. FINDINGS: Overall, males had higher odds of alcohol use (OR = 2.38 [1.91-2.96]), a history of intoxication (OR = 2.64 [2.11-3.31]), and alcohol-related problems (OR = 1.72 [1.41-2.10]) than females. All regions recorded overall greater odds of alcohol use by males versus females; five regions (excluding Europe) recorded greater odds of intoxication in males; and three regions (America, South-east Asia, and Western Pacific) recorded greater odds of alcohol-related problems amongst males. However, there were country-level differences - in some countries, adolescent drinking rates and consequences were comparable by sex. Countries with the highest odds of alcohol use among males compared to females were Indonesia, Myanmar, Cambodia, Tuvalu, Morocco, Senegal, Kiribati, and Thailand. CONCLUSIONS: Among adolescents living in LMIC, males had on average two-fold higher odds of drinking alcohol and experiencing adverse consequences. Growing affluence and improvements in sex equality in societies may increase the future prevalence of hazardous drinking in females in LMICs.

2.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(2): 247-256, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use in adolescence predicts future alcohol misuse. However, the extent to which different patterns of adolescent use present risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated how adolescent trajectories of alcohol consumption during the school years predict alcohol misuse at age 19 years. METHODS: Data were drawn from 707 students from Victoria, Australia, longitudinally followed for 7 years. Five alcohol use trajectories were identified based on the frequency of alcohol use from Grade 6 (age 12 years) to Grade 11 (age 17 years). At age 19 years, participants completed measures indicating Heavy Episodic Drinking (HED), dependency - Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and social harms. RESULTS: At 19 years of age, 64% of participants reported HED, 42% high AUDIT scores (8+), and 23% social harms. Participants belonging to a steep escalator trajectory during adolescence had twice the odds at 19 years of age of high AUDIT scores and social harms, and three times greater odds of HED than participants whose alcohol use slowly increased. Stable moderate consumption was also associated with an increased risk of HED compared to slowly increasing use. Abstinence predicted a reduced likelihood of all forms of misuse at 19 years of age compared to slowly increased alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of drinking frequency during adolescence predict alcohol misuse at age 19 years. Although rapid increasing use presents the greatest risk, even slowly increasing drinking predicts increased risk compared to abstinence. The findings indicate that alcohol policies should recommend nonuse and reduced frequency of use during adolescence.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Addict Behav ; 84: 178-185, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723800

