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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 135241, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843312

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 seeks to "by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water", which is challenging particularly in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and Pacific Island Countries (PIC). We report drinking water sources and services in the Solomon Islands and examine geographical inequalities. Based on two quantitative baseline datasets of n = 1,598 rural and n = 1,068 urban households, we analyzed different drinking water variables (source type, collection time, amount, use, perceived quality, storage, treatment) and a composite index, drinking water service level. We stratified data by urban and rural areas and by province, mapped, and contextualized them. There are substantive rural-urban drinking water inequalities in the Solomon Islands. Overall, urban households are more likely to: use improved drinking water sources, need less time to collect water, collect more water, store their water more safely, treat water prior to consumption, perceive their water quality as better and have an at least basic drinking water service than rural households. There are also provincial and center-periphery inequalities in drinking water access, with more centrally located provinces using piped water supplies and more distant and remote provinces using rainwater and surface water as their primary source. There are also inter-national inequalities. Out of all PICs, the Solomon Islands have among the lowest access to basic drinking water services: 92% of urban and 55% of rural households. Of all SIDS, PICs are least serviced. This study shows that drinking water inequality is a critical issue, and highlights that all identified dimensions of inequality - rural-urban, provincial, center-periphery and inter-national - need to be explicitly recognized and addressed and included in pro-equity monitoring, policy and programming efforts by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders to reduce inequalities as per the Agenda 2030.

2.
Burns ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466920

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial risk and protective factors specific to acute burn patients have been shown to impact on longer-term health outcomes. Yet the nature and impact of such factors throughout the acute hospital admission phase have not been extensively examined to date. This study analysed the psychosocial pre-admission, hospitalisation and discharge factors for a sample of burn patients at an Australian specialist acute burns unit (The Alfred) and the relationship with their admission length. METHODS: A retrospective audit was undertaken of psychosocial factors documented in patient medical records, Victorian Adult Burns Service registry data, and social work files (January-December 2014). RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-nine patients were identified, with a mean age of 42.83 years and a preponderance of men (73.9%). The majority (71%) had a low burn severity (<10%), and an average of eight psychosocial factors. Independent of the severity of the burn, two psychosocial domains were strongly predictive of length of stay - coping with treatment and discharge planning - along with pre-existing psychosocial factors and family support. CONCLUSION: A diversity of psychosocial factors was identified, highlighting the clinical complexity of this patient group. Given three domains of admission-related psychosocial factors were predictive of the length of patient stay, more targeted psychosocial interventions in these areas may ensure patients and their families are supported more effectively throughout an admission, and length of stay costs may also be reduced.

3.
South Med J ; 112(6): 331-337, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective regionalization of acute stroke care requires assessment and coordination of limited hospital resources. We described the availability of stroke-specific hospital resources (neurology specialty physicians and neuro-intensive care unit [neuro-ICU] bed capacity) for North Carolina overall and by region and population density. We also assessed daily trends in hospital bed availability. METHODS: This statewide descriptive study was conducted with data from the State Medical Asset Resource Tracking Tool (SMARTT), a Web-based system used by North Carolina to track available medical resources within the state. The SMARTT system was queried for stroke-specific physician and bed resources at each North Carolina hospital during a 1-year period (June 2015-May 2016), including daily availability of neuro-ICU beds. We compared hospital resources by geographic region and population density (metropolitan, urban, and rural). RESULTS: Data from 108 acute care hospitals located in 75 of 100 counties in North Carolina were included in the analysis. Fifty-seven percent of hospitals had no neurology specialty physicians. Western and eastern North Carolina had the lowest prevalence of these physicians. Most hospitals (88%) had general ICUs, whereas only 17 hospitals (16%) had neuro-ICUs. Neuro-ICUs were concentrated in metropolitan areas and in central North Carolina. On average, there were 276 general ICU and 27 neuro-ICU beds available statewide each day. Daily neuro-ICU bed availability was lowest in eastern and southeastern regions and during the week compared with weekends. CONCLUSIONS: In North Carolina, stroke-specific hospital subspecialists and resources are not distributed evenly across the state. Daily bed availability, particularly in neuro-ICUs, is lacking in rural areas and noncentral regions and appears to decrease on weekdays. Regionalization of stroke care needs to consider the geographic distribution and daily variability of hospital resources.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Neurologistas/provisão & distribução , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/provisão & distribução , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 683: 331-340, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132712

