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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(2): 12, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129590

RESUMO

Due to their similarities in anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology to humans, mice are a valuable model system to study the generation and mechanisms modulating conventional outflow resistance and thus intraocular pressure. In addition, mouse models are critical for understanding the complex nature of conventional outflow homeostasis and dysfunction that results in ocular hypertension. In this review, we describe a set of minimum acceptable standards for developing, characterizing, and utilizing mouse models of open-angle ocular hypertension. We expect that this set of standard practices will increase scientific rigor when using mouse models and will better enable researchers to replicate and build upon previous findings.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/fisiologia , Consenso , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Hipertensão Ocular/metabolismo , Malha Trabecular/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Hipertensão Ocular/fisiopatologia , Tonometria Ocular
2.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(5): 681-688, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172415

RESUMO

Clinicians trust medical laboratories to provide reliable results on which they rely for clinical decisions. Laboratories fulfil their responsibility for accurate and consistent results by utilizing an arsenal of approaches, ranging from validation and verification experiments to daily quality control procedures. All these procedures verify, on different moments, that the results of a certain examination procedure have analytical performance characteristics (APC) that meet analytical performance specifications (APS) set for a particular intended use. The APC can in part be determined by estimating the measurement uncertainty component under conditions of within-laboratory precision (u Rw), which comprises all components influencing the measurement uncertainty of random sources. To maintain the adequacy of their measurement procedures, laboratories need to distinguish aspects that are manageable vs. those that are not. One of the aspects that may influence u Rw is the momentary significant bias caused by shifts in reagent and/or calibrator lots, which, when accepted or unnoticed, become a factor of the APC. In this paper, we postulate a model for allocating a part of allowable u Rw to between-reagent lot variation, based on the need for long-term consistency of the measurement variability for that specific measurand. The allocation manages the ratio between short-term and long-term variation and indicates laboratories when to reject or correct certain variations due to reagent lots.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Calibragem , Humanos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Controle de Qualidade , Incerteza
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502356

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that glaucomatous Schlemm's canal endothelial cells (gSCECs) are stiffer and associated with reduced porosity and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) material compared to SCECs from healthy individuals. We hypothesised that Schlemm's canal (SC) cell stiffening was a function of fibrotic changes occurring at the inner wall of SC in glaucoma. This study was performed in primary cell cultures isolated from the SC lumen of human donor eyes. RNA and protein quantification of both fibrotic and endothelial cell markers was carried out on both healthy and gSCECs. Functional assays to assess cell density, size, migration, proliferation, and mitochondrial function of these cells were also carried out. Indeed, we found that gSCECs deviate from typical endothelial cell characteristics and exhibit a more fibrotic phenotype. For example, gSCECs expressed significantly higher protein levels of the fibrotic markers α-SMA, collagen I-α1, and fibronectin, as well as significantly increased protein expression of TGFß-2, the main driver of fibrosis, compared to healthy SCECs. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in protein expression of endothelial marker VE-cadherin in gSCECs, compared to healthy SCECs. gSCECs also appeared to be significantly larger, and surprisingly proliferate and migrate at a significantly higher rate, as well as showing significantly reduced mitochondrial activity, compared to healthy SCECs.


Assuntos
Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio , Matriz Extracelular , Olho/metabolismo , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Porosidade , Cultura Primária de Células , Esclera , Malha Trabecular , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta2/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0242586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478443

RESUMO

Road ecology has traditionally focused on the impact of in-situ and functional roads on wildlife. However, road construction also poses a major, yet understudied, threat and the implications for key aspects of animal behaviour are unknown. Badgers (Meles meles) have been implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle. There are concerns that environmental disturbances, including major road construction, can disrupt badger territoriality, promoting the spread of the disease to cattle. To address these knowledge gaps the ranging behaviour of a medium-density Irish badger population was monitored using GPS-tracking collars before, during, and after a major road realignment project that bisected the study area. We estimated badgers' home range sizes, nightly distances travelled, and the distance and frequency of extra-territorial excursions during each phase of the study and quantified any changes to these parameters. We show that road construction had a very limited effect on ranging behaviour. A small increase in nightly distance during road construction did not translate into an increase in home range size, nor an increase in the distance or frequency of extra-territorial excursions during road construction. In addition, suitable mitigation measures to prevent badger deaths appeared to ensure that normal patterns of ranging behaviour continued once the new road was in place. We recommend that continuous badger-proof fencing be placed along the entire length of new major roads, in combination with appropriately sited underpasses. Our analysis supports the view that road construction did not cause badgers to change their ranging behaviour in ways likely to increase the spread of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Territorialidade , Animais , Bovinos , Reservatórios de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina
5.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 167-173, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418364

