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1.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(8): 682-694, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472895

RESUMO

Objective: Obesity and depression are major, inter-related health concerns for men, yet many do not receive support to manage these conditions. This study investigated whether a self-guided, eHealth program (SHED-IT: Recharge) could reduce weight and depressive symptoms in men with overweight or obesity and low mood. Method: Overall, 125 men [Body Mass Index (BMI) 25-42 kg/m2] with depressive symptoms [Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥5] were recruited for a 6-month RCT. Men were randomized to (a) the SHED-IT: Recharge group (n = 62) or (b) a wait-list control group (n = 63). The 3-month program included printed and online resources (e.g., website, interactive modules). It was adapted from an evidence-based weight loss program for men to include an additional focus on "mental fitness". The primary outcomes were weight (kg) and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9) at 3 months. Men were assessed at baseline, 3 months (post-intervention), and 6 months. Intention-to-treat linear mixed models examined program outcomes. Results: At 3 months, medium-sized treatment effects were detected for both weight, adjusted mean difference -3.1 kg, 95% CI [-4.3, -1.9], d = 0.9, and depressive symptoms, adjusted mean difference -2.4 units, 95% CI [-4.0, -0.9], d = 0.6. These effects were maintained at 6 months and supported by sustained improvements in other health outcomes. Conclusions: A self-guided, eHealth program that combined behavioral weight loss advice with mental health support decreased weight and depressive symptoms in men. Integrated interventions targeting physical and mental health may be an effective strategy to engage and support men with overweight or obesity and low mood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/terapia , Autocuidado , Telemedicina , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/psicologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 888, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, it is projected that one in four individuals will be at the nominal retirement age of 65 or over by 2056; this effect is expected to be especially pronounced in rural areas. Previous findings on the effects of retirement on wellbeing have been mixed. The present study explores the effects of employment and retirement on health and wellbeing among a sample of rural Australians. METHODS: Australian Rural Mental Health Study participants who were aged 45 or over (N = 2013) were included in a series of analyses to compare the health and wellbeing of individuals with differing employment and retirement circumstances. Self-reported outcome variables included perceived physical health and everyday functioning, financial wellbeing, mental health, relationships, and satisfaction with life. RESULTS: Across the outcomes, participants who were employed or retired generally reported better health and wellbeing than those not in the workforce. Retired participants rated more highly than employed participants on mental health, relationships, and satisfaction with life. There was also a short-term benefit for perceived financial status for retired participants compared to employed participants, but this effect diminished over time. CONCLUSIONS: While retirement is a significant life transition that may affect multiple facets of an individual's life, the direction and magnitude of these effects vary depending on the retirement context, namely the pre-retirement and concurrent circumstances within which an individual is retiring. Personal perceptions of status changes may also contribute to an individual's wellbeing more so than objective factors such as income. Policies that promote rural work/retirement opportunities and diversity and address rural disadvantage are needed.


Assuntos
Emprego , Aposentadoria , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal
3.
Workplace Health Saf ; 69(9): 423-434, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coal miners have been reported to have higher rates of risky/harmful alcohol misuse; however, it is not known if metalliferous mining employees whose working conditions differ in workplace practices, also have increased rates of risky/harmful alcohol misuse. This study aimed to examine alcohol consumption in a sample of Australian metalliferous mining workers and to examine the demographic and workplace factors associated with risky/harmful alcohol use. METHODS: All employees from a convenience sample of four Australian mine sites were invited to complete a paper-based cross-sectional survey between June 2015 and May 2017. The survey contained questions relating to social networks, health behaviors, psychological distress, demographic characteristics, and risky/harmful drinking. Current alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a validated measure of risky and/or harmful drinking. Factors associated with risky/harmful drinking were investigated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. FINDINGS: A total of 1,799 participants completed the survey (average site response rate 95%). Overall, 94.8% of males and 92.1% of females reported using alcohol in the preceding 12 months. The odds of risky/harmful alcohol use were significantly higher in those who were male, younger, and reported higher psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS/APPLICATION TO PRACTICE: This study identified that metalliferous mining employees engage in at-risk levels of alcohol consumption significantly higher than the national average despite workplace policies and practices that restrict alcohol use. Personal and workplace risk factors that may help target specific employee groups and inform the development of tailored, integrated multicomponent intervention strategies for the industry were identified.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Metalurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Mineradores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metalurgia/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Orthop J Sports Med ; 9(1): 2325967120977538, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553457

