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1.
Metab Eng ; 72: 133-149, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35289291

RESUMO

Robust systematic approaches for the metabolic engineering of cell factories remain elusive. The available models for predicting phenotypical responses and mechanisms are incomplete, particularly within the context of compound toxicity that can be a significant impediment to achieving high yields of a target product. This study describes a Multi-Omic Based Production Strain Improvement (MOBpsi) strategy that is distinguished by integrated time-resolved systems analyses of fed-batch fermentations. As a case study, MOBpsi was applied to improve the performance of an Escherichia coli cell factory producing the commodity chemical styrene. Styrene can be bio-manufactured from phenylalanine via an engineered pathway comprised of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase and ferulic acid decarboxylase. The toxicity, hydrophobicity, and volatility of styrene combine to make bio-production challenging. Previous attempts to create styrene tolerant E. coli strains by targeted genetic interventions have met with modest success. Application of MOBpsi identified new potential targets for improving performance, resulting in two host strains (E. coli NST74ΔaaeA and NST74ΔaaeA cpxPo) with increased styrene production. The best performing re-engineered chassis, NST74ΔaaeA cpxPo, produced ∼3 × more styrene and exhibited increased viability in fed-batch fermentations. Thus, this case study demonstrates the utility of MOBpsi as a systematic tool for improving the bio-manufacturing of toxic chemicals.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Engenharia Metabólica , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Fenilalanina/genética , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Estireno/metabolismo
2.
Ecol Lett ; 25(3): 581-597, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199922

RESUMO

Functional traits offer a rich quantitative framework for developing and testing theories in evolutionary biology, ecology and ecosystem science. However, the potential of functional traits to drive theoretical advances and refine models of global change can only be fully realised when species-level information is complete. Here we present the AVONET dataset containing comprehensive functional trait data for all birds, including six ecological variables, 11 continuous morphological traits, and information on range size and location. Raw morphological measurements are presented from 90,020 individuals of 11,009 extant bird species sampled from 181 countries. These data are also summarised as species averages in three taxonomic formats, allowing integration with a global phylogeny, geographical range maps, IUCN Red List data and the eBird citizen science database. The AVONET dataset provides the most detailed picture of continuous trait variation for any major radiation of organisms, offering a global template for testing hypotheses and exploring the evolutionary origins, structure and functioning of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Aves , Ecossistema , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Humanos , Filogenia
3.
Dev Sci ; 25(2): e13182, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633123

RESUMO

Facial expressions are one way in which infants and adults communicate emotion. Infants scan expressions similarly to adults, yet it remains unclear whether they are receptive to the affective information they convey. The current study investigates 6-, 9- and 12-month infants' (N = 146) pupillary responses to the six "basic" emotional expressions (happy, sad, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust). To do this we use dynamic stimuli and gaze-contingent eye-tracking to simulate brief interactive exchanges, alongside a static control condition. Infants' arousal responses were stronger for dynamic compared to static stimuli. And for dynamic stimuli we found that, compared to neutral, infants showed dilatory responses for happy and angry expressions only. Although previous work has shown infants can discriminate perceptually between facial expressions, our data suggest that sensitivity to the affective content of all six basic emotional expressions may not fully emerge until later in ontogeny.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Pupila , Adulto , Ira , Emoções/fisiologia , Felicidade , Humanos , Lactente
4.
J Bacteriol ; 204(1): e0042121, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606373

RESUMO

The paralogues RrpA and RrpB, which are members of the MarR family of DNA binding proteins, are important for the survival of the global bacterial foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni under redox stress. We report that RrpA is a positive regulator of mdaB, encoding a flavin-dependent quinone reductase that contributes to the protection from redox stress mediated by structurally diverse quinones, while RrpB negatively regulates the expression of cj1555c (renamed nfrA for NADPH-flavin reductase A), encoding a flavin reductase. NfrA reduces riboflavin at a greater rate than its derivatives, suggesting that exogenous free flavins are the natural substrate. MdaB and NfrA both prefer NADPH as an electron donor. Cysteine substitution and posttranslational modification analyses indicated that RrpA and RrpB employ a cysteine-based redox switch. Complete genome sequence analyses revealed that mdaB is frequently found in Campylobacter and related Helicobacter spp., while nfrA is predominant in C. jejuni strains. Quinones and flavins are redox cycling agents secreted by a wide range of cell types that can form damaging superoxide by one-electron reactions. We propose a model for stress adaptation where MdaB and NfrA facilitate a two-electron reduction mechanism to the less toxic hydroquinones, thus aiding survival and persistence of this major pathogen. IMPORTANCE Changes in cellular redox potential result in alteration in the oxidation state of intracellular metabolites and enzymes; consequently, cells make adjustments that favor growth and survival. The work we present here answers some of the many questions that have remained elusive over the years of investigation into the enigmatic microaerophile bacterium Campylobacter jejuni. We employed molecular approaches to understand the regulation mechanisms and functional analyses to reveal the roles of two novel quinone and flavin reductases; both serve as major pools of cellular redox-active molecules. This work extends our knowledge on bacterial redox sensing mechanisms and the significance of hemostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Helicobacter pylori/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Flavinas/metabolismo , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Helicobacter pylori/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Quinonas/metabolismo
5.
FEBS J ; 289(2): 436-456, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375507

