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1.
Ann Intern Med ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although most patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection can be safely managed at home, the need for hospitalization can arise suddenly. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether enrollment in an automated remote monitoring service for community-dwelling adults with COVID-19 at home ("COVID Watch") was associated with improved mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis. SETTING: Mid-Atlantic academic health system in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 23 March and 30 November 2020. INTERVENTION: The COVID Watch service consists of twice-daily, automated text message check-ins with an option to report worsening symptoms at any time. All escalations were managed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by dedicated telemedicine clinicians. MEASUREMENTS: Thirty- and 60-day outcomes of patients enrolled in COVID Watch were compared with those of patients who were eligible to enroll but received usual care. The primary outcome was death at 30 days. Secondary outcomes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Treatment effects were estimated with propensity score-weighted risk adjustment models. RESULTS: A total of 3488 patients enrolled in COVID Watch and 4377 usual care control participants were compared with propensity score weighted models. At 30 days, COVID Watch patients had an odds ratio for death of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.72), with 1.8 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (CI, 0.5 to 3.1) (P = 0.005); at 60 days, the difference was 2.5 fewer deaths per 1000 patients (CI, 0.9 to 4.0) (P = 0.002). Patients in COVID Watch had more telemedicine encounters, ED visits, and hospitalizations and presented to the ED sooner (mean, 1.9 days sooner [CI, 0.9 to 2.9 days]; all P < 0.001). LIMITATION: Observational study with the potential for unobserved confounding. CONCLUSION: Enrollment of outpatients with COVID-19 in an automated remote monitoring service was associated with reduced mortality, potentially explained by more frequent telemedicine encounters and more frequent and earlier presentation to the ED. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 758, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health disparities in prostate cancer (PC) are thought to reflect the complex interplay of socioeconomics, environment and biology. The potential impact of beliefs and perceptions about PC among Black and Latino populations on clinical disparities are not well understood. This qualitative study was conducted to assess current prevalent and pervasive stigma, beliefs and perceptions regarding PC among Blacks and Latinos living in a large metropolitan area, thereby identifying potentially modifiable barriers to care. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected through four separate focus groups of self-identified Black and Latino adult men and women living in Philadelphia to better understand their perceptions of PC diagnosis, screening and treatment. Each focus group was single-sex and conducted by racial/ethnic group in order to assess possible differences in beliefs about PC based on gender and racial/ethnic affiliation. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim by trained research assistants and qualitative data analysis was conducted using modified grounded theory. RESULTS: There were a total of 34 participants: 19 Hispanics/Latinos and 15 Blacks, with equal numbers of men and women (n=17). Median age was 57 years (range: 18 to 85 years). Dominant themes that emerged with respect to PC diagnosis included the stigma surrounding this condition and the perceived role of an "unhealthy lifestyle" and certain sexual behaviors as risk factors for PC development. While the majority of participants acknowledged the importance of PC screening and early detection, discussion centered around the barriers to both the interest in seeking medical care and the likelihood of securing it. These barriers included misunderstanding of PC etiology, distrust of the medical profession, and financial/access limitations. Men expressed substantial confusion about PC screening guidelines. In the Black female group, the role of faith and religion in the course of disease was a major theme. Both Black and Latina females discussed the role of fear and avoidance around PC screening and treatment, as well as the prevalence of misinformation about PC in their familial and social communities. CONCLUSION: Black and Latino focus groups revealed the existence of cultural beliefs, misunderstandings and fears pertaining to PC which could influence health-related behaviors. Some themes were common across groups; others suggested racial and gender predilections. Future targeted efforts focused on directly addressing prevalent misperceptions among underserved communities in urban settings could help to improve health literacy and equity in PC outcomes in these populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Neoplasias da Próstata , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Philadelphia , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico
3.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(6): 227-231, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Low rates of participation in cancer clinical trials are commonly reported, raising concerns about missed opportunities to engage patients in treatment trials. We reviewed eligibility for and enrollment in pancreatic cancer clinical trials for patients seen at a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer center during 1 year, to calculate participation rates with detailed information to determine the best-case participation rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the Abramson Cancer Center Cancer Registry, clinical trial protocols, and electronic medical records (EMRs) to determine eligibility for all available pancreatic cancer clinical trials. Patient characteristics and reasons for ineligibility were abstracted from EMRs. We then computed participation rates based on enrollment in trials using EMR and clinical trials monitoring data. RESULTS: Of 233 new pancreatic cancer patients in 2014, 47 or 20% enrolled in a clinical trial (enrollment fraction). According to the EMR, of the 66 patients who were eligible for a trial, 54 (82% of eligible) accepted and 47 (71% of eligible) ultimately enrolled in a trial, 8 (12% of eligible) declined, and 4 (6% of eligible) had no record of patient decision. Enrollment in a trial by both the EMR and clinical trials database was confirmed for 71% of eligible patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that 71% of newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients who were eligible for a trial were enrolled in a treatment trial. We contend that in-depth analysis, rather than enrollment fraction, should be used to inform the gap between actual participation and optimal clinical trial participation for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Definição da Elegibilidade/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(8): 1239-1248, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449040