RESUMO

Background: Lesions of the long head of the biceps can be successfully treated with biceps tenotomy or tenodesis when surgical management is elected. The advantage of a tenodesis is that it prevents the potential development of a cosmetic deformity or cramping muscle pain. Proponents of a subpectoral tenodesis believe that "groove pain" may remain a problem after suprapectoral tenodesis as a result of persistent motion of the tendon within the bicipital groove. Purpose/Hypothesis: To evaluate the motion of the biceps tendon within the bicipital groove before and after a suprapectoral intra-articular tenodesis. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal to no motion of the biceps tendon within the bicipital groove after tenodesis. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Six fresh-frozen cadaveric arms were dissected to expose the long head of the biceps tendon as well as the bicipital groove. Inclinometers and fiducials (optical markers) were used to measure the motions of the scapula, forearm, and biceps tendon through a full range of shoulder and elbow motions. A suprapectoral biceps tenodesis was then performed, and the motions were repeated. The motion of the biceps tendon was quantified as a function of scapular or forearm motion in each plane, both before and after the tenodesis. Results: There was minimal motion of the native biceps tendon during elbow flexion and extension but significant motion during all planes of scapular motion before tenodesis, with the most motion occurring during shoulder flexion-extension (20.73 ± 8.21 mm). The motion of the biceps tendon after tenodesis was significantly reduced during every plane of scapular motion compared with the native state (P < .01 in all planes of motion), with a maximum motion of only 1.57 mm. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant reduction in motion of the biceps tendon in all planes of scapular motion after the intra-articular biceps tenodesis. The motion of the biceps tendon within the bicipital groove was essentially eliminated after the suprapectoral biceps tenodesis. Clinical Relevance: This arthroscopic suprapectoral tenodesis technique can significantly reduce motion of the biceps tendon within the groove in this cadaveric study, possibly reducing the likelihood of groove pain in the clinical setting.

5.
J Intensive Care Med ; 35(8): 805-809, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no consensus for the length of prophylactic antibiotics after delayed chest closure (DCC) postcardiac surgery in pediatrics. In September 2014, our institution's pediatric cardiac intensive care unit changed the policy on length of prophylactic antibiotics after DCC from 5 days (control) to 2 days (study group). The objective of the study was to determine whether a 2-day course of antibiotics is as effective as a 5-day course in preventing blood stream and sternal wound infections in pediatric DCC. METHODS: Retrospective and prospective study. Primary end points included incidence of sternal wound infections and positive sternal imaging for infection. Surrogate markers of infection were collected at 4 time points. RESULTS: During the study period, 139 patients had DCC postcardiac surgery of which 110 patients were included for analysis, 54 patients in the control and 56 in the study group. There was no difference in total number of positive wound cultures/chest computed tomography (CT) findings (4/54 [7.5%] control vs 5/56 [8.9%] study group, P = .3), positive blood cultures (P = .586), median postsurgical length of stay (P = .4), or readmissions within 30 days postsurgery (P = .6). All secondary end points were similar in both groups except peak heart rate between weeks 2 and 4 (P = .041). CONCLUSION: Two days of prophylactic antibiotics is not inferior to 5 days of prophylactic antibiotics after DCC following pediatric cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibioticoprofilaxia/normas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/normas , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esterno/microbiologia , Esterno/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 413-423, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise is increasingly recognised as an efficacious intervention for major depressive disorder (MDD) but to our knowledge differential treatment effects on depressive symptom profiles (cognitive, somatic and affective) and associated changes in psychological, physiological and behavioural factors have not been examined among youth with MDD. METHODS: Sixty-eight participants (mean age 20.8) meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for MDD were randomised to an Immediate intervention or Control/delayed condition (n = 34 per group). The integrated intervention comprised an initial session of motivational interviewing (MI) followed by a 12-week, multi-modal exercise program. Changes in depressive symptom profiles were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) total score and factorial symptom subscales. RESULTS: There were significant differential improvements in BDI-II total scores post-treatment among intervention participants, which were also observed across the cognitive and affective subscales. Individual BDI-II items from the cognitive subscale showing significant differential improvement related to negative self-concept, while those from the affective subscale related to interest/activation; the energy item within the somatic subscale also revealed significant differential improvement. Significant differential improvements were also observed in exercise participation, negative automatic thoughts, behavioural activation and bench press repetitions among intervention participants, which correlated significantly with depression improvements. LIMITATIONS: The exercise intervention was delivered in a supervised, group format and potential social meditators of change cannot be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise differentially effects depressive symptom profiles with similar antidepressant effects as would be expected from psychological therapies improving negative cognition and emotional health.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Adolescente , Cognição , Terapia Combinada , Estudos Cross-Over , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(2): 171-180, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30155557