RESUMO

The Solomon Islands, like other small island developing states in the Pacific, face significant challenges from a changing climate, and from increasing extreme weather events, while also lagging behind the rest of the world in terms of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) services. In order to support planning for the implementation of national WaSH strategies and policies, this study contextualizes representative urban and rural baselines for Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 ("by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation"). We highlight specific threats to the current sanitation services under extreme weather events such as flooding and drought, both of which are commonly observed in the country, and provide suggestions for structural improvements to sanitation facilities to increase resiliency. As the first detailed nationally representative cross-sectional sanitation study in urban and rural areas in the Solomon Islands, the results of this paper inform national WaSH policy, strategic planning and programming by the Solomon Islands Government and stakeholders.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 670: 717-731, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909048

RESUMO

Achieving sufficient, safe, continuously-available drinking water services in rural areas is a challenge, in high- and especially low-and middle-income countries. External support programs (ESPs) - which may include administrative, financial, and technical assistance - have been hypothesized to contribute to sustainable rural water services. While there are many descriptions of ESPs, a standard terminology and typology of ESP activities does not exist and the effect of ESP activities on system sustainability remains inadequately characterized. We conducted a systematic review of ESPs for rural drinking water systems to identify ESP terminology and describe ESP activities. Findings from 218 publications from low-, middle-, and high-income countries were analyzed. ESP terms were used inconsistently between regions and income classifications. There were few studies describing ESP activities related to mechanized piped water systems. Few studies quantitatively assess the effect of ESPs. Those that did found positive associations with functionality, household satisfaction, household participation, and financial stability. This review is the first comprehensive evaluation of the ESP literature and we derive a definition of external support programs and typology of ESP activities from the descriptions of ESPs. A common understanding of ESPs facilitates discussion and knowledge transfer between stakeholders. Consistent terminology creates a foundation for adapting ESPs to water services in community institutions and for mechanized piped water systems.

6.
Ethn Health ; 24(4): 378-394, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanic immigrants represent the largest and fastest growing ethnic minority within the US, justifying increased attention to identify factors that influence declining immigrant health across generations. This study investigates the range of psychosocial stress exposures and coping mechanisms of Mexican immigrant mothers, and implications for the health of their US-born children. DESIGN: We conducted 10 focus groups with 1st generation Mexican-born immigrant mothers (n = 32 women) in Nashville, TN, in the summer of 2014. Focus groups elicited challenges and benefits of life as an immigrant mother. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. RESULTS: We identified four themes that indicate how maternal stressors could impact children's health: (1) work-family tradeoff, (2) limited freedom/mobility, (3) reduction of social networks, and (4) transmission of anxiety and fears to children. Women in our study also engage in a range of coping mechanisms, including the creation of new social networks, seeking support in religion, and seeking help from community resources. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the importance of developing new questionnaires to elicit stress exposures for Mexican immigrant mothers. Findings also suggest the value of intervention strategies and social policies that would ultimately improve maternal and child health in this marginalized population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , México/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 142(1): 17e-22e, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952891

RESUMO

Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia is a rare adverse event associated with cryolipolysis. No evidence of spontaneous resolution has been described and little has been written about its treatment. The purpose of this report is to share the authors' experience treating patients with paradoxical adipose hyperplasia after cryolipolysis. A retrospective chart review was performed for all paradoxical adipose hyperplasia patients seen in the authors' practice between May of 2013 and May of 2016. The treatment parameters, demographics, onset of findings, and subsequent treatment were chronicled. Eleven cases of paradoxical adipose hyperplasia were identified (eight men and three women). All patients were of Hispanic background. Seven patients were treated surgically (six cases of liposuction alone and one case of liposuction and abdominoplasty). Average follow-up was 9.6 months (range, 2 to 32 months). Three of the patients treated with liposuction required a secondary procedure. All surgically treated patients were very satisfied with their final appearance. Paradoxical adipose hyperplasia is a rare complication of cryolipolysis that may occur more frequently than in the manufacturer's reported data. Treatment is best delayed until the affected area has softened, which normally occurs in 6 to 9 months after the initial cryolipolysis procedure. Power-assisted liposuction is the preferred method of treatment, but in some cases, abdominoplasty may be necessary. Secondary treatments might be needed for recurrence or persistent bulge. One must be sensitive to heightened patient concerns when offering an invasive procedure to correct the complications from a noninvasive one. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Lipectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Gordura Subcutânea/patologia , Adulto , Assistência ao Convalescente , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperplasia/etiologia , Hiperplasia/terapia , Lipectomia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Radiother Oncol ; 127(2): 253-258, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29548561