RESUMO

The ISO 15189:2012 standard section 5.9.1 requires laboratories to review results before release, considering quality control, previous results, and clinical information, if any, and to issue documented procedures about it. While laboratory result reporting is generally regarded as part of the post-analytical phase, the result release process requires a general view of the total examination process. Reviewing test results may follow with troubleshooting and test repetition, including reanalyzing an individual sample or resampling. A systematic understanding of the result release may help laboratory professionals carry out appropriate test repetition and ensure the plausibility of laboratory results. In this paper, we addressed the crucial steps in the result release process, including evaluation of sample quality, critical result notification, result reporting, and recommendations for the management of the result release, considering quality control alerts, instrument flags, warning messages, and interference indexes. Error detection tools and plausibility checks mentioned in the present paper can support the daily practice of results release.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Laboratórios , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Ecol Lett ; 24(11): 2378-2393, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355467

RESUMO

Genetic differentiation and phenotypic plasticity jointly shape intraspecific trait variation, but their roles differ among traits. In short-lived plants, reproductive traits may be more genetically determined due to their impact on fitness, whereas vegetative traits may show higher plasticity to buffer short-term perturbations. Combining a multi-treatment greenhouse experiment with observational field data throughout the range of a widespread short-lived herb, Plantago lanceolata, we (1) disentangled genetic and plastic responses of functional traits to a set of environmental drivers and (2) assessed how genetic differentiation and plasticity shape observational trait-environment relationships. Reproductive traits showed distinct genetic differentiation that largely determined observational patterns, but only when correcting traits for differences in biomass. Vegetative traits showed higher plasticity and opposite genetic and plastic responses, masking the genetic component underlying field-observed trait variation. Our study suggests that genetic differentiation may be inferred from observational data only for the traits most closely related to fitness.


Assuntos
Máscaras , Plantago , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biomassa , Fenótipo
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Large-for-gestational-age (LGA) is associated with both fetal and maternal complications. One of the few modifiable risk factors for LGA is Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM); for this reason, fetal growth is usually monitored by ultrasound in the third trimester. This prospective study compared a panel of ten established biomarkers measured at the time of selective screening for GDM at 26-28 weeks gestation with the ultrasound prediction of LGA. METHOD: Women were recruited using convenience sampling and consented at the first antenatal visit. Women with maternal risk factors for GDM attended for the one-step 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. An additional blood sample was taken for biomarker measurement. GDM was diagnosed according to the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Fetal biometry, including the abdominal circumference (AC) and the fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) thickness, were measured at 37 weeks gestation. RESULTS: Of the 195 women included, 105 (53.8%) had GDM. Of the 195 babies, 36 (18.5%) were LGA. Whether the woman had GDM or not, fetal biometry was strongly predictive of LGA but none of the following biomarkers measured at 26-28 weeks gestation alone or in combination were predictive: c-peptide, ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin and visfatin. CONCLUSIONS: In women diagnosed with GDM, surveillance of fetal growth to identify LGA by ultrasound should continue in the third trimester. None of the ten established maternal biomarkers measured at the time of the OGTT was as strongly predictive of LGA as ultrasound.