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many major studies of depression in Australia are under-representative of rural and remote residents, limiting the generalizability of their findings. This study explores the contributions of a range of individual, social, and community factors to the trajectory of depressive symptoms among a cohort of rural and remote residents. METHODS: Data from four waves of the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (baseline n = 2639), a 5 year longitudinal study of rural community residents, were examined within generalized linear mixed models to predict depressive symptoms. Depression was measured using the PHQ-9, with key correlates including social support, employment status, financial wellbeing, neuroticism, and rural community factors. RESULTS: Moderate-to-severe depression was reported by 6.3% of the baseline sample. Being permanently unable to work resulted in over a threefold increase in the odds of depression at the following survey wave. Self-rated financial hardship was associated with a fourfold increase in the odds of future depression, as was a high level of community concerns. Neuroticism and tobacco use also made a significant independent contribution to future depressive symptoms. Interpersonal support was a protective factor, reducing the odds of next-wave depression by 64%. CONCLUSION: Financial and employment-related difficulties appear to be important risk factors for depression, and targeting individuals experiencing such difficulties may be an effective means of reducing depression among certain sub-groups. Strategies to prevent depression in rural and remote Australia may benefit from a focus on interpersonal and community-level support, as the effects of this support are lasting and contribute to a reduced likelihood of depressive episodes in future years.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Vida Independente/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Fatores de Risco , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
8.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 28(1): 256-267, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152182

RESUMO

The prevalence of health risk behaviours and associated poor physical health is high in people with severe mental illness. Mental health service guidelines and policies stipulate that mental health services should address physical health of people who access services. This study reports results from a large, interdisciplinary, cross-sectional study exploring mental health clinicians' (n = 385) views of role legitimacy in physical health service provision. All disciplines reported that mental health clinicians have a role to play in addressing the physical health of consumers. Among mental health clinicians, psychiatrists and mental health nurses received higher endorsement than allied health clinicians in relation to the provision of physical health care, with primary care providers including general practitioners also ranking highly. As community mental health services routinely appoint allied health staff to case management roles, a challenge for services and a challenge for clinicians are to ensure that physical health and the effects of medication are monitored appropriately and systematically. Online and telephone support services received relatively lower endorsement. As the availability of nonface to face services increases, there is a need to explore their utility in this population and where appropriate promote their uptake.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Papel do Médico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 12: 66, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410571