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in a national sample of patients with RA with/without Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Adults with RA from a large observational US registry (Corrona RA) with known SS status between 22 April 2010 and 31 July 2018 and a visit 12 (± 3) months after index date were identified (n = 36,256/52,757). SS status: determined from a yes/no variable reported at enrolment into the Corrona RA registry and follow-up visits. Index date: date that SS status was recorded (yes/no). Patients received biologic or targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs as part of standard care. Patients with RA only were followed for ≥ 12 months to confirm the absence of SS. Patients were frequency- and propensity-score matched (PSM) 1:1 and stratified by disease duration and treatment response-associated variables, respectively. Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and PROs 12 months after index visit were compared in patients with and without SS. Baseline characteristics in 283 pairs of PSM patients were balanced. Mean change in CDAI score was numerically lower in patients with RA and SS than patients with RA only (8.8 vs 9.3). Reductions in PROs of pain, fatigue and stiffness were two- to threefold lower for patients with RA and SS versus RA only. Reductions in RA disease activity and RA-related PROs were lower in patients with RA and SS versus those with RA only. Our data indicate that SS adds to treatment challenges; physicians may wish to consider SS status when managing patients with RA.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/epidemiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Sjogren/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(6): 1899-1905, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130579

RESUMO

The objectives of this analysis were to assess the prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to compare baseline characteristics of patients with RA with and without SS. Adult patients with RA from a large observational US registry (Corrona RA), with ≥ 1 visit for assessment of SS status between 22 April 2010 and 28 February 2018, were considered. Patients with RA with versus without SS were compared. SS status was determined from a yes/no variable and reported at enrollment into the Corrona RA registry and follow-up visits. Outcomes were unadjusted prevalence of SS in patients with RA, prevalence of SS by RA disease duration, and baseline characteristics in patients with RA by SS status. Of 24,528 eligible patients, 7870 (32.1%) had a diagnosis of RA and SS. The unadjusted overall rate for SS prevalence in patients with RA was 0.30 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.31). SS prevalence increased with increasing RA duration. Patients with RA with versus without SS were more likely to be older, female, and seropositive; had a longer RA duration; higher disease activity; and a higher incidence of comorbidities (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, malignancies, and serious infections), erosive disease, and subcutaneous nodules at index date. Patients with RA and SS had a higher disease burden than those with RA only. The prevalence of SS increased as duration of RA increased. RA with SS was associated with seropositivity, more severe RA, extra-articular manifestations, and comorbidities.Key Points• The overall prevalence of SS among patients with RA was 30%.• The prevalence of SS increased with increasing RA disease duration.• Identifying specific clinical characteristics of patients with RA with SS, such as a greater incidence of extra-articular manifestations and comorbidities, may help clinicians to better characterize this patient population.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Rheumatol Ther ; 6(2): 217-230, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are highly specific serological biomarkers that are indicative of a poor prognosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The effectiveness of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) with different mechanisms of action may vary, based on patients' serostatus. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of abatacept versus tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) in patients with RA who were anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positive (anti-CCP+). METHODS: Abatacept or TNFi initiators with anti-CCP+ status (≥ 20 U/ml) at or prior to treatment initiation were identified from a large observational US cohort (1 December 2005-31 August 2016). Using propensity score matching (1:1), stratified by prior TNFi use (0, 1 and ≥ 2), effectiveness at 6 months after initiation was evaluated. Primary outcome was mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score. Secondary outcomes included achievement of remission (CDAI ≤ 2.8), low disease activity/remission (CDAI ≤ 10), modified American College of Rheumatology 20/50/70 responses and mean change in modified Health Assessment Questionnaire score. RESULTS: After propensity score matching, the