8.
Ecol Lett ; 24(5): 970-983, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638576

RESUMO

Life history strategies are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of organisms and are important for understanding extinction risk and responses to global change. Using global datasets and a multiple response modelling framework we show that trait-climate interactions are associated with life history strategies for a diverse range of plant species at the global scale. Our modelling framework informs our understanding of trade-offs and positive correlations between elements of life history after accounting for environmental context and evolutionary and trait-based constraints. Interactions between plant traits and climatic context were needed to explain variation in age at maturity, distribution of mortality across the lifespan and generation times of species. Mean age at maturity and the distribution of mortality across plants' lifespan were under evolutionary constraints. These findings provide empirical support for the theoretical expectation that climatic context is key to understanding trait to life history relationships globally.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Fenótipo , Plantas
9.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 20: 86-94, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376757

RESUMO

Systemic or localized application of glucocorticoids (GCs) can lead to iatrogenic ocular hypertension, which is a leading cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma and visual impairment. Previous work has shown that dexamethasone increases zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells, and that an antisense oligonucleotide inhibitor of ZO-1 can abolish the dexamethasone-induced increase in trans-endothelial flow resistance in cultured Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelial and TM cells. We have previously shown that intracameral inoculation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting SC endothelial cell tight junction components, ZO-1 and tricellulin, increases aqueous humor outflow facility ex vivo in normotensive mice by reversibly opening SC endothelial paracellular pores. In this study, we show that targeted siRNA downregulation of these SC endothelial tight junctions reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in vivo, with a concomitant increase in conventional outflow facility in a well-characterized chronic steroid-induced mouse model of ocular hypertension, thus representing a potential focused clinical application for this therapy in a sight-threatening scenario.

10.
Environ Res ; 189: 109873, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795671

RESUMO

Exposure to Plant Protection Products, PPPs, (fungicides, herbicides and insecticides) is a significant stressor for bees and other pollinators, and has recently been the focus of intensive debate and research. Specifically, exposure through contaminated pollen and nectar is considered pivotal, as it presents the highest risk of PPP exposure across all bee species. However, the actual risk that multiple PPP residues might pose to non-target species is difficult to assess due to the lack of clear evidence of their actual concentrations. To consolidate the existing knowledge of field-realistic residues detected in pollen and nectar directly collected from plants, we performed a systematic literature review of studies over the past 50 years (1968-2018). We found that pollen was the matrix most frequently evaluated and, of the compounds investigated, the majority were detected in pollen samples. Although the overall most studied category of PPPs were the neonicotinoid insecticides, the compounds with the highest median concentrations of residues in pollen were: the broad spectrum carbamate carbofuran (1400 ng/g), the fungicide and nematicide iprodione (524 ng/g), and the organophosphate insecticide dimethoate (500 ng/g). In nectar, the highest median concentration of PPP residues detected were dimethoate (1595 ng/g), chlorothalonil (76 ng/g), and the insecticide phorate (53.5 ng/g). Strong positive correlation was observed between neonicotinoid residues in pollen and nectar of cultivated plant species. The maximum concentrations of several compounds detected in nectar and pollen were estimated to exceed the LD50s for honey bees, bumble bees and four solitary bee species, by several orders of magnitude. However, there is a paucity of information for the biggest part of the world and there is an urgent need to expand the range of compounds evaluated in PPP studies.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Animais , Abelhas , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Néctar de Plantas , Pólen , Polinização
11.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 68: 101793, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the strongest epidemiologic risk factor for cervical cancer. However, it is not a sufficient cause given the high prevalence of transient infections. We examined the relationship between exposure to tobacco smoke, measured using urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations, and p16/Ki-67 co-expression in cervical smears and subsequent risk of developing CIN2+/CIN3+ lesions in HPV positive women. METHODS: This prospective longitudinal study enrolled women presenting to colposcopy with cytological abnormalities LSIL/ASCUS at the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. Women gave a urine sample which was used to perform the Nicotine Metabolite Assay (Siemens). HPV positive (HC2) cervical smears were stained by immunocytochemistry for p16/Ki-67 (CINtec PLUS, Roche). Two year follow-up data, including histological diagnosis, was collected for each woman. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression to investigate associations between tobacco smoke, p16/Ki-67 positivity and CIN2+/CIN3 + . RESULTS: In total, 275 HPV positive women were included. Women with nicotine metabolite concentrations above 500 ng/mL, indicative of smoking, were classified as smokers. Smokers were at an increased risk of testing positive for p16/Ki-67 (OR 1.678; 1.027-2.740) and CIN2+ and CIN3+ (OR 1.816; 1.107-2.977 and OR 2.453; 1.200-5.013) in compared to non-smokers. In p16/Ki-67 positive women, smoking further increased their risk of CIN2+/CIN3+ (OR 2.290; 1.017-5.159 and OR 3.506 (1.534-8.017). CONCLUSION: HPV positive women exposed to tobacco smoke are at a higher risk of testing positive for p16/Ki-67 co-expression. Risk of high-grade disease is almost doubled in women who are exposed to tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Nicotina/urina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/metabolismo , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Colposcopia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gradação de Tumores , Teste de Papanicolaou , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 250: 101-106, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417753