RESUMO

AIMS: This study estimated the extent of familial alcohol supply in 45 low and middle income countries (LMIC), and examined the country-level effects of familial alcohol supply on adolescents' alcohol use. METHOD: We used data from 45 LMICs that participated in the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2003 and 2013 (n = 139,840). The weighted prevalence of familial alcohol supply in each country was estimated. Multilevel binary and ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to examine the country-level effect of familial alcohol supply on early onset of alcohol use (first alcohol before 12), past 30-day alcohol use, lifetime drunkenness and alcohol-related social problems. RESULTS: There were large variations between LMICs in the prevalence of familial alcohol supply and pattern of adolescent alcohol use. The prevalence of familial supply ranged from 0.1% in Tajikistan to 23.8% in St Lucia. It was estimated that a one percentage change in prevalence of familial alcohol supply was associated with 10%, 12% and 12% change in the odds of lifetime drunkenness (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = [1.04, 1.16]), early onset of alcohol use (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [1.07, 1.08]) and more frequent drinking in the past month (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = [1.04, 1.20]). CONCLUSION: There were large variations in the prevalence of familial alcohol supply and adolescent alcohol use among LMICs. Adolescents in countries with higher prevalence of familial alcohol supply were more likely to start using alcohol at an earlier age, to have used alcohol in the past 30 days and experience intoxication.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Família , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Idade de Início , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(13): 2125-2131, 2018 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess gender differences in the relationship between eating and weight loss attitudes (EWAs), and 30-day tobacco and alcohol use among adolescents, while controlling for potential confounds (age, country of birth, psychological distress, pubertal development, peer alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity). METHODS: School students aged between 11 and 17 years (N = 10,273) from high schools in the State of Victoria (Australia) completed surveys in class under conditions of anonymity and confidentiality. RESULTS: The interaction between EWAs and gender was significant for tobacco use but not for alcohol use, indicating that the effect of EWAs on tobacco use, but not alcohol use, vary by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco use was related to EWAs in adolescent females but not males, and this is consistent with the possibility that females use tobacco in an instrumental fashion to control weight. Implications and Contribution: Female adolescents high in eating and weight loss attitudes were more likely to engage in tobacco use. In contrast, eating and weight loss attitudes were not related to male tobacco use. These results point to the potential importance of developing gender-specific approaches towards addressing problematic behaviors in adolescent populations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Ingestão de Alimentos , Caracteres Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Puberdade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória , Perda de Peso
6.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(11): 1859-1868, 2018 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29509085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parents and peers both influence the development of adolescent substance misuse, and the Social Interaction Learning (SIL) model provides a theoretical explanation of the paths through which this occurs. OBJECTIVE: The SIL model has primarily been tested with conduct outcomes and in US samples. This study adds to the literature by testing the SIL model with four substance use outcomes in a sample of Australian youth. METHOD: We used structural equation modeling to test the fit of the SIL model to a longitudinal sample (n = 907) of students recruited in grade 5 in Victoria, Australia participating in the International Youth Development Study, who were resurveyed in grades 6 and 10. RESULTS: The model fit was good (χ2(95) = 248.52, p < .001; RMSEA = .04 [90% CI: .036 - .049]; CFI = .94; SRMR = .04). Path estimates from parenting to antisocial behavior and from antisocial behavior to antisocial peers were significant. In turn, having antisocial peers was significantly related to alcohol use, binge drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use. From parenting, only the direct path to marijuana use was significant, but indirect effects were significant. CONCLUSIONS: The SIL model illustrates that parenting plays an early role in the formation of adolescent peer relations that influence substance misuse and identifies etiological pathways that can guide the targets of prevention. The SIL pathways appear robust to the Australian social and policy context.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Modelos Psicológicos , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Grupo Associado , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Vitória
7.
Prev Med ; 113: 132-139, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In many countries adolescent alcohol use is a major health problem. To supplement national policies, it is important to trial community interventions as a potential strategy to prevent adolescent alcohol use. METHODS: This study evaluated a multicomponent community intervention that included community mobilisation, social marketing, and the monitoring of alcohol sales to minors. Evaluation was a clustered randomised trial design with 14 intervention and 14 control communities. Prior to randomisation, communities were matched on socioeconomic status and location. Intervention communities were not blinded. PARTICIPANTS: 3545 Year 8 students (M = 12 years) were surveyed at baseline from 75 schools; 3377 students were surveyed post intervention in 2013 from 54 schools. OUTCOMES: It was hypothesised that the primary outcome, individual alcohol consumption in last 30 days, after the intervention would be 15% lower in intervention communities. Secondary outcomes were consumption in the past year and intention not to drink before age 18. RESULTS: The intervention communities showed larger relative reductions compared to the controls in last 30-day consumption and past year (10%), but not significantly different. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the intervention community (63%), compared to the controls (71%), reported intending to drink before 18 years old. Subgroup analysis identified regional and state differences for some secondary measures. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention assignment was associated with lower adolescent intention to drink before the age of 18. However, more intensive and longer-term intervention may be required to measure significant differences in behaviour change. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12612000384853. PROTOCOL: Rowland B, Toumbourou JW, Osborn A, et al. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002423. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002423.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Marketing Social , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 560, 2017 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing research on parental supply of alcohol analyses the effects of self-reported parental supply on adolescent drinking using individual level data. This study examined the contextual effect of parental supply of alcohol on adolescent alcohol use by examining the association between the prevalence of parental supply in each Australian state and adolescent alcohol use using a multilevel analytic framework. METHODS: Adolescent samples (Age: 12-17) were drawn from the four National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (2004, 2007, 2010 and 2013; N = 6803). The prevalence of parental supply of alcohol, defined as the weighted percentage of sample who reported obtaining alcohol from their parents, was estimated in each state and territory across the four surveys. Three multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the contextual effects of parental supply prevalence on adolescents' alcohol use in the past 12 months, weekly drinking and heavy drinking. RESULTS: Overall, adolescents' rates of past 12 months alcohol use, heavy drinking and weekly drinking between 2004 and 2013 were 40.1, 14.4 and 6.4% respectively. The prevalence of parental supply was significantly associated with past 12 months alcohol use (OR = 1.06, p < .001) and heavy drinking (OR = 1.04, p < .001) but not with weekly drinking (OR = 1.03, p = .189). The results were adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic index for area, place of birth, survey year and prevalence of peer supply. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of parental supply in a region was associated with heavier adolescent drinking, regardless of whether adolescents primarily obtained their alcohol from their own parents.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 178: 32-38, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. DESIGN: Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). MEASUREMENTS: Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. FINDINGS: Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, p<0.001), and a larger number of substance use (OR=1.29, p<0.001) were more likely to use BHO than only using high potency herbal cannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (p<0.001) CONCLUSION: Mental health problems and other illicit drug use were associated with use of BHO. BHO was reported to have stronger negative and weaker positive effects than high potency herbal cannabis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Cannabis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Óleos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Adolesc ; 58: 67-73, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which family conflict, peer bullying and psychological distress account for eating and weight loss attitudes in adolescent females. This study examined the degree to which psychological distress mediated the association between family conflict and eating and weight loss attitudes, and the association of bullying and eating and weight loss attitudes. METHOD: Females aged between 11 and 17 years (N = 5125) were recruited from schools in the State of Victoria (Australia). Key measures included psychological distress, family conflict, and bullying victimisation. RESULTS: A structural model showed good fit, and all predictors were significant. Psychological distress mediated the association between eating and weight loss attitudes, and family problems and bullying. CONCLUSION: Family conflict and peer bullying were associated with eating and weight loss attitudes and this association may occur via psychological distress. Early intervention programs may benefit from a focus on family and peer relationships.