baseline characteristics between 330 pairs of abatacept and TNFi initiators (biologic naïve, n = 97; TNFi experienced, n = 233) were well balanced with absolute value standardized differences of ≤ 0.1. Both overall, and in the biologic-naïve cohort, there were no significant differences in mean change in CDAI score at 6 months. However, in the TNFi-experienced cohort, there was a significantly greater improvement in CDAI score at 6 months with abatacept versus TNFi initiators (p = 0.033). Secondary outcomes showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in clinical disease activity were seen in anti-CCP+ abatacept and TNFi initiators. TNFi-experienced anti-CCP+ patients with RA had more improvement in disease activity with abatacept versus TNFis, whereas outcomes were similar between treatments in the overall population and in biologic-naïve patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01625650. FUNDING: This study is sponsored by Corrona, LLC and funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb. Bristol-Myers Squibb funded the publication of this manuscript.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 45(10): 1353-1360, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by number of poor prognostic factors (PPF: functional limitation, extraarticular disease, seropositivity, erosions) and evaluate treatment acceleration, clinical outcomes, and work status over 12 months by number of PPF. METHODS: Using the Corrona RA registry (January 2005-December 2015), biologic-naive patients with diagnosed RA having 12-month (± 3 mos) followup were identified and categorized by PPF (0-1, 2, ≥ 3). Changes in medication, Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI), and work status (baseline-12 mos) were evaluated using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: There were 3458 patients who met the selection criteria: 1489 (43.1%), 1214 (35.1%), and 755 (21.8%) had 0-1, 2, or ≥ 3 PPF, respectively. At baseline, patients with ≥ 3 PPF were older, and had longer RA duration and higher CDAI versus those with 0-1 PPF. In 0-1, 2, and ≥ 3 PPF groups, respectively, 20.9%, 23.2%, and 26.5% of patients received ≥ 1 biologic (p = 0.011). Biologic/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (tsDMARD) use was similar in patients with/without PPF (p = 0.57). After adjusting for baseline CDAI, mean (standard error) change in CDAI was -4.95 (0.24), -4.53 (0.27), and -2.52 (0.34) for 0-1, 2, and ≥ 3 PPF groups, respectively. More patients were working at baseline but not at 12-month followup in 2 (13.9%) and ≥ 3 (12.5%) versus 0-1 (7.3%) PPF group. CONCLUSION: Despite high disease activity and worse clinical outcomes, number of PPF did not significantly predict biologic/tsDMARD use. This may warrant reconsideration of the importance of PPF in treat-to-target approaches.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
9.
J Rheumatol ; 45(1): 32-39, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29093151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess whether baseline anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) status is associated with treatment response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating abatacept (ABA) or a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS: Using the Corrona RA registry, patients were identified who initiated ABA or a TNFi (June 2004-January 2015), had a followup visit 6 months (± 3 mos) after initiation, and anti-CCP measured at or prior to initiation. Primary outcome was mean change in Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) from initiation to 6 months. Treatment response was evaluated based on a typical patient profile (female, aged 57 yrs, body mass index of 30 kg/m2, baseline CDAI of 20, 1 prior biologic, and no comorbidities other than RA). Secondary outcomes included remission and low disease activity. RESULTS: There were 566 ABA initiators [anti-CCP+ (≥ 20 units/ml): n = 362; anti-CCP- (< 20 units/ml): n = 204] and 1715 TNFi initiators (anti-CCP+: n = 1113; anti-CCP-: n = 602). Differences between treatment groups included baseline disease duration, CDAI, and prior biologic use. At 6 months, anti-CCP+ ABA initiators were associated with significantly greater CDAI response versus anti-CCP- ABA initiators; no significant difference was observed for TNFi initiators. When considering a typical RA patient profile, CDAI response was greater in anti-CCP+ versus anti-CCP- ABA initiators; anti-CCP+ versus anti-CCP- TNFi initiators were similar. Secondary outcome responses were also greater in anti-CCP+ versus anti-CCP- ABA initiators; TNFi initiators did not differ by anti-CCP status. CONCLUSION: In a US-based clinical practice setting, anti-CCP status was associated with a differential treatment response to ABA, but not TNFi.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Anti-Proteína Citrulinada/sangue , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Estados Unidos
10.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 45(2): 225-233, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170875