RESUMO

TITLE: Cancer Trials Ireland (ICORG) 06-34: A multi-centre clinical trial using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy to reduce the toxicity of palliative radiation for lung cancer. NCT01176487. BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Trials of radiation therapy for the palliation of intra-thoracic symptoms from locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have concentrated on optimising fractionation and dose schedules. In these trials, the rates of oesophagitis induced by this "palliative" therapy have been unacceptably high. In contrast, this non-randomised, single-arm trial was designed to assess if more technically advanced treatment techniques would result in equivalent symptom relief and reduce the side-effect of symptomatic oesophagitis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Thirty-five evaluable patients with symptomatic locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC were treated using a three-dimensional conformal technique (3-DCRT) and standardised dose regimens of 39 Gy in 13 fractions, 20 Gy in 5 fractions or 17 Gy in 2 fractions. Treatment plans sought to minimise oesophageal dose. Oesophagitis was recorded during treatment, at two weeks, one month and three months following radiation therapy and 3-6 monthly thereafter. Mean dose to the irradiated oesophagus was calculated for all treatment plans. RESULTS: Five patients (14%) had experienced grade 2 oesophagitis or dysphagia or both during treatment and 2 other patients had these side effects at the 2-week follow-up. At follow-up of one month after therapy, there was no grade two or higher oesophagitis or dysphagia reported. 22 patients were eligible for assessment of late toxicity. Five of these patients reported oesophagitis or dysphagia (one had grade 3 dysphagia, two had grade 2 oesophagitis, one of whom also had grade 2 dysphagia). Quality of Life (QoL) data at baseline and at 1-month follow up were available for 20 patients. At 1-month post radiation therapy, these patients had slightly less trouble taking a short walk, less shortness of breath, did not feel as weak, had better appetite and generally had a better overall quality of life than they did at baseline. They did report being slightly more tired. CONCLUSIONS: This trial is the first of its kind showing that 3-DCRT provides patients with lower rates of oesophageal toxicity whilst yielding acceptable rates of symptom control. (Sponsored by Cancer Trials Ireland (ICORG) Study number 06-34, the Friends of St. Luke's and the St. Luke's Institute of Cancer Research.).


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Esofagite/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Esofagite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Conformacional/métodos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 628-629: 715-721, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454211

RESUMO

The sustainability of rural, community-managed water systems in sub-Saharan Africa depends in part on the ability of local water committees to repair breakdowns and carry out the operation and maintenance (O&M) of the system. Much of sub-Saharan Africa has two distinct seasons that affect the availability of water sources and how people use water. Little is known about how seasonality affects water system management. This qualitative study is based on 320 interviews and focus group discussions and examines the effects of season on community water use and management in Ghana, Kenya and Zambia. Participants revealed that seasonality affects water availability, water system breakdowns, resource mobilization, committee activity, and external support availability. In the rainy season, participants typically reported spending less time and money on water collection because rainwater harvesting and seasonal streams, ponds, wells and reservoirs are available. In the dry season, people used improved groundwater sources more often and spent more money and time collecting water. Although seasonal changes in household water demand and use have been examined previously, our data suggest that seasonality also influences community management through differential water system use, system breakdowns and management characteristics. We found that water committees generally have less money, time and access to external support during the rainy season, making them less able to carry out O&M. Our results suggest that community engagement should take place over a long period of time so that seasonal patterns in management can be understood and incorporated into water committee training. External support actors should make a more targeted effort to understand the cultural and economic patterns in a community in order to train committees with appropriate management strategies.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , População Rural , Estações do Ano , Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Zâmbia
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(3): 531-538, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sufficient, safe, continuously available drinking water is important for human health and development, yet one in three handpumps in sub-Saharan Africa are non-functional at any given time. Community management, coupled with access to external technical expertise and spare parts, is a widely promoted model for rural water supply management. However, there is limited evidence describing how community management can address common hardware and management failures of rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We identified hardware and management rehabilitation pathways using qualitative data from 267 interviews and 57 focus group discussions in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia. Study participants were water committee members, community members, and local leaders in 18 communities (six in each study country) with water systems managed by a water committee and supported by World Vision (WV), an international non-governmental organization (NGO). Government, WV or private sector employees engaged in supporting the water systems were also interviewed. Inductive analysis was used to allow for pathways to emerge from the data, based on the perspectives and experiences of study participants. RESULTS: Four hardware rehabilitation pathways were identified, based on the types of support used in rehabilitation. Types of support were differentiated as community or external. External support includes financial and/or technical support from government or WV employees. Community actor understanding of who to contact when a hardware breakdown occurs and easy access to technical experts were consistent reasons for rapid rehabilitation for all hardware rehabilitation pathways. Three management rehabilitation pathways were identified. All require the involvement of community leaders and were best carried out when the action was participatory. CONCLUSIONS: The rehabilitation pathways show how available resources can be leveraged to restore hardware breakdowns and management failures for rural water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Governments, NGOs, and private sector actors can better build capacity of community actors by focusing on their role in rehabilitating hardware and management and to ensure that they are able to quickly contact external support actors when needed for rehabilitation. Using qualitative and participatory methods allows for insight into rapid rehabilitation of hardware and management.