RESUMO

Background: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of implementing a peer-based, multi-component mental health program in the Australian coal mining industry. Methods: The multicomponent program included MATES in mining (a peer-based mental health and suicide prevention program) and supervisor training. Eight Australian coal mines participated in the research, with four mines receiving the mental health program. Primary outcome variables including mental health stigma, help-seeking behaviour and perception of the workplace commitment to mental health were measured prior to program implementation, and then again 10 months following using a paper based survey. Process evaluation of the mental health program was measured using a pre-test/post-test survey. Results: MATES in mining 1275 miners participated in the MATES general awareness and connector training. Participants were more confident that they could identify a workmate experiencing mental ill-health; help a workmate, family member or themselves identify where to get support and were more willing to start a conversation with a workmate about their mental health. Supervisor training 117 supervisors completed the supervisor training and were subsequently more confident that they could: identify someone experiencing mental ill-health in the workplace; identify and recommend support services to a person experiencing mental ill-health; and have an effective conversation about performance issues that may be due to mental ill-health. Conclusions: Our findings show evidence to support the use of peer-based mental health programs in the mining industry, and for male-dominated industry more broadly.

10.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 75(22): 1791-1797, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The results of a study to determine if rates of poor response differ in patients receiving continuous nebulized albuterol (CNA) therapy with or without the preservative benzalkonium chloride are presented. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the records of all patients who received CNA therapy at a large academic medical center from July 2015 to January 2016 was conducted. Data from patient evaluations performed before and after a change to benzalkonium chloride-containing albuterol were collected. The primary outcome was the rate of poor patient response, defined as a composite endpoint. Secondary outcomes included duration of therapy, dosing requirements, and duration of supplemental oxygen therapy. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in rates of poor response between patients exposed (n = 80) and patients not exposed (n = 48) to benzalkonium chloride (16% and 17%, respectively; p = 0.95). The cohort not exposed to benzalkonium chloride had a median CNA duration of 7.0 hours, as compared with 10.5 hours for the cohort exposed to benzalkonium chloride, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.19). There were no significant differences between the benzalkonium chloride-exposed and nonexposed cohorts in the maximum dosing requirement (12.6 mg/hr versus 12.8 mg/hr, p = 0.89) or median duration of supplemental oxygen use (27.5 hours versus 16.5 hours, p = 0.77). CONCLUSION: A study of hospitalized patients receiving CNA detected no significant difference in the frequency of poor response to therapy between groups receiving benzalkonium chloride-free versus benzalkonium chloride-containing albuterol products.


Assuntos
Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Benzalcônio/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Benzalcônio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Benzalcônio/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estado Asmático/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Med J Aust ; 209(4): 159-165, 2018 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate general and drought-related stress experienced by farmers at both the personal and community levels, and whether socio-demographic and community factors influence this stress. DESIGN: Multivariate analysis of data from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS), a longitudinal cohort study (2007-2013). SETTING: Non-metropolitan New South Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Subset of 664 ARMHS participants (at baseline) who identified as living or working on a farm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal drought-related stress (PDS), community drought-related stress (CDS), and general psychological distress (K10 score). RESULTS: Farmers who were under 35, both lived and worked on a farm, experienced greater financial hardship, and were in outer regional, remote or very remote NSW reported PDS particularly frequently. Of these factors, only being under 35 and increased remoteness were associated with higher incidence of CDS. Mild wet weather during the prior 12 months reduced PDS and CDS but increased general distress. Moderate or extreme wet weather did not affect PDS or general distress, but moderate wet weather was associated with increased CDS. Drought-related stress and general psychological distress were influenced by different socio-demographic and community factors. CONCLUSIONS: Farmers in NSW experience significant stress about the effects of drought on themselves, their families, and their communities. Farmers who are younger, live and work on a farm, experience financial hardship, or are isolated are at particular risk of drought-related stress. Medical practitioners who provide assistance to farmers and farming communities can contribute to initiatives that relieve stress about drought.