RESUMO

The long-term pharmacodynamic effects of Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in patients undergoing early percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after fibrinolytic therapy is unknown. From May 2014 to August 2016, 212 patients undergoing PCI within 24 h of Tenecteplase (TNK), Aspirin, and Clopidogrel for ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) were randomized at four Canadian sites to receive additional Clopidogrel or Ticagrelor initiated prior to PCI. The platelet reactivity units (PRU) were measured with the VerifyNow Assay before study drug administration (baseline), at 4 and 24 h post PCI, and follow-up appointment. A mixed-model analysis with time as the repeated measure and drug as the between-subjects factor was calculated using 2 separate 1 × 4 ANOVAs, with students t-tests used to compare drugs within each time point. Complete clinical follow-up data (median 115.0 days; IQR 80.3-168.8) was available in 50 patients (23.6%) randomized to either Clopidogrel (n = 23) or Ticagrelor (n = 27). Analyses revealed significant decreases in PRU from baseline to 4 h (261.4 vs. 71.7; Mdiff = - 189.7; p < 0.001) to 24 h (71.7 vs. 27.7; Mdiff = - 44.0; p < 0.001) to end of follow-up (27.7 vs.17.9; Mdiff = - 9.9. p = 0.016) for those randomized to Ticagrelor and significant decreases in PRU only from baseline to 4 h (271.3 vs. 200.8; Mdiff = - 70.5, p = < 0.001) in patients receiving Clopidogrel, and a significantly greater proportion of patients with adequate platelet inhibition (PRU < 208) on long-term follow-up (Clopidogrel, 82.6% vs. Ticagrelor, 100.0%; p = 0.038). Our results demonstrate that in patients undergoing PCI within 24 h of fibrinolysis for STEMI, Ticagrelor provides prolonged platelet inhibition compared with Clopidogrel.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/farmacocinética , Idoso , Clopidogrel , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacocinética , Terapia Trombolítica , Ticagrelor , Ticlopidina/farmacocinética , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Lupus Sci Med ; 4(1): e000206, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214034

RESUMO

Objective: To characterise patients with active SLE based on pretreatment gene expression-defined peripheral immune cell patterns and identify clusters enriched for potential responders to abatacept treatment. Methods: This post hoc analysis used baseline peripheral whole blood transcriptomic data from patients in a phase IIb trial of intravenous abatacept (~10 mg/kg/month). Cell-specific genes were used with a published deconvolution algorithm to identify immune cell proportions in patient samples, and unsupervised consensus clustering was generated. Efficacy data were re-analysed. Results: Patient data (n=144: abatacept: n=98; placebo: n=46) were grouped into four main clusters (C) by predominant characteristic cells: C1-neutrophils; C2-cytotoxic T cells, B-cell receptor-ligated B cells, monocytes, IgG memory B cells, activated T helper cells; C3-plasma cells, activated dendritic cells, activated natural killer cells, neutrophils; C4-activated dendritic cells, cytotoxic T cells. C3 had the highest baseline total British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) scores, highest antidouble-stranded DNA autoantibody levels and shortest time to flare (TTF), plus trends in favour of response to abatacept over placebo: adjusted mean difference in BILAG score over 1 year, -4.78 (95% CI -12.49 to 2.92); median TTF, 56 vs 6 days; greater normalisation of complement component 3 and 4 levels. Differential improvements with abatacept were not seen in other clusters, except for median TTF in C1 (201 vs 109 days). Conclusions: Immune cell clustering segmented disease severity and responsiveness to abatacept. Definition of immune response cell types may inform design and interpretation of SLE trials and treatment decisions. Trial registration number: NCT00119678; results.

12.
Am Heart J ; 192: 105-112, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing PCI early after fibrinolytic therapy are at high risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. We sought to assess the pharmacodynamic effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in the fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients undergoing PCI within 24 hours of tenecteplase (TNK), aspirin, and clopidogrel for STEMI were randomized to receive additional clopidogrel 300 mg followed by 75 mg daily or ticagrelor 180 mg followed by 90 mg twice daily. The platelet reactivity units (PRU) were measured with the VerifyNow Assay before study drug administration (baseline) at 4 and 24 hours post-PCI. The primary end point was PRU ≤208 at 4 hours. A total of 140 patients (74 in ticagrelor and 66 in clopidogrel group) were enrolled. The mean PRU values at baseline were similar for the 2 groups (257.8±52.9 vs 259.5±56.7, P=.85, respectively). Post-PCI, patients on ticagrelor, compared to those on clopidogrel, had significantly lower PRU at 4 hours (78.7±88 vs 193.6±86.5, respectively, P<.001) and at 24 hours (34.5±35.0 and 153.5±75.5, respectively, P<.001). The primary end point was observed in 87.8% (n=65) in the ticagrelor-treated patients compared to 57.6% (n=38) of clopidogrel-treated patients, P<.001. CONCLUSION: Fibrinolysis-treated STEMI patients who received clopidogrel and aspirin at the time of fibrinolysis and were undergoing early PCI frequently had PRU >208. In this high-risk population, ticagrelor provides more prompt and potent platelet inhibition compared with clopidogrel (Funded by Astra Zeneca; NCT01930591, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01930591).