RESUMO

The organic polymer lignin is a component of plant cell walls, which like (hemi)-cellulose is highly abundant in nature and relatively resistant to degradation. However, extracellular enzymes released by natural microbial consortia can cleave the ß-aryl ether linkages in lignin, releasing monoaromatic phenylpropanoids that can be further catabolised by diverse species of bacteria. Biodegradation of lignin is therefore important in global carbon cycling, and its natural abundance also makes it an attractive biotechnological feedstock for the industrial production of commodity chemicals. Whilst the pathways for degradation of lignin-derived aromatics have been extensively characterised, much less is understood about how they are recognised and taken up from the environment. The purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris can grow on a range of phenylpropanoid monomers and is a model organism for studying their uptake and breakdown. R. palustris encodes a tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporter (TarPQM) linked to genes encoding phenylpropanoid-degrading enzymes. The periplasmic solute-binding protein component of this transporter, TarP, has previously been shown to bind aromatic substrates. Here, we determine the high-resolution crystal structure of TarP from R. palustris as well as the structures of homologous proteins from the salt marsh bacterium Sagittula stellata and the halophile Chromohalobacter salexigens, which also grow on lignin-derived aromatics. In combination with tryptophan fluorescence ligand-binding assays, our ligand-bound co-crystal structures reveal the molecular basis for high-affinity recognition of phenylpropanoids by these TRAP transporters, which have potential for improving uptake of these compounds for biotechnological transformations of lignin.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Lignina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Rodopseudomonas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Ligantes , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/química , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Oxirredutases/genética , Periplasma/genética , Periplasma/microbiologia , Proteínas Periplásmicas de Ligação/genética , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rodopseudomonas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 812: 152385, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34942258

RESUMO

Lakes and their catchments have been subjected to centuries to millennia of exploitation by humans. Efficient monitoring methods are required to promote proactive protection and management. Traditional monitoring is time consuming and expensive, which limits the number of lakes monitored. Lake surface sediments provide a temporally integrated representation of environmental conditions and contain high microbial biomass. Based on these attributes, we hypothesized that bacteria associated with lake trophic states could be identified and used to develop an index that would not be confounded by non-nutrient stressor gradients. Metabarcoding (16S rRNA gene) was used to assess bacterial communities present in surface sediments from 259 non-saline lakes in New Zealand encompassing a range of trophic states from alpine microtrophic lakes to lowland hypertrophic lakes. A subset of lakes (n = 96) with monitoring data was used to identify indicator amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) associated with different trophic states. A total of 10,888 indicator taxa were identified and used to develop a Sediment Bacterial Trophic Index (SBTI), which signficantly correlated (r2 = 0.842, P < 0.001) with the Trophic Lake Index. The SBTI was then derived for the remaining 163 lakes, providing new knowledge of the trophic state of these unmonitored lakes. This new, robust DNA-based tool provides a rapid and cost-effective method that will allow a greater number of lakes to be monitored and more effectively managed in New Zealand and globally. The SBTI could also be applied in a paleolimnological context to investigate changes in trophic status over centuries to millennia.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Lagos , Bactérias/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
7.
Adv Microb Physiol ; 80: ix, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489795
8.
Gut Pathog ; 13(1): 72, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is a genus of bacteria that has been isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, and the environments they inhabit around the world. Campylobacter adapt to new environments by changes in their gene content and expression, but little is known about how they adapt to long-term human colonization. In this study, the genomes of 31 isolates from a New Zealand patient and 22 isolates from a United Kingdom patient belonging to Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 45 (ST45) were compared with 209 ST45 genomes from other sources to identify the mechanisms by which Campylobacter adapts to long-term human colonization. In addition, the New Zealand patient had their microbiota investigated using 16S rRNA metabarcoding, and their level of inflammation and immunosuppression analyzed using biochemical tests, to determine how Campylobacter adapts to a changing gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: There was some evidence that long-term colonization led to genome degradation, but more evidence that Campylobacter adapted through the accumulation of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and frameshifts in genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). The New Zealand patient also displayed considerable variation in their microbiome, inflammation and immunosuppression over five months, and the Campylobacter collected from this patient could be divided into two subpopulations, the proportion of which correlated with the amount of gastrointestinal inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates how genomics, phylogenetics, 16S rRNA metabarcoding and biochemical markers can provide insight into how Campylobacter adapts to changing environments within human hosts. This study also demonstrates that long-term human colonization selects for changes in Campylobacter genes involved in cell motility, signal transduction and the MOMP; and that genetically distinct subpopulations of Campylobacter evolve to adapt to the changing gastrointestinal environment.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830203