Assuntos
Falha de Equipamento , Purificação da Água/instrumentação , Participação da Comunidade , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , Governo Local , Organizações , Zâmbia
13.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140899, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26505745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Packaged water products provide an increasingly important source of water for consumption. However, recent studies raise concerns over their safety. OBJECTIVES: To assess the microbial safety of packaged water, examine differences between regions, country incomes, packaged water types, and compare packaged water with other water sources. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Articles published in English, French, Portuguese, Spanish and Turkish, with no date restrictions were identified from online databases and two previous reviews. Studies published before April 2014 that assessed packaged water for the presence of Escherichia coli, thermotolerant or total coliforms were included provided they tested at least ten samples or brands. RESULTS: A total of 170 studies were included in the review. The majority of studies did not detect fecal indicator bacteria in packaged water (78/141). Compared to packaged water from upper-middle and high-income countries, packaged water from low and lower-middle-income countries was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.6-8.1) and 13.6 (95% CI: 6.9-26.7) times more likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria and total coliforms, respectively. Compared to all other packaged water types, water from small bottles was less likely to be contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.17-0.58) and total coliforms (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.05, 0.22). Packaged water was less likely to contain fecal indicator bacteria (OR = 0.35, 95%CI: 0.20, 0.62) compared to other water sources used for consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and regulators should recognize the potential benefits of packaged water in providing safer water for consumption at and away from home, especially for those who are otherwise unlikely to gain access to a reliable, safe water supply in the near future. To improve the quality of packaged water products they should be integrated into regulatory and monitoring frameworks.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Humanos , Embalagem de Produtos , Qualidade da Água
14.
Arch Plast Surg ; 41(6): 728-33, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25396187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periareolar Augmentation Mastopexy is one of the most challenging operations in plastic surgery. Problems with scar quality, areolar widening, and distortion are frequent problems that interfere with a predictable result. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on fifty consecutive patients who underwent a periareolar augmentation mastopexy with the interlocking approach. Of the 50 patients, 30 had both preoperative and postoperative photographs and were the basis of the study. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 19 to 56 years with the average age being 39 years. The postoperative follow-up averaged 9.5 months and the implants averaged 316 mL. There were no deaths, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or infected implants. Four patients had complications following surgery for an overall complication rate of 13%. Two patients developed an infected Gore-Tex suture. Two of these complications were treated with revision surgery. Five patients required reoperation for an overall reoperative rate of 16% (one patient was converted to a full mastopexy). CONCLUSIONS: As a result of this retrospective study, we have found the interlocking approach to periareolar augmentation/mastopexy to be a safe and reliable operation.

15.
Future Cardiol ; 10(3): 421-33, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24976478

RESUMO

Cardiac disease is the most common cause of death in pregnancy in the U.K. Optimal management requires an understanding of the physiological changes of the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, and their impact on existing or developing heart disease. Pregnancy itself is associated with the onset of cardiomyopathy, and a potential risk factor for ischemic heart disease and aortic dissection. Women with valvular disease and aortopathy require regular follow-up in specialized centers, and those requiring long-term anticoagulation face difficult challenges to balance maternal and fetal risks. In the UK, the Confidential Enquiries into maternal deaths and the UK Obstetric Surveillance system are examples of existing systems for identifying clinical risks and provide examples of potential improvements in care.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Gerenciamento Clínico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
16.
J Neurosci ; 29(48): 15115-25, 2009 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19955363

RESUMO

Motor sequence learning on the serial reaction time task involves the integration of response-, stimulus-, and effector-based information. Human primary motor cortex (M1) and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) have been identified with supporting the learning of effector-dependent and -independent information, respectively. Current neurocognitive data are, however, exclusively based on learning complex sequence information via perceptual-motor responses. Here, we investigated the effects of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS)-induced disruption of M1 and the angular gyrus (AG) of the IPL on learning a probabilistic sequence via sequential perceptual-motor responses (experiment 1) or covert orienting of visuospatial attention (experiment 2). Functional effects on manual sequence learning were evident during 75% of training trials in the cTBS M1 condition, whereas cTBS over the AG resulted in interference confined to a midpoint during the training phase. Posttraining direct (declarative) tests of sequence knowledge revealed that cTBS over M1 modulated the availability of newly acquired sequence knowledge, whereby sequence knowledge was implicit in the cTBS M1 condition but was available to conscious awareness in the cTBS AG and control conditions. In contrast, perceptual sequence learning was abolished in the perceptual cTBS AG condition, whereas learning was intact and available to conscious awareness in the cTBS M1 and control conditions. These results show that the right AG had a critical role in perceptual sequence learning, whereas M1 had a causal role in developing experience-dependent functional attributes relevant to conscious knowledge on manual but not perceptual sequence learning.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
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