Assuntos
Secas , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 9: 13-22, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696220

RESUMO

Background: Recent meta-analytic reviews suggest exercise can reduce depression severity among adults with major depressive disorder (MDD); however, efficacy studies with depressed youth are limited. Few studies have investigated the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions in this population, addressed treatment engagement, or explored the differential effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. Objectives: This paper describes the study protocol and recruitment pattern for an assessor blinded, two-arm randomised controlled trial investigating the efficacy of an integrated motivational interviewing (MI) and multi-modal exercise intervention in youth diagnosed with MDD. Associations between depressive symptom profiles (cognitive, somatic and affective) and psychological, physiological (fitness), and biological (blood biomarker) outcomes will also be examined. Methods: Participants aged 15-25 years with current MDD were recruited. Eligible participants were randomised and stratified according to gender and depression severity to either an immediate or delayed (control) group. The immediate group received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week small group exercise intervention (3 times per week for 1 h), all delivered by personal trainers. The delayed control group received the same intervention 12-weeks later. Both groups were reassessed at mid-treatment or mid-control, post-treatment or post-control, and follow-up (12 weeks post-treatment). Results: 68 participants were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group. Conclusion: This trial will increase our understanding of the efficacy of multi-modal exercise interventions for depression and the specific effects of exercise on depressive symptom profiles. It also offers a novel contribution by addressing treatment engagement in exercise efficacy trials in youth with MDD.

13.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(3): 1032-1038.e2, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between intraoperative/presurgical grade of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and mortality, and to determine whether surgical correction of TR correlated with an increased chance of survival compared with patients with uncorrected TR. METHODS: The grade of TR assessed by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) before surgical intervention was reviewed for 23,685 cardiac surgery patients between 1990 and 2014. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine association between grade of TR and the primary endpoint of all-cause mortality. Association between tricuspid valve (TV) surgery and survival was determined with Cox proportional hazard regression models after matching for grade of TR. RESULTS: Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated a relationship between all grades of TR. Multivariable analysis of the entire cohort demonstrated significantly increased mortality for moderate (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4; P < .0001) and severe TR (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.57-2.6; P < .0001). Mild TR displayed a trend for mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99-1.16; P = .075). After matching for grade of TR and additional confounders, patients who underwent TV surgery had a statistically significant increased likelihood of survival (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Our study of more than 20,000 patients demonstrates that grade of TR is associated with increased risk of mortality after cardiac surgery. In addition, all patients who underwent TV surgery had a statistically significantly increased likelihood of survival compared with those with the same degree of TR who did not undergo TV surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1862(3): 567-575, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis, but its therapeutic application to articular cartilage damage is limited by rapid elimination from the repair site. The human IGF-I gene gives rise to three IGF-I propeptides (proIGF-IA, proIGF-IB and proIGF-IC) that are cleaved to create mature IGF-I. In this study, we elucidate the processing of IGF-I precursors by articular chondrocytes, and test the hypotheses that proIGF-I isoforms bind to heparin and regulate articular chondrocyte biosynthesis. METHODS: Human IGF-I propeptides and mutants were overexpressed in bovine articular chondrocytes. IGF-I products were characterized by ELISA, western blot and FPLC using a heparin column. The biosynthetic activity of IGF-I products on articular chondrocytes was assayed for DNA and glycosaminoglycan that the cells produced. RESULTS: Secreted IGF-I propeptides stimulated articular chondrocyte biosynthetic activity to the same degree as mature IGF-I. Of the three IGF-I propeptides, only one, proIGF-IA, strongly bound to heparin. Interestingly, heparin binding of proIGF-IA depended on N-glycosylation at Asn92 in the EA peptide. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that N-glycosylation determines the binding of a heparin-binding protein to heparin. CONCLUSION: The biosynthetic and heparin binding abilities of proIGF-IA, coupled with its generation of IGF-I, suggest that proIGF-IA may have therapeutic value for articular cartilage repair. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These data identify human pro-insulin-like growth factor IA as a bifunctional protein. Its combined ability to bind heparin and augment chondrocyte biosynthesis makes it a promising therapeutic agent for cartilage damage due to trauma and osteoarthritis.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/citologia , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Heparina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/fisiologia , Precursores de Proteínas/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Processamento Alternativo , Animais , Asparagina/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Glicosilação , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/genética , Precursores de Proteínas/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
15.
J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther ; 22(5): 320-325, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the percentage of patients with >10% reduction in heparin infusion rate within 48 hours of antithrombin III (ATIII) administration. Secondary objectives include the achievement of therapeutic anticoagulation and determining the days of subtherapeutic infusion prior to supplementation. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 12 patients younger than 18 years of age who received ATIII concentrate supplementation while on continuous heparin infusion. Specific indications for heparin infusion therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), treatment of thrombus, and post implantation of ventricular assist device(s). RESULTS: From time of heparin initiation to ATIII supplementation, patients spent a mean 4.9 ± 2.6 days of subtherapeutic infusion and required uptitration from a mean of 15.3 ± 4.4 units/kg/hr to a mean rate of 40.7 ± 9.5 units/kg/hr. 58.3% of the patients (n = 7) had a ≥10% reduction from the baseline heparin infusion rate within 48 hours of ATIII administration. Those patients considered responders (≥10% reduction from baseline rate) had a slightly higher mean baseline antithrombin level (76.3% ± 22.0% vs. 58.6% ± 2.7% in non-responders, p = 0.1) and were administered comparable doses of ATIII. ATIII supplementation did appear to increase the time of therapeutic anticoagulation within the 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of ATIII is associated with >10% decrease in heparin requirements in more than half of the patients identified. In those patients deemed non-responders, there was a trend towards lower baseline antithrombin serum levels. Further studies are warranted to determine if the lack of response in some patients is due to inadequate dosing of ATIII or any patient-related factors.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926999