RESUMO

This study explored the expression of several miRNAs reported to be deregulated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Total RNA was isolated from sera from patients with dry AMD (n = 12), wet AMD (n = 14), and controls (n = 10). Forty-two previously investigated miRNAs were selected based on published data and their role in AMD pathogenesis, such as angiogenic and inflammatory effects, and were co-analysed using a miRCURY LNA miRNA SYBR® Green PCR kit via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate their presence. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering indicated that AMD serum specimens have a different miRNA profile to healthy controls. We successfully validated the differentially regulated miRNAs in serum from AMD patients versus controls. Eight miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-miR-23a-3p, hsa-miR-301a-3p, hsa-miR-361-5p, hsa-miR-27b-3p, hsa-miR-874-3p, hsa-miR-19b-1-5p) showed higher expression in the serum of dry AMD patients than wet AMD patients and compared with healthy controls. Increased quantities of certain miRNAs in the serum of AMD patients indicate that these miRNAs could potentially serve as diagnostic AMD biomarkers and might be used as future AMD treatment targets. The discovery of significant serum miRNA biomarkers in AMD patients would provide an easy screening tool for at-risk populations.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Expressão Gênica , Atrofia Geográfica/sangue , Atrofia Geográfica/genética , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/sangue , Degeneração Macular Exsudativa/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , MicroRNA Circulante/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
10.
Adv Microb Physiol ; 79: xiii, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836614
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0242586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478443

RESUMO

Road ecology has traditionally focused on the impact of in-situ and functional roads on wildlife. However, road construction also poses a major, yet understudied, threat and the implications for key aspects of animal behaviour are unknown. Badgers (Meles meles) have been implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle. There are concerns that environmental disturbances, including major road construction, can disrupt badger territoriality, promoting the spread of the disease to cattle. To address these knowledge gaps the ranging behaviour of a medium-density Irish badger population was monitored using GPS-tracking collars before, during, and after a major road realignment project that bisected the study area. We estimated badgers' home range sizes, nightly distances travelled, and the distance and frequency of extra-territorial excursions during each phase of the study and quantified any changes to these parameters. We show that road construction had a very limited effect on ranging behaviour. A small increase in nightly distance during road construction did not translate into an increase in home range size, nor an increase in the distance or frequency of extra-territorial excursions during road construction. In addition, suitable mitigation measures to prevent badger deaths appeared to ensure that normal patterns of ranging behaviour continued once the new road was in place. We recommend that continuous badger-proof fencing be placed along the entire length of new major roads, in combination with appropriately sited underpasses. Our analysis supports the view that road construction did not cause badgers to change their ranging behaviour in ways likely to increase the spread of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Territorialidade , Animais , Bovinos , Reservatórios de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina
12.
Infancy ; 26(6): 831-856, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288344

RESUMO

Despite being inherently dynamic phenomena, much of our understanding of how infants attend and scan facial expressions is based on static face stimuli. Here we investigate how six-, nine-, and twelve-month infants allocate their visual attention toward dynamic-interactive videos of the six basic emotional expressions, and compare their responses with static images of the same stimuli. We find infants show clear differences in how they attend and scan dynamic and static expressions, looking longer toward the dynamic-face and lower-face regions. Infants across all age groups show differential interest in expressions, and show precise scanning of regions "diagnostic" for emotion recognition. These data also indicate that infants' attention toward dynamic expressions develops over the first year of life, including relative increases in interest and scanning precision toward some negative facial expressions (e.g., anger, fear, and disgust).


