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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 100, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198361

RESUMO

This review summarizes the last decade of work by the ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) Consortium, a global alliance of over 1400 scientists across 43 countries, studying the human brain in health and disease. Building on large-scale genetic studies that discovered the first robustly replicated genetic loci associated with brain metrics, ENIGMA has diversified into over 50 working groups (WGs), pooling worldwide data and expertise to answer fundamental questions in neuroscience, psychiatry, neurology, and genetics. Most ENIGMA WGs focus on specific psychiatric and neurological conditions, other WGs study normal variation due to sex and gender differences, or development and aging; still other WGs develop methodological pipelines and tools to facilitate harmonized analyses of "big data" (i.e., genetic and epigenetic data, multimodal MRI, and electroencephalography data). These international efforts have yielded the largest neuroimaging studies to date in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, epilepsy, and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. More recent ENIGMA WGs have formed to study anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts and behavior, sleep and insomnia, eating disorders, irritability, brain injury, antisocial personality and conduct disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. Here, we summarize the first decade of ENIGMA's activities and ongoing projects, and describe the successes and challenges encountered along the way. We highlight the advantages of collaborative large-scale coordinated data analyses for testing reproducibility and robustness of findings, offering the opportunity to identify brain systems involved in clinical syndromes across diverse samples and associated genetic, environmental, demographic, cognitive, and psychosocial factors.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919030225, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia has recently been associated with widespread white matter microstructural abnormalities, but the functional effects of these abnormalities remain unclear. Widespread heterogeneity of results from studies published to date preclude any definitive characterization of the relationship between white matter and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Given the relevance of deficits in cognitive function to predicting social and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, the authors carried out a meta-analysis of available data through the ENIGMA Consortium, using a common analysis pipeline, to elucidate the relationship between white matter microstructure and a measure of general cognitive performance, IQ, in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants. METHODS: The meta-analysis included 760 patients with schizophrenia and 957 healthy participants from 11 participating ENIGMA Consortium sites. For each site, principal component analysis was used to calculate both a global fractional anisotropy component (gFA) and a fractional anisotropy component for six long association tracts (LA-gFA) previously associated with cognition. RESULTS: Meta-analyses of regression results indicated that gFA accounted for a significant amount of variation in cognition in the full sample (effect size [Hedges' g]=0.27, CI=0.17-0.36), with similar effects sizes observed for both the patient (effect size=0.20, CI=0.05-0.35) and healthy participant groups (effect size=0.32, CI=0.18-0.45). Comparable patterns of association were also observed between LA-gFA and cognition for the full sample (effect size=0.28, CI=0.18-0.37), the patient group (effect size=0.23, CI=0.09-0.38), and the healthy participant group (effect size=0.31, CI=0.18-0.44). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides robust evidence that cognitive ability is associated with global structural connectivity, with higher fractional anisotropy associated with higher IQ. This association was independent of diagnosis; while schizophrenia patients tended to have lower fractional anisotropy and lower IQ than healthy participants, the comparable size of effect in each group suggested a more general, rather than disease-specific, pattern of association.

4.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 30(1): 73-83, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759574

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with a lifetime prevalence of about 1%. Onset is typically in adolescence or early adulthood; characteristic symptoms include positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and impairments in cognition. Neuroimaging studies have shown substantive evidence of brain structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations that are more pronounced in the association cortex and subcortical regions. These abnormalities are not sufficiently specific to be of diagnostic value, but there may be a role for imaging techniques to provide predictions of outcome. Incorporating multimodal imaging datasets using machine learning approaches may offer better diagnostic and predictive value in schizophrenia.