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Ticagrelor , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Clin Rheumatol ; 36(6): 1215-1220, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251392

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to examine whether disease duration independently predicts treatment response among biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) initiating abatacept in clinical practice. Using the Corrona RA registry (February 2006-January 2015), biologic-naïve patients with RA initiating abatacept with 12-month (±3 months) follow-up and assessment of disease activity (Clinical Disease Activity Index [CDAI]) at initiation and at 12 months were identified. The primary outcome was mean change in CDAI (ΔCDAI) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes at 12 months included achievement of low disease activity (LDA; CDAI ≤10 in patients with moderate/high disease activity at initiation) and remission (CDAI ≤2.8 in patients with low, moderate or high disease activity at initiation). Linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between disease duration and response to abatacept. There were 281 biologic-naïve patients with RA initiating abatacept (disease duration 0-2 years, n = 107; 3-5 years, n = 45; 6-10 years, n = 50; >10 years, n = 79). Increased disease duration was associated with older age (p = 0.047), and the median number of prior conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs used was lowest in the 0- to 2-year duration group (p < 0.001). Mean ΔCDAI (SE) ranged from -10.22 (1.19) for 0-2 years to -4.63 (1.38) for >10 years. In adjusted analyses, shorter disease duration was significantly associated with greater mean ΔCDAI (p = 0.015) and greater likelihood of achieving LDA (p = 0.048). In biologic-naïve patients with RA initiating abatacept, earlier disease (shorter disease duration) was associated with greater ΔCDAI and likelihood of achieving LDA.


Assuntos
Abatacepte/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 17: 231, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27229685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including those treated with biologics, are at increased risk of some vaccine-preventable infections. We evaluated the antibody response to standard 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and the 2011-2012 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in adults with RA receiving subcutaneous (SC) abatacept and background disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). METHODS: Two multicenter, open-label sub-studies enrolled patients from the ACQUIRE (pneumococcal and influenza) and ATTUNE (pneumococcal) studies at any point during their SC abatacept treatment cycle following completion of ≥3 months' SC abatacept. All patients received fixed-dose abatacept 125 mg/week with background DMARDs. A pre-vaccination blood sample was taken, and after 28 ± 3 days a final post-vaccination sample was collected. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving an immunologic response to the vaccine at Day 28 among patients without a protective antibody level to the vaccine antigens at baseline (pneumococcal: defined as ≥2-fold increase in post-vaccination titers to ≥3 of 5 antigens and protective antibody level of ≥1.6 µg/mL to ≥3 of 5 antigens; influenza: defined as ≥4-fold increase in post-vaccination titers to ≥2 of 3 antigens and protective antibody level of ≥1:40 to ≥2 of 3 antigens). Safety and tolerability were evaluated throughout the sub-studies. RESULTS: Pre- and post-vaccination titers were available for 113/125 and 186/191 enrolled patients receiving the PPSV23 and influenza vaccine, respectively. Among vaccinated patients, 47/113 pneumococcal and 121/186 influenza patients were without protective antibody levels at baseline. Among patients with available data, 73.9 % (34/46) and 61.3 % (73/119) met the primary endpoint and achieved an immunologic response to PPSV23 or influenza vaccine, respectively. In patients with pre- and post-vaccination data available, 83.9 % in the pneumococcal study demonstrated protective antibody levels with PPSV23 (titer ≥1.6 µg/mL to ≥3 of 5 antigens), and 81.2 % in the influenza study achieved protective antibody levels (titer ≥1:40 to ≥2 of 3 antigens) at Day 28 post-vaccination. Vaccines were well tolerated with SC abatacept with background DMARDs. CONCLUSIONS: In these sub-studies, patients with RA receiving SC abatacept and background DMARDs were able to mount an appropriate immune response to pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00559585 (registered 15 November 2007) and NCT00663702 (registered 18 April 2008).