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Ira , Face , Medo , Humanos , Lactente
13.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 683260, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248902

RESUMO

Bacterial C-type haem-copper oxidases in the cbb 3 family are widespread in microaerophiles, which exploit their high oxygen-binding affinity for growth in microoxic niches. In microaerophilic pathogens, C-type oxidases can be essential for infection, yet little is known about their biogenesis compared to model bacteria. Here, we have identified genes involved in cbb 3-oxidase (Cco) assembly and activity in the Gram-negative pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, the commonest cause of human food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis. Several genes of unknown function downstream of the oxidase structural genes ccoNOQP were shown to be essential (cj1483c and cj1486c) or important (cj1484c and cj1485c) for Cco activity; Cj1483 is a CcoH homologue, but Cj1484 (designated CcoZ) has structural similarity to MSMEG_4692, involved in Qcr-oxidase supercomplex formation in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of detergent solubilised membranes revealed three major bands, one of which contained CcoZ along with Qcr and oxidase subunits. Deletion of putative copper trafficking genes ccoI (cj1155c) and ccoS (cj1154c) abolished Cco activity, which was partially restored by addition of copper during growth, while inactivation of cj0369c encoding a CcoG homologue led to a partial reduction in Cco activity. Deletion of an operon encoding PCu A C (Cj0909) and Sco (Cj0911) periplasmic copper chaperone homologues reduced Cco activity, which was partially restored in the cj0911 mutant by exogenous copper. Phenotypic analyses of gene deletions in the cj1161c-1166c cluster, encoding several genes involved in intracellular metal homeostasis, showed that inactivation of copA (cj1161c), or copZ (cj1162c) led to both elevated intracellular Cu and reduced Cco activity, effects exacerbated at high external Cu. Our work has therefore identified (i) additional Cco subunits, (ii) a previously uncharacterized set of genes linking copper trafficking and Cco activity, and (iii) connections with Cu homeostasis in this important pathogen.

14.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(2): 12, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003896

RESUMO

Purpose: We previously identified three microRNAs (miRNAs) with significantly increased expression in the serum of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared with healthy controls. Our objective was to identify potential functional roles of these upregulated miRNAs (miR-19a, miR-126, and miR-410) in AMD, using computational tools for miRNAs prediction and identification, and to demonstrate the miRNAs target genes and signaling pathways. We also aim to demonstrate the pathologic role of isolated sera-derived exosomes from patients with AMD and controls using in vitro models. Methods: miR-19a, miR-126, and miR-410 were investigated using bioinformatic approaches, including DIANA-mirPath and miR TarBase. Data on the resulting target genes and signaling pathways were incorporated with the differentially expressed miRNAs in AMD. Apoptosis markers, human apoptosis miRNAs polymerase chain reaction arrays and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis assays were performed by adding serum-isolated AMD patient or control patient derived exosomes into an in vitro human angiogenesis model and ARPE-19 cell lines. Results: A number of pathways known to be involved in AMD development and progression were predicted, including the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, apoptosis, and neurodegenerative pathways. The study also provides supporting evidence for the involvement of serum-isolated AMD-derived exosomes in the pathology of AMD, via apoptosis and/or angiogenesis. Conclusions: miR-19a, miR-126, miR-410 and their target genes had a significant correlation with AMD pathogenesis. As such, they could be potential new targets as predictive biomarkers or therapies for patients with AMD. Translational Relevance: The functional analysis and the pathologic role of altered miRNA expression in AMD may be applicable in developing new therapies for AMD through the disruption of individual or multiple pathophysiologic pathways.


Assuntos
Exossomos , Degeneração Macular , MicroRNAs , Biologia Computacional , Exossomos/genética , Humanos , Degeneração Macular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
15.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 632525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842575

RESUMO

Despite advances in herd management, tuberculosis (TB) continues to affect ~0. 5% of Ireland's national cattle herd annually. It is clear that any "final" eradication of TB in cattle will need to address all TB maintenance hosts in the same environment. In Ireland and the UK, European Badgers (Meles meles) are a known TB maintenance host, while deer are recognised as spillover hosts. However, deer have been identified as maintenance hosts in other countries and Sika deer, specifically, have been identified with TB in Ireland. We examined the power of cattle, badger and Sika deer densities (at the county level) to predict cattle TB-breakdowns in Ireland, at both the herd and the individual level, using data collected between 2000 and 2018. Our hypothesis was that any positive correlations between deer density and cattle TB-breakdowns would implicate deer as TB maintenance hosts. Using linear multiple regressions, we found positive correlations between deer density and cattle TB-breakdowns at both the herd and individual levels. Since Sika deer in County Wicklow are known to have TB, we ran further regressions against subsets of data which excluded individual Irish counties. Analyses excluding Wicklow data showed much weaker correlations between Sika deer density and cattle TB-breakdowns at both the herd and individual levels, suggesting that these correlations are strongest in County Wicklow. A similar effect for badger density was seen in County Leitrim. While locally high densities of Sika deer persist in Irish counties, we believe they should be considered an integral part of any TB-control programme for those areas.