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies that investigated the relationship between biomarkers and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) generally focused on individual biomarkers with significant heterogeneity in terms of the screening methodologies, diagnostic criteria for GDM and sample handling of glucose within these studies. This prospective study used an established panel of ten biomarkers to determine if they could predict the diagnosis of GDM. STUDY DESIGN: Women with risk factors for GDM were recruited at their first antenatal visit. They attended for an oral glucose tolerance test at 26-28 weeks' gestation with strict preanalytical handling of glucose samples to minimise glycolysis. A fasting plasma sample taken simultaneously was stored at -80 °C and analysed in bulk for 10 biomarkers (insulin, c-peptide, glucagon, ghrelin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), leptin, visfatin, resistin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) using the Bio-plex-pro Human Diabetes Assay. RESULTS: Insulin and C-peptide levels in the third tertile were associated with the development of GDM (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.6, 95 % CI 1.3-5.0, p = 0.005 and aOR 3.7, 95 % CI 1.8-7.4, p < 0.001 respectively, adjusted for maternal obesity). Elevated levels of ghrelin were associated with a lower odds of developing GDM, after adjustment for maternal obesity. However, approximately half of the women with GDM who were in the obesity category did not have insulin or c-peptide levels in the third tertile. CONCLUSIONS: While three of the ten biomarkers were statistically associated with an increased risk of GDM, the large overlap in values between those with normal and abnormal glucose tolerance meant that the biomarkers (alone or in combination) were not useful clinically.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Peptídeo C , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 4218-4227, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034102