Assuntos
Abatacepte/imunologia , Antirreumáticos/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Abatacepte/administração & dosagem , Abatacepte/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/efeitos adversos , Vacinação
15.
Ann Emerg Med ; 66(3): 246-252.e1, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25865093

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To inform the development of interventions that could improve patient engagement around the risks and benefits of alternative approaches to pain management in the emergency department (ED), we seek to capture the perspectives and experiences of patients treated for pain in this setting. METHODS: Three trained interviewers conducted semistructured open-ended telephone interviews with patients discharged from a single urban academic ED after presenting with acute pain related to fracture, renal colic, or musculoskeletal back injury. We recruited subjects until achieving thematic saturation according to periodic review of the interview transcripts. Interviews were audio recorded, professionally transcribed, and uploaded into QSR NVivo (version 10.0) for coding and analysis using modified grounded theory. An interdisciplinary team double coded the data and convened to review emerging themes, ensure interrater reliability, and establish consensus on discrepancies. RESULTS: We had 23 completed subject interviews, the majority of which were women. Interrater reliability for coding exceeded 90%. The major themes elicited centered on domains of patient awareness of the potential for opioid dependence and patient-provider communication relating to pain management. From the patient perspective, emergency physicians typically do not present alternative pain management options or discuss the risks of opioid dependence. Patients with negative experiences related to pain management describe deficiencies in patient-provider communication leading to misunderstanding of clinical diagnoses, fragmentation of care among their health care providers, and a desire to be involved in the decisionmaking process around their pain management. Patients with positive experiences commented on regular communication with their care team, rapid pain management, and the empathetic nature of their care providers. Patients communicate fears about the risks of opioid addiction, beliefs that following a prescribed opioid regimen is protective of developing opioid dependence, and an understanding of the broader tensions that providers face relating to the prescription of opioid therapy. CONCLUSION: Patients identified a deficit of communication around opioid risk and pain management options in the ED.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Inj Epidemiol ; 2(1): 24, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27747756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of injury-related hospital admissions in Canadian older adults, accounting for 85 % of injury hospitalizations among older adults aged over 65 years. While many of these injuries can lead to death, the survival rates of fall-related injuries are rarely examined. This surveillance study examined the fall injury hospitalization and survival rates among older adults in the context of place. METHODS: Saskatchewan's health administrative data on injury hospitalizations among individuals aged 65 years and over (n = 39,867) was utilized for this study. Variables of interest included age group, sex, and the geographical area of residence at the time of hospitalization (rural, urban, north). Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the association of variables of interest (age group, sex, and area of residence at the time of hospitalization as the covariate) with frequency of fall injury hospitalizations. Probable time to death due to fall-related injury hospitalization was determined by survival analysis. RESULTS: Three key findings that emerged from the present study are the following: (1) fall injury hospitalizations accounted for 77 % of all injury hospitalizations; (2) fall injury hospitalization rates varied by age group, sex, and area of residence, with advancing age, women, and certain geographical areas showing higher rates; and (3) survival rates also varied by sex and area of residence. Women had longer survival estimates after a fall injury hospitalization compared to men, and those living in the north have the shortest survival estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from the study highlighted the high rate of fall-related injury hospitalization among older adults varying with their age group, sex, and area of residence. These factors need to be considered in injury surveillance and fall prevention research as well as programs and policies that support the reduction of falls.

17.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 8: 1427-35, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25342889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As ticagrelor enters into clinical use for acute coronary syndrome, it is important to understand patient/physician behavior in terms of appropriate use, adherence, and event rates. METHODS: The Southern Saskatchewan Ticagrelor Registry is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study that identifies consecutive patients started on ticagrelor. We aimed to evaluate both on- and off-label use, identify characteristics of patients who prematurely stop ticagrelor, and describe patient/physician behavior contributing to inappropriate stoppage of this medication. RESULTS: From April 2012 to September 2013, 227 patients were initiated on ticagrelor, with a mean age of 62.2±12.1 years. The participants were 66% men and had a mean follow up of 157.4±111.7 days. Seventy-four patients (32.4%) had off-label indications. Forty-seven patients (20.7%) prematurely stopped ticagrelor and were more likely to be older, women, nonwhite, present with shock, and complain of dyspnea. Twenty-six of the 47 patients stopped ticagrelor inappropriately because of patient nonadherence (18 patients) and physician advice (eight patients). A composite outcome event of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 8.8% of the entire cohort and was more likely to occur in those older then 65 years, those presenting with cardiogenic shock, and those who prematurely stopped ticagrelor. CONCLUSION: In this real-world registry of patients started on ticagrelor, a third have off-label indications and a fifth prematurely stop the medication. Premature discontinuation was an independent predictor of major life-threatening bleeding and increased composite event rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke.