Assuntos
Bullying , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitória
11.
Subst Use Misuse ; 52(10): 1357-1363, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the stressful nature of military life, people in the armed forces are vulnerable to substance use. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between family and peers with drug use among military forces in Iran. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to recruit a total of 422 draftees doing military service in army units in Tehran, Iran. Measures of family and peers' risk and protective factors, alcohol use, and other drug use were administered. RESULTS: Findings indicated significant relationships between family (i.e., family models for risk behavior, parent sanctions, and family controls) and peers (i.e., peer modeling for risk behavior, peer controls, support from friends) with drug use. A multiple regression analysis revealed that peer modeling for risk behavior, family models for risk behavior, and parent sanctions were significant predictors of drug use in soldiers. CONCLUSIONS: These results were consistent with the influence of family and peer on drug use amongst soldiers. Programs designed to reduce alcohol and other drug use may benefit from tailoring to fit risk and protective files amongst peer and family networks.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Família/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo Associado , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Addict Behav ; 64: 78-81, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572180

RESUMO

AIMS: This study examined the association between peer drug use and adolescent polysubstance use, and investigated if this association was moderated by parenting and/or school factors. METHODS: The sample consisted of 9966 participants (mean age=14.3; 49.34% males) randomly selected from secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Three 30-day polysubstance use profiles were derived from latent class analysis - no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%) and polysubstance use (8.2%). These profiles were then regressed on peer's drug use, family conflict, parental monitoring, parental disapproval of drug use, school commitment, reward for prosocial involvement in school and academic failure, and the interactions between peer's drug use and each of the parenting and school variables. RESULTS: Relative to non-users, peer's drug use was strongly associated with polysubstance use (OR=30.91, p<0.001), and this association was moderated by parental disapproval of drug use (OR=0.46, p<0.001). This indicated that high level of parental disapproval may mitigate the negative influence of drug using peers. School commitment and parental monitoring were significantly associated with reduced likelihood of polysubstance use (p<0.05), but they did not moderate the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent polysubstance use. All analyses were adjusted for key demographic factors such as age, gender, areas of residence, birth place and family affluence. CONCLUSION: Reinforcing parent disapproval of drug use may be an important strategy in reducing adolescent substance use. Parents may need to be more integrated into mainstream prevention programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Logro , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Vitória/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 16(1): 1070, 2016 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27724901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skog's collectivity theory of alcohol consumption predicted that changes in alcohol consumption would synchronize across all types of drinkers in a population. The aim of this paper is examine this theory in the Australian context. We examined whether there was a collective change in alcohol use in Australia from 2001 to 2013, estimated alcohol consumption in non-high risk and high risk drinkers, and examined the trends in alcohol treatment episodes. METHODS: Data from the 2001-2013 National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (N = 127,916) was used to estimate the prevalence and alcohol consumption of abstainers, high risk drinkers and frequent heavy episodic drinkers. Closed treatment episodes recorded in the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Dataset (N = 608,367) from 2001 to 2013 were used to examine the trends of closed alcohol treatment episodes. RESULTS: The prevalence of non-drinkers (abstainers) decreased to the lowest level in 2004 (15.3 %) and rebounded steadily thereafter (20.4 % in 2013; p < .001). Correspondingly, the per capita consumption of high risk drinkers (2 standard drinks or more on average per day) increased from 20.7 L in 2001 to peak in 2010 (21.5 L; p = .020). Non-high risk drinkers' consumption peaked in 2004 (2.9 L) and decreased to 2.8 L in 2013 (p < .05). There were decreases in alcohol treatment episodes across nearly all birth cohorts in recent years. CONCLUSION: These findings are partially consistent with and support Skog's collectivity theory. There has been a turnaround in alcohol consumption after a decade-long uptrend, as evident in the collective decreases in alcohol consumption among nearly all types of drinkers. There was also a turnaround in rate of treatment seeking, which peaked at 2007 and then decreased steadily. The timing of this turnaround differs with level of drinking, with non-high risk drinkers reaching its peak consumption in 2004 and high risk drinkers reaching its peak consumption in 2010.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/terapia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
14.
Subst Use Misuse ; 51(11): 1441-50, 2016 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27366962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For young couples, a partner's heavy alcohol use may be a point of conflict and relationship distress, particularly when there are disparities in the severity of drinking across partners. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the longitudinal impact of discrepancies in heavy alcohol use, particularly in couples with parenting responsibilities. METHODS: Data were obtained from 554 heterosexual couples (with at least one partner aged between 18 and 30 years of age) over two assessments from a well-established longitudinal study of Australian households. RESULTS: Multilevel analyses (examining time within partners within couples) indicated a high level of couple-level variation in individual reports of relationship satisfaction. Discrepancies in heavy alcohol use were negatively associated with relationship satisfaction over the assessment period and this was significantly moderated by parenthood. More specifically, heavy drinking discrepancies were associated with lower relationship satisfaction amongst parents more than nonparents. CONCLUSION: Among dissatisfied couples, managing discrepancies in alcohol use and helping heavy drinking partners may be an important intervention focus, particularly when providing professional support for young parents.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Satisfação Pessoal , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eat Behav ; 22: 222-224, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27322520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association of risky dieting amongst adolescent girls with depressed mood, family conflict, and parent-child emotional closeness. METHOD: Grade 6 and 8 females (aged 11-14years, N=4031) were recruited from 231 schools in 30 communities, across three Australian States (Queensland, Victoria, and Western Australia). Key measures were based on the Adolescent Dieting Scale, Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and widely used short measures of family relationship quality. Controls included age, early pubertal onset, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Risky dieting was significantly related to family conflict and depressed mood, depressed mood mediated the association of family conflict and risky dieting, and these associations remained significant with controls in the model. CONCLUSION: Family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are associated with risky dieting. IMPLICATIONS: Prevention programs may benefit from a broadening of behavioural targets to include depressed mood and family problems.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Dieta Redutora/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Puberdade , Queensland , Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 35(6): 741-749, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27220010