RESUMO

When plants establish outside their native range, their ability to adapt to the new environment is influenced by both demography and dispersal. However, the relative importance of these two factors is poorly understood. To quantify the influence of demography and dispersal on patterns of genetic diversity underlying adaptation, we used data from a globally distributed demographic research network comprising 35 native and 18 nonnative populations of Plantago lanceolata Species-specific simulation experiments showed that dispersal would dilute demographic influences on genetic diversity at local scales. Populations in the native European range had strong spatial genetic structure associated with geographic distance and precipitation seasonality. In contrast, nonnative populations had weaker spatial genetic structure that was not associated with environmental gradients but with higher within-population genetic diversity. Our findings show that dispersal caused by repeated, long-distance, human-mediated introductions has allowed invasive plant populations to overcome environmental constraints on genetic diversity, even without strong demographic changes. The impact of invasive plants may, therefore, increase with repeated introductions, highlighting the need to constrain future introductions of species even if they already exist in an area.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Plantago/genética , Demografia , Espécies Introduzidas , Filogenia , Plantago/química
14.
Clin Chem ; 66(2): 316-323, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care (POC) measurement of glucose is currently recommended only for the monitoring of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This prospective observational study evaluated the use of POC measurements of maternal glucose to diagnose GDM in women being screened selectively with a 1-step 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: The strictest preanalytic and analytic international laboratory standards were applied to measure maternal plasma glucose at fasting and at 1 and 2 h post glucose load. The recent International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups diagnostic criteria were used. At the same time, maternal capillary glucose was measured. Because of differences in plasma and capillary glucose measurements, regression analysis of POC capillary glucose results vs laboratory plasma glucose results was conducted. The regression equations for plasma glucose were derived in a derivation cohort (n = 102). These equations were applied in the validation cohort (n = 100). Predicted and actual plasma glucose values were compared. RESULTS: Of the 202 women screened, 36.6% were nulliparous, 56.4% were obese, and 81.2% were Irish-born. Two thirds had a single risk factor for GDM, and a third had multiple risk factors. Based on the plasma measurements, 53.5% had GDM. As a predictor of GDM, the diagnostic accuracy of POC measurement was 83.0% (95% confidence interval, 74.2-89.8). CONCLUSIONS: In high-resource settings where measures to inhibit glycolysis are implemented, the use of POC measurements for the diagnosis of GDM is not justified based on this study. In low- and medium-resource settings, where measures to inhibit glycolysis are not achievable, regression analysis using POC measurements may be acceptable compared with plasma samples subject to glycolysis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Jejum , Feminino , Glucose/análise , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/tendências , Testes Imediatos/tendências , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 246: 67-71, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal dyslipidemia is well established, however, the role of obesity in this relationship is not well defined. We examined the relationship between maternal obesity at the first prenatal visit and fasting lipids measured at the time of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in women screened selectively for GDM. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective observational study was conducted in a large university maternity hospital. Women were recruited at the first prenatal visit following measurement of their weight and height. Clinical and sociodemographic details were recorded. Women with maternal risk factors for GDM were screened selectively with a one-step 75 g OGTT at 26-28 weeks gestation. GDM was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Fasting lipids were measured simultaneously. Maternal lipid levels and their relationship with GDM and obesity were analysed with linear and logistic models. RESULTS: Of the 275 women recruited at the first antenatal visit 202 attended for their OGTT at 26-28 weeks' and 53.5 % (108) had GDM based on the WHO criteria. The women with GDM were more likely to have obesity (70.4 % vs. 42.6 %, P < 0.001). Compared with women with a normal OGTT (n=94), women with GDM had higher triglycerides (P=0.023) and a lower HDL-Cholesterol (P = 0.013). However, when the cohort with GDM were stratified according to obesity, this trend was only seen in the women who had a BMI >29.9kg/m2. Based on tertiles, women with GDM had a higher odds ratio of increased triglycerides (odds ratio 3.2 (95 % confidence interval; 1.4-6.9), P = 0.004) and lower HDL-Cholesterol (odds ratio 2.2, (95 % confidence interval; 1.1-4.7), P = 0.036) and an increased TG:HDL-cholesterol ratio (odds ratio 2.3, (95 % confidence interval; 1.1-4.9), P = 0.026), only if they had obesity. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the epidemiological association between GDM and dyslipidemia is mediated through maternal obesity. Women with obesity alone or GDM alone did not have an elevated OR for dyslipidemia. Interventions designed to optimise maternal lipids should prioritise women with obesity and it may be preferable for these interventions to start prior to conception.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Obesidade Materna/epidemiologia , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
Ecol Lett ; 22(11): 1870-1878, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436021

RESUMO

The rate that consumers encounter resources in space necessarily limits the strength of feeding interactions that shape ecosystems. To explore the link between encounters and feeding, we first compiled the largest available dataset of interactions in the marine benthos by extracting data from published studies and generating new data. These data indicate that the size-scaling of feeding interactions varies among consumer groups using different strategies (passive or active) to encounter different resource types (mobile or static), with filter feeders exhibiting the weakest feeding interactions. Next, we used these data to develop an agent-based model of resource biomass encounter rates, underpinned by consumer encounter strategy and resource biomass density. Our model demonstrates that passive strategies for encountering small, dispersed resources limits biomass encounter rates, necessarily limiting the strength of feeding interactions. Our model is based on generalisable assumptions, providing a framework to assess encounter-based drivers of consumption and coexistence across systems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar , Biomassa
17.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 70(12): 1087-1096, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29089600