18.
World J Surg Oncol ; 12: 235, 2014 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25070647

RESUMO

Calcifying fibrous tumors (CFT) are rare benign tumors. They usually affect children and young adults and the incidence is equal in males and females. The usual clinical presentation is that of a painless mass. A computed tomography scan typically reveals a well-demarcated calcified lesion. CFT usually presents as a solitary mass and the commonest sites of occurrence are in soft tissues, the pleura, or the peritoneum. Multifocal occurrences at the same site have also been reported. The first case of CFT was reported in 1988. We present a rare case of multiple calcifying fibrous tumors at multiple sites in the same patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever reported case of multifocal CFT atsix different anatomical sites in one patient.


Assuntos
Calcinose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Tecido Fibroso/diagnóstico , Adulto , Calcinose/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias de Tecido Fibroso/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Rheumatol Ther ; 1(1): 31-44, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27747761

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As the therapeutic landscape for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) continues to change, it is relevant to examine current treatment patterns among rheumatologists. The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes and practices of US rheumatologists with respect to RA. METHODS: Nine-hundred and one US-practicing rheumatologists were sent electronic invites (via email or fax) to participate in a case-vignette survey in April 2013. All respondents were currently practicing rheumatology and seeing at least one RA patient per week. The survey examined current attitudes, existing knowledge, management choices and perceived barriers in the management of RA. Data collection stopped once 125 responses were received. RESULTS: Approximately half of the 125 respondents were very familiar with current clinical practice guidelines for RA diagnosis and management. There was no consensus on which validated tools to use when assessing RA severity, with 54% using Physician Global Assessment and 34% using Disease Activity Score 28 at initial assessment. Most respondents (74%) used methotrexate (MTX) as initial therapy for a newly diagnosed RA patient. Eighty-six percent of respondents would add a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) when MTX alone could not control RA. There was no consensus on which treatment should be used when a TNFi is ineffective. The majority of respondents (66% of respondents) would prescribe TNFis indefinitely in patients with continued response. If a patient was in stable remission on MTX and a TNFi, respondents were most likely to maintain this regimen (53% of respondents); a notable minority (43%) would lower the MTX dose. When prescribing biologics, respondents were most concerned with infection; infection was considered a very significant barrier to biologic use. Although 98% of respondents indicated that they personally educate patients about RA, only 42% provide written material. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of consistency in responses suggests that rheumatologists may benefit from continuing medical education on; clinical practice guidelines; the most recent evidence for management of patients in remission; the use of biologic agents after infection; and management of patients with RA and comorbidities.

20.
Palliat Med ; 28(3): 273-80, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24026003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the public appear to be confused about the meaning of palliative care. Given the ageing population and associated increase in the number of patients requiring palliative care, it is vital to explore the public's understanding of this concept. Health-promoting palliative care seeks to translate hospice and palliative care ideals into broader public health practice. AIM: To explore public perceptions of palliative care and identify strategies to raise awareness. DESIGN: An exploratory qualitative approach. PARTICIPANTS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken (N = 50) with members of the public who volunteered to participate in the study. The interviews focused on knowledge and perceptions of palliative care, expectations of palliative care services and the identification of strategies to raise public awareness of palliative care. The interviews were audio recorded and content analysed. RESULTS: Most participants had a general knowledge of palliative care, largely influenced by their own personal experience. They identified that palliative care was about caring for people who were dying and maintaining comfort in the last days of life. Participant's expectations of services included the following: holistic support, symptom management, good communication and practical support to enable choice and carer support. Key aspects identified for promoting palliative care were the development of understanding and use of the term itself and targeted educational strategies. CONCLUSION: Experience of palliative care generates understanding in the general public who also have ideas for increasing knowledge and awareness. The findings can inform policymakers about strategies to raise public awareness of palliative care.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Opinião Pública , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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