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study investigated the extent to which parental monitoring and parental disapproval of alcohol use account for the association between country of birth and adolescent alcohol use. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 273 adolescents from grades 7 (Mean age = 12.5 years), 9 (14.5 years) and 11 (16.4 years) in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a questionnaire during class time. Mediation analyses were performed to examine the extent to which parental monitoring and parental disapproval of alcohol use accounted for variations in past 30 day alcohol use between Australian-born and immigrant adolescents. RESULTS: Alcohol use in the past 30 days ranged from 8.0% to 44.4% for participants from different countries/regions of birth. Those born in Asia (odds ratio 0.20-0.51, P < 0.05) and Africa (odds ratio 0.45, P < 0.01) were much less likely to have consumed alcohol compared to those born in Australia. Adolescents from these two regions (except for Western Asia) reported higher levels of parental monitoring and parental disapproval of alcohol use (P < 0.05). Higher levels of parental monitoring and parental disapproval of alcohol use partially mediated the association between birth place and alcohol use (P < 0.05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: There were large variations in alcohol use between Australian-born and immigrant adolescents from different countries/regions. Adolescents from Asia or Africa were much less likely to consume alcohol, and this protective effect was partially accounted for by parental monitoring and disapproval of alcohol use.[Chan GCK, Kelly AB, Connor JP, Hall WD, Young RM, Williams JW. Does parental monitoring and disapproval explain variations in alcohol use among adolescents from different countries of birth? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:741-749].


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Ásia , Austrália , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Características de Residência
17.
BMC Public Health ; 16: 325, 2016 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most adolescents begin alcohol consumption during adolescence, heavy alcohol use by adolescents is common, and alcohol-related harm amongst adolescents is a major public health burden. Parents are a common source of alcohol amongst adolescents, but little is known about how parental supply of alcohol has changed over recent years. This study examines national trends in parental supply of alcohol to adolescent children in Australia since 1998. METHODS: Six Australian National Drug Strategy Household Surveys (1998-2013) yielded rates of parental supply of current and first ever alcohol consumed. Lifetime and current alcohol use were also estimated. The surveys were conducted for households across all Australian states and territories. Surveyed adolescents were aged 14-17 years (N = 7357, 47.6 % male). Measures included the reported source of currently consumed alcohol and first ever alcoholic beverage (parents/friends/others), lifetime alcohol use, number of standard alcohol units consumed on drinking days, and frequency of alcohol use. Corrected Pearson chi-squared tests were used to compare survey years. RESULTS: There was a significant drop in parental supply of current alcohol use from 21.3 % in 2004 to 11.79 % in 2013 (p < .001). The lower prevalence of parental supply coincided with legislative changes on parental supply of alcohol to adolescents, but causality cannot be established because of the variation in the timing and reach of parental supply legislation, and small samples in some states. There were downward trends in adolescent experimentation, quantity and frequency of alcohol use across years, with the largest drop in alcohol use in 2010 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS: In Australia, there has been a substantial reduction in parental supply of alcohol to adolescents from 2010, and this factor may partially account for reductions in adolescent alcohol use.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 35(6): 750-754, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27004842