RESUMO

Political momentum and funding for combatting antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to build. Numerous major international and national initiatives aimed at financially incentivising the research and development (R&D) of antibiotics have been implemented. However, it remains unclear how to effectively strengthen the current set of incentive programmes to further accelerate antibiotic innovation. Based on a literature review and expert input, this study first identifies and assesses the major international, European Union, US and UK antibiotic R&D funding programmes. These programmes are then evaluated across market and public health criteria necessary for comprehensively improving the antibiotic market. The current set of incentive programmes are an important initial step to improving the economic feasibility of antibiotic development. However, there appears to be a lack of global coordination across all initiatives, which risks duplicating efforts, leaving funding gaps in the value chain and overlooking important AMR goals. This study finds that incentive programmes are overly committed to early-stage push funding of basic science and preclinical research, while there is limited late-stage push funding of clinical development. Moreover, there are almost no pull incentives to facilitate transition of antibiotic products from early clinical phases to commercialisation, focus developer concentration on the highest priority antibiotics and attract large pharmaceutical companies to invest in the market. Finally, it seems that antibiotic sustainability and patient access requirements are poorly integrated into the array of incentive mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Financiamento de Capital/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Programas Governamentais/economia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Saúde Pública
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 130(5): 1001-1010, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an intensive, medically supervised exercise intervention improved maternal glycemia and gestational weight gain in obese pregnant women when compared with routine prenatal care. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial compared a medically supervised exercise intervention with routine prenatal care. The primary outcome was a reduction in mean maternal fasting plasma glucose in the intervention group by 6.9 mg/dL at the time of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes included excessive gestational weight gain. The intervention consisted of 50-60 minutes of exercise: warm-up, resistance or weights, aerobic exercises, and cool-down. All women received routine prenatal care. Power calculation determined that 24 women were required per group to detect a difference of 6.9 mg/dL in fasting plasma glucose between groups based on an independent-sample t test for statistical power of 80% at a type I error rate of 0.05. A sample size of 44 per group was planned to allow a dropout rate of 33%. RESULTS: From November 2013 through August 2015, 88 women were randomized: 44 each to the exercise and control groups. Eight women in the control group and 11 in the intervention group did not complete the trial at 6 weeks postpartum (P=.61), but 43 in each group attended the 24- to 28-week glucose screen. There were no baseline maternal differences between groups. Classes commenced at a mean of 13 4/7±1 2/7 weeks of gestation. In early pregnancy, 51.1% (n=45/88) had an elevated fasting plasma glucose (92-125 mg/dL). There was no difference in the mean fasting plasma glucose at 24-28 weeks of gestation: 90.0±9.0 mg/dL (n=43) compared with 93.6±7.2 mg/dL (n=43) (P=.13) or in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation: 48.8% (n=21/43) compared with 58.1% (n=25/43) (P=.51) in the control and exercise groups, respectively. At 36 weeks of gestation, excessive gestational weight gain greater than 9.1 kg was lower in the exercise group, 23.5% compared with 45.2% in the control group (P<.05). CONCLUSION: An intensive, medically supervised exercise intervention for obese women from early pregnancy did not improve maternal glycemia. Pregnant women who are obese, however, should be advised to exercise because it attenuates excessive gestational weight gain. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials (ISRCTN) registry, ISRCTN 31045925.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Obesidade/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso
20.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 54(6): 671-676, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28084093

RESUMO

Background The inhibition of glycolysis prior to glucose measurement is an important consideration when interpreting glucose tolerance tests. This is particularly important in gestational diabetes mellitus where prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential. A study was planned to investigate the effect of preservatives and temperature on glycolysis. Methods Blood samples for glucose were obtained from consented females. Lithium heparin and fluoride-EDTA samples transported rapidly in ice slurry to the laboratory were analysed for glucose concentration and then held either in ice slurry or at room temperature for varying time intervals. Paired fluoride-citrate samples were received at room temperature and held at room temperature, with analysis at similar time intervals. Results No significant difference was noted between mean glucose concentrations when comparing different sample types received in ice slurry. The mean glucose concentrations decreased significantly for both sets of samples when held at room temperature (0.4 mmol/L) and in ice slurry (0.2 mmol/L). A review of patient glucose tolerance tests reported in our hospital indicated that 17.8% exceeded the recommended diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. It was predicted that if the results of fasting samples were revised to reflect the effect of glycolysis at room temperature, the adjusted diagnostic rate could increase to 35.3%. Conclusion Preanalytical handling of blood samples for glucose analysis is vital. Fluoride-EDTA is an imperfect antiglycolytic, even when the samples are transported and analysed rapidly provides such optimal conditions. The use of fluoride-citrate tubes may offer a viable alternative in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Fluoretos/farmacologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo
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