RESUMO

Limited longitudinal research has examined relationships between depression and injury, particularly in rural contexts. This paper reports cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses from the Australian Rural Mental Health Study (ARMHS) exploring relationships between "probable depression" episodes and unintentional injury. Participants completed four surveys over five years. Multivariate logistic regressions were employed to assess the causal effect of prior depression episodes on subsequent injury risk. Of 2621 baseline participants, 23.3% experienced a probable depression episode recently and 15.9% reported a serious injury during the previous 12 months. Factors associated with a 12-month injury at baseline included male gender, being unemployed or unable to work, being involved in a serious incident, hazardous alcohol use, and having experienced a recent depression episode. Longitudinal analyses revealed that probable depression was significantly associated with subsequent unintentional injury (OR 1.68, 99%CI 1.20-2.35), as was male gender (OR 1.39, 99%CI 1.06-1.82), while alcohol consumption did not mediate these relationships. Campaigns to reduce the impact of mental illness should consider unintentional injuries as a contributor, while injury prevention initiatives may benefit from addressing mental health issues. Such strategies are particularly important in rural and remote areas where injuries are more common and mental health services are less readily available.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Int J Behav Med ; 24(5): 728-739, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study sought to undertake an exploratory analysis of the impact of therapeutic alliance and dysfunctional attitudes (perfectionism and need for approval) on outcomes for participants receiving therapist-delivered and eHealth interventions for comorbid depression and alcohol/cannabis use problems. These factors have been shown in previous research to moderate response to psychological treatment for depression and related disorders. METHOD: Participants (N = 274) with concurrent depression and alcohol/cannabis misuse were randomized to 10 sessions of therapist-delivered cognitive behavior therapy/motivational interviewing (CBT/MI), computer-delivered CBT/MI with brief therapist assistance (SHADE CBT/MI), or supportive counseling (PCT). Follow-up occurred at 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Exploratory moderator analyses examined changes in depression, alcohol use, and cannabis use over the 3-12-month follow-up timepoints, adjusting for baseline, as a function of treatment allocation, and the hypothesized moderators of therapeutic alliance, perfectionism, and need for approval. RESULTS: The sample size and number of comparisons in the analysis mean that the results are considered preliminary and need replication in larger trials. The analysis revealed that "client initiative," a subscale of therapeutic alliance, moderated change in depression scores between 3- and 12-month follow-up for the PCT group, with higher scores associated with decreases in depression over time. Higher therapeutic "bond" early in treatment for SHADE CBT/MI participants was associated with reduced cannabis use over time. Participants with higher "perfectionism" scores at baseline who received therapist CBT/MI reported increases in depression over the follow-up period, but reductions in depression if they received SHADE CBT/MI. Therapist CBT/MI participants high on "need for approval" at baseline reported better alcohol use outcomes over time. CONCLUSION: The preliminary nature of these results do not justify firm conclusions. However, the specific variables of perfectionism, need for approval, and client initiative show promise as moderators of treatment efficacy for comorbid depression and alcohol/cannabis use problems. Further research is justified to determine whether these factors can assist in tailoring the modality and strategies offered in the delivery of psychotherapy to this population.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Aconselhamento , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional , Perfeccionismo , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 205(8): 647-655, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27805982