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study examines the association of alcohol and polydrug use with risky sexual behaviour in adolescents under 16 years of age and if this association differs by gender. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 5412 secondary school students under 16 years of age from Victoria, Australia. Participants completed an anonymous and confidential survey during class time. The key measures were having had sex before legal age of consent (16 years), unprotected sex before 16 (no condom) and latent-class derived alcohol and polydrug use variables based on alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, inhalants and other illegal drug use in the past month. RESULTS: There were 7.52% and 2.55% of adolescents who reported having sex and having unprotected sex before 16 years of age, respectively. After adjusting for antisocial behaviours, peers' drug use and family and school risk factors, girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (odds ratio = 0.31, P = 0.003). However, the interaction of being female and polydrug use (odds ratio = 4.52, P = 0.004) was significant, indicating that girls who engaged in polydrug use were at higher risk of having unprotected sex. For boys, the effect of polydrug use was non-significant (odds ratio = 1.44, P = 0.310). Discussion and Conclusions For girls, polydrug use was significantly associated with unprotected sex after adjusting for a range of risk factors, and this relationship was non-significant for boys. Future prevention programs for adolescent risky sexual behaviour and polydrug use might benefit from a tailored approach to gender differences. [Chan GCK, Kelly AB, Hides L, Quinn C, Williams JW. Does gender moderate the relationship between polydrug use and sexual risk-taking among Australian secondary school students under 16 years of age? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:750-754].


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 45(8): 1604-13, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861643

RESUMO

Adolescent depressed mood is related to the development of subsequent mental health problems, and family problems have been linked to adolescent depression. Longitudinal research on adolescent depressed mood is needed to establish the unique impact of family problems independent of other potential drivers. This study tested the extent to which family conflict exacerbates depressed mood during adolescence, independent of changes in depressed mood over time, academic performance, bullying victimization, negative cognitive style, and gender. Students (13 years old) participated in a three-wave bi-national study (n = 961 from the State of Washington, United States, n = 981 from Victoria, Australia; 98 % retention, 51 % female in each sample). The model was cross-lagged and controlled for the autocorrelation of depressed mood, negative cognitive style, academic failure, and bullying victimization. Family conflict partially predicted changes in depressed mood independent of changes in depressed mood over time and the other controls. There was also evidence that family conflict and adolescent depressed mood are reciprocally related over time. The findings were closely replicated across the two samples. The study identifies potential points of intervention to interrupt the progression of depressed mood in early to middle adolescence.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Vitória , Washington
20.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 50(4): 371-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26296367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frequency and emotional response to bullying victimisation are known to be associated with adolescent mental ill health. A potentially important under-investigated factor is the form of bullying. Four common forms of bullying behaviours are name-calling, physical threats or harm, rumour spreading and social exclusion. To more comprehensively understand bullying victimisation in adolescence, we examined the association of all three factors (frequency, emotional response, form) to psychological distress and emotional wellbeing. METHOD: A stratified, random sample of adolescents (n = 10, 273; mean age = 14.33 years, standard deviation = 1.68 years) completed validated measures of bullying victimisation (Gatehouse Bullying Questionnaire), psychological distress (K10) and emotional wellbeing (Mental Health Inventory) in classroom time. Associations between the form of bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Adolescents reported a high prevalence of all four forms of bullying: teased or called names (30.6%), rumour spreading (17.9%), social exclusion (14.3%) and physical threats or harm (10.7%). Victimisation was independently associated with significantly higher levels of psychological distress and reduced levels of emotional wellbeing for all forms of bullying. In particular, social exclusion had a strong association with mental ill health. Adolescents who experienced frequent bullying that was upsetting reported higher psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. CONCLUSION: Different forms of bullying victimisation were independently associated with psychological distress and reduced emotional wellbeing. In particular, frequent and upsetting social exclusion requires a targeted and measured response by school communities and health practitioners.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Isolamento Social/psicologia
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