16.
Mol Microbiol ; 116(1): 343-358, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721378

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic zoonotic pathogen with an atypical respiratory Complex I that oxidizes a flavodoxin (FldA) instead of NADH. FldA is essential for viability and is reduced via pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate oxidoreductases (POR/OOR). Here, we show that FldA can also be reduced by FqrB (Cj0559), an NADPH:FldA reductase. An fqrB deletion mutant was viable but displayed a significant growth defect. FqrB is related to flavoprotein reductases from Gram-positive bacteria that can reduce NrdI, a specialized flavodoxin that is needed for tyrosyl radical formation in NrdF, the beta subunit of class 1b-type (Mn) ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). However, C. jejuni possesses a single class Ia-type (Fe) RNR (NrdAB) that would be expected to be ferredoxin dependent. We show that CjFldA is an unusually high potential flavodoxin unrelated to NrdI, yet growth of the fqrB mutant, but not the wild-type or a complemented strain, was stimulated by low deoxyribonucleoside (dRNS) concentrations, suggesting FldA links FqrB and RNR activity. Using purified proteins, we confirmed the NrdB tyrosyl radical could be regenerated in an NADPH, FqrB, and FldA dependent manner, as evidenced by both optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Thus, FldA activates RNR in C. jejuni, partly explaining its essentiality.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Flavodoxina/metabolismo , Flavoproteínas/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Ribonucleosídeo Difosfato Redutase/metabolismo , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Campylobacter jejuni/enzimologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Deleção de Genes , Oxirredução , Piruvato Sintase/metabolismo , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo
18.
Autism Res ; 14(5): 973-983, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170549

RESUMO

Studies with infant siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder have attempted to identify early markers for the disorder and suggest that autistic symptoms emerge between 12 and 24 months of age. Yet, a reliable first-year marker remains elusive. We propose that in order to establish first-year manifestations of this inherently social disorder, we need to develop research methods that are sufficiently socially demanding and realistically interactive. Building on Keemink et al. [2019, Developmental Psychology, 55, 1362-1371], we employed a gaze-contingent eye-tracking paradigm in which infants could interact with face stimuli. Infants could elicit emotional expressions (happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger) from on-screen faces by engaging in eye contact. We collected eye-tracking data and video-recorded behavioural response data from 122 (64 male, 58 female) typically developing infants and 31 infant siblings (17 male, 14 female) aged 6-, 9- and 12-months old. All infants demonstrated a significant Expression by AOI interaction (F(10, 1470) = 10.003, P < 0.001, ŋp 2  = 0.064). Infants' eye movements were "expression-specific" with infants distributing their fixations to AOIs differently per expression. Whereas eye movements provide no evidence of deviancies, behavioural response data show significant aberrancies in reciprocity for infant siblings. Infant siblings show reduced social responsiveness at the group level (F(1, 147) = 4.10, P = 0.042, ŋp 2  = 0.028) and individual level (Fischer's Exact, P = 0.032). We conclude that the gaze-contingency paradigm provides a realistically interactive experience capable of detecting deviancies in social responsiveness early, and we discuss our results in relation to subsequent infant sibling development. LAY SUMMARY: We investigated how infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder respond to interactive faces presented on a computer screen. Our study demonstrates that infant siblings are less responsive when interacting with faces on a computer screen (e.g., they smile and imitate less) in comparison to infants without an older sibling with autism. Reduced responsiveness within social interaction could potentially have implications for how parents and carers interact with these infants. Autism Res 2021, 14: 973-983. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals LLC.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Irmãos
19.
Data Brief ; 33: 106349, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072826

RESUMO

The membrane phospholipid composition is not a stable bacterial characteristic but can change in response to altered environmental conditions. Here we provide the dataset of the phospholipidome and transcriptome of the microaerophilic human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni under different environmental conditions. These data have been used in Cao (2020), The unique phospholipidome of the enteric pathogen C. jejuni: Lysolipids are required for motility at low oxygen availability. Here the abundance of each phospholipid is shown during the growth of C. jejuni for 0-108 h under low and high oxygen conditions (0.3 vs 10% O2). The phospholipid data were obtained by applying high performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The transcriptomic data obtained by RNA-seq show the differential expressed genes between logarithmic and stationary grown bacteria. In addition, our data might serve as a reference information for further in-depth investigation to understand the relation between specific phospholipids and the activity of membrane associated proteins.

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