5.
Neuroimage Clin ; : 102108, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791912

RESUMO

The first episode of psychosis is typically preceded by a prodromal phase with subthreshold symptoms and functional decline. Improved outcome prediction in this stage is needed to allow targeted early intervention. This study assesses a combined clinical and resting-state fMRI prediction model in 137 adolescents and young adults at Clinical High Risk (CHR) for psychosis from the Shanghai At Risk for Psychosis (SHARP) program. Based on outcome at one-year follow-up, participants were separated into three outcome categories including good outcome (symptom remission, N = 71), intermediate outcome (ongoing CHR symptoms, N = 30), and poor outcome (conversion to psychosis or treatment-refractory, N = 36). Validated clinical predictors from the psychosis-risk calculator were combined with measures of resting-state functional connectivity. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis and leave-one-out cross-validation, a clinical-only prediction model did not achieve a significant level of outcome prediction (F1 = 0.32, p = .154). An imaging-only model yielded a significant prediction model (F1 = 0.41, p = .016), but a combined model including both clinical and connectivity measures showed the best performance (F1 = 0.46, p < .001). Influential predictors in this model included functional decline, verbal learning performance, a family history of psychosis, default-mode and frontoparietal within-network connectivity, and between-network connectivity among language, salience, dorsal attention, sensorimotor, and cerebellar networks. These findings suggest that brain changes reflected by alterations in functional connectivity may be useful for outcome prediction in the prodromal stage.

6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857689

RESUMO

A growing number of studies have examined alterations in white matter organization in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using diffusion MRI (dMRI), but the results have been mixed which may be partially due to relatively small sample sizes among studies. Altered structural connectivity may be both a neurobiological vulnerability for, and a result of, PTSD. In an effort to find reliable effects, we present a multi-cohort analysis of dMRI metrics across 3047 individuals from 28 cohorts currently participating in the PGC-ENIGMA PTSD working group (a joint partnership between the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis consortium). Comparing regional white matter metrics across the full brain in 1426 individuals with PTSD and 1621 controls (2174 males/873 females) between ages 18-83, 92% of whom were trauma-exposed, we report associations between PTSD and disrupted white matter organization measured by lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in the tapetum region of the corpus callosum (Cohen's d = -0.11, p = 0.0055). The tapetum connects the left and right hippocampus, for which structure and function have been consistently implicated in PTSD. Results were consistent even after accounting for the effects of multiple potentially confounding variables: childhood trauma exposure, comorbid depression, history of traumatic brain injury, current alcohol abuse or dependence, and current use of psychotropic medications. Our results show that PTSD may be associated with alterations in the broader hippocampal network.

7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511636

RESUMO

Several prominent theories of schizophrenia suggest that structural white matter pathologies may follow a developmental, maturational, and/or degenerative process. However, a lack of lifespan studies has precluded verification of these theories. Here, we analyze the largest sample of carefully harmonized diffusion MRI data to comprehensively characterize age-related white matter trajectories, as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), across the course of schizophrenia. Our analysis comprises diffusion scans of 600 schizophrenia patients and 492 healthy controls at different illness stages and ages (14-65 years), which were gathered from 13 sites. We determined the pattern of age-related FA changes by cross-sectionally assessing the timing of the structural neuropathology associated with schizophrenia. Quadratic curves were used to model between-group FA differences across whole-brain white matter and fiber tracts at each age; fiber tracts were then clustered according to both the effect-sizes and pattern of lifespan white matter FA differences. In whole-brain white matter, FA was significantly lower across the lifespan (up to 7%; p < 0.0033) and reached peak maturation younger in patients (27 years) compared to controls (33 years). Additionally, three distinct patterns of neuropathology emerged when investigating white matter fiber tracts in patients: (1) developmental abnormalities in limbic fibers, (2) accelerated aging and abnormal maturation in long-range association fibers, (3) severe developmental abnormalities and accelerated aging in callosal fibers. Our findings strongly suggest that white matter in schizophrenia is affected across entire stages of the disease. Perhaps most strikingly, we show that white matter changes in schizophrenia involve dynamic interactions between neuropathological processes in a tract-specific manner.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471575

RESUMO

Alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, previous findings have been inconsistent, partially due to low statistical power and the heterogeneity of depression. In the largest multi-site study to date, we examined WM anisotropy and diffusivity in 1305 MDD patients and 1602 healthy controls (age range 12-88 years) from 20 samples worldwide, which included both adults and adolescents, within the MDD Working Group of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium. Processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and statistical analyses were harmonized across sites and effects were meta-analyzed across studies. We observed subtle, but widespread, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in adult MDD patients compared with controls in 16 out of 25 WM tracts of interest (Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.26). The largest differences were observed in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Widespread higher radial diffusivity (RD) was also observed (all Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.18). Findings appeared to be driven by patients with recurrent MDD and an adult age of onset of depression. White matter microstructural differences in a smaller sample of adolescent MDD patients and controls did not survive correction for multiple testing. In this coordinated and harmonized multisite DTI study, we showed subtle, but widespread differences in WM microstructure in adult MDD, which may suggest structural disconnectivity in MDD.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358905