RESUMO

This study assesses the feasibility of integrating motivational interviewing (MI) with an exercise intervention. It also explores patterns of depressive symptom changes (cognitive, affective, and somatic subscales) and their relationship to cognitive, behavioral, and immunological factors (interleukin 6, IL-6, a marker for inflammation) across the exercise intervention. Twelve young adults (20.8 ± 1.7 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week exercise intervention. Assessments were conducted preintervention, postintervention, throughout the intervention, and at follow-up. Preliminary results show differential effects of exercise, with the largest standardized mean improvements for the affective subscale (-1.71), followed by cognitive (-1.56) and somatic (-1.39) subscales. A significant relationship was observed between increased behavioral activation and lower levels of IL-6. Despite study limitations, the magnitude of changes suggests that natural remission of depressive symptoms is an unlikely explanation for the findings. A randomized controlled trial has commenced to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(4): 259-267, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27799406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate patterns of alcohol use within the coal mining industry, and associations with the personal, social, workplace and employment characteristics. DESIGN: 8 mine sites across 3 eastern Australian states were surveyed, selected to encompass key geographic characteristics (accessibility and remoteness) and mine type (open cut and underground). Problematic alcohol use was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to determine: (1) overall risky or hazardous drinking behaviour; and (2) frequency of single-occasion drinking (6 or more drinks on 1 occasion). RESULTS: A total of 1457 employees completed the survey, of which 45.7% of male and 17.0% of female participants reported levels of alcohol use within the range considered as risky or hazardous, considerably higher than the national average. Hierarchical linear regression revealed a significant contribution of many individual level factors associated with AUDIT scores: younger age, male, current smoking status; illicit substance use; previous alcohol and other drug use (AOD) problems; and higher psychological distress. Workplace factors associated with alcohol use included working in mining primarily for the high remuneration, and the type of mining, with underground miners reporting higher alcohol use than open-cut miners. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide support for the need to address alcohol use in the coal mining industry over and above routine on-site testing for alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Minas de Carvão , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Austrália/epidemiologia , Minas de Carvão/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Queensland/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Arthrosc Tech ; 6(6): e2217-e2221, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29349021

RESUMO

Rotator cuff tears are extremely common in the adult population, and medial transtendinous rotator cuff tears, although rare, have recently been reported in the literature. These tears are almost always traumatic, which is a common indication for surgical management. It is necessary to consider these tears as a distinct subset when planning for rotator cuff repair because traditional repair techniques would overtension the tendon, increasing the risk for failure of the repair. The objective of this Technical Note is to describe an arthroscopic repair technique for these tears that avoids overtensioning the rotator cuff while still using repair techniques that are familiar to the arthroscopic shoulder surgeon.

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