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS)-a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion on chromosome 22-is associated with an elevated risk of psychosis and other developmental brain disorders. Prior single-site diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) studies have reported altered white matter (WM) microstructure in 22q11DS, but small samples and variable methods have led to contradictory results. Here we present the largest study ever conducted of dMRI-derived measures of WM microstructure in 22q11DS (334 22q11.2 deletion carriers and 260 healthy age- and sex-matched controls; age range 6-52 years). Using harmonization protocols developed by the ENIGMA-DTI working group, we identified widespread reductions in mean, axial and radial diffusivities in 22q11DS, most pronounced in regions with major cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic fibers: the corona radiata, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior thalamic radiations, and sagittal stratum (Cohen's d's ranging from -0.9 to -1.3). Only the posterior limb of the internal capsule (IC), comprised primarily of corticofugal fibers, showed higher axial diffusivity in 22q11DS. 22q11DS patients showed higher mean fractional anisotropy (FA) in callosal and projection fibers (IC and corona radiata) relative to controls, but lower FA than controls in regions with predominantly association fibers. Psychotic illness in 22q11DS was associated with more substantial diffusivity reductions in multiple regions. Overall, these findings indicate large effects of the 22q11.2 deletion on WM microstructure, especially in major cortico-cortical connections. Taken together with findings from animal models, this pattern of abnormalities may reflect disrupted neurogenesis of projection neurons in outer cortical layers.

10.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(7): 564-572, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164007

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The choroid plexus is an important physiological barrier and produces CSF and neurotrophic, angiogenic, and inflammatory factors involved in brain development. Choroid plexus abnormalities have been implicated in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A previous choroid plexus transcriptomic analysis of schizophrenia identified an upregulation of immune and inflammatory genes that correlated with peripheral inflammatory markers. The purpose of this study was to examine choroid plexus volume in probands across the psychosis spectrum and in their first-degree and axis II cluster A relatives, as well as choroid plexus familiality and choroid plexus covariance with clinical, cognitive, brain, and peripheral marker measures. METHODS: Choroid plexus volume was quantified (using FreeSurfer) in psychosis probands, their first-degree and axis II cluster A relatives, and healthy control subjects, organized by DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Analyte, structural connectivity, and genotype data were collected from a subset of study subjects. RESULTS: Choroid plexus volume was significantly larger in probands compared with first-degree relatives or healthy control subjects; first-degree relatives had intermediate enlargement compared with healthy control subjects; and total choroid plexus volume was significantly heritable. Larger volume was associated with worse cognition, smaller total gray matter and amygdala volume, larger lateral ventricle volume, and lower structural connectivity in probands. Associations between larger volume and higher levels of interleukin 6 in probands was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the involvement of the choroid plexus across the psychosis spectrum with a potential pathophysiological mechanism involving the neuroimmune axis, which functions in maintaining brain homeostasis and interacting with the peripheral immune and inflammatory system. The choroid plexus may be an important target in future research.


Assuntos
Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Cognição , Inflamação/patologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Plexo Corióideo/diagnóstico por imagem , Plexo Corióideo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Tamanho do Órgão , Fenótipo , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 737-743, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832194

RESUMO

Social cognition is a central contributor to social functioning in schizophrenia. A better understanding of the underlying structure of social cognition in the early course schizophrenia could help us identify more precise targets for intervention in this population. In the present study, we performed an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on 90 patients within the early course of schizophrenia using 11 validated subtests assessing various domains of social cognitive skills. The factors derived from this analysis were then used to investigate relationships between these distinct domains of social cognition skills and neurocognitive performance, clinical symptoms, and social functioning satisfaction. The results revealed the presence of a 3-factor solution, representing the domains of Emotion Management, Emotion Recognition, and Theory of Mind, together accounting for 55.88% of the variance. Moreover, higher scores on the Theory of Mind factor were significantly related to higher social functioning satisfaction measures as well as with lower clinical symptoms severity. Our findings suggest that social cognitive skills are composed of three separate domains in the early course of schizophrenia and that theory of mind could be an important therapeutic target for early intervention.


Assuntos
Cognição , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Habilidades Sociais , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Emoções/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Ajustamento Social , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nurs Stand ; 34(5): 25-30, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299007

RESUMO

In September 2016, a team of nurses from East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust (ENHT) and the University of Hertfordshire in England travelled to Kerala, India to interview and recruit nurses for the trust's acute hospital. Before undertaking the interviews, the team visited a nursing college and two hospitals. Based on the findings from these visits and from meeting the interview candidates, the team designed a bespoke mentoring programme for Keralan nurses recruited to ENHT to ease the transition into nursing and living in the UK. This article explores the challenges associated with recruiting and retaining nurses from overseas, and discusses how these can be addressed to ensure that these nurses practise safely and are supported effectively.

13.
Neurobiol Dis ; 131: 104353, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582983

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive deficits across all stages of the illness (i.e., high risk, first episode, early and chronic phases). Identifying the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of these deficits is an important area of scientific inquiry. Here, we selectively review evidence regarding the pattern of deficits across the developmental trajectory of schizophrenia using the five cognitive domains identified by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We also report associated findings from neuroimaging studies. We suggest that most cognitive domains are affected across the developmental trajectory, with corresponding brain structural and/or functional differences. The idea of a common mechanism driving these deficits is discussed, along with implications for cognitive treatment in schizophrenia.

14.
Schizophr Res ; 202: 180-187, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30005932

RESUMO

Patients with schizophrenia show severe impairment in social function and have difficulty in their daily social life. Although a recent large-scale multicenter study revealed alterations in white matter microstructures, the association between these anatomical changes and social dysfunction in schizophrenia remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association between the white matter integrity of regions of interest and social function in schizophrenia. A total of 149 patients with schizophrenia and 602 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) underwent DTI and completed the Picture Arrangement subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition and the Finance subscale of the University of California, San Diego, Performance-Based Skills Assessment Brief, as social indices of interest. The fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior corona radiata and corpus callosum was significantly lower in patients than in HCS, and the radial diffusivity (RD) in the anterior corona radiata and corpus callosum was significantly higher in patients. The Picture Arrangement and Finance scores were both significantly impaired in patients. The effect of the FA of the right anterior corona radiata on the Finance score and the Picture Arrangement score, of the RD of the right anterior corona radiata on the Picture Arrangement score, and of the RD of the corpus callosum on the Picture Arrangement score were significant. In conclusion, our results confirmed the association between structural connectivity in the right frontal white matter and corpus callosum and social function in schizophrenia. These findings may provide a foundation for developing an intervention for functional recovery in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Comportamento Social , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuroimage ; 182: 259-282, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729390

RESUMO

Understanding the neuropathological underpinnings of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, and bipolar disorder is an essential step towards the development of targeted treatments. Diffusion MRI studies utilizing the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) model have been extremely successful to date in identifying microstructural brain abnormalities in individuals suffering from mental illness, especially in regions of white matter, although identified abnormalities have been biologically non-specific. Building on DTI's success, in recent years more advanced diffusion MRI methods have been developed and applied to the study of psychiatric populations, with the aim of offering increased sensitivity to subtle neurological abnormalities, as well as improved specificity to candidate pathologies such as demyelination and neuroinflammation. These advanced methods, however, usually come at the cost of prolonged imaging sequences or reduced signal to noise, and they are more difficult to evaluate compared with the more simplified approach taken by the now common DTI model. To date, a limited number of advanced diffusion MRI methods have been employed to study schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder populations. In this review we survey these studies, compare findings across diverse methods, discuss the main benefits and limitations of the different methods, and assess the extent to which the application of more advanced diffusion imaging approaches has led to novel and transformative information with regards to our ability to better understand the etiology and pathology of mental disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
16.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 177(3): 369-376, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29418072

RESUMO

Multiple genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia have implicated genetic variants within the gene encoding microRNA-137. As risk variants within or regulated by MIR137 have been implicated in memory performance, we investigated the additive effects of schizophrenia-associated risk variants in genes empirically regulated by MIR137 on brain regions associated with memory function. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was calculated (at a p = 0.05 threshold), using this empirically regulated MIR137 gene set, to investigate associations between this PRS and structural brain measures. These measures included total brain volume, cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and hippocampal volume, in a sample of 216 individuals consisting of healthy participants (n = 171) and patients with psychosis (n = 45). We did not observe a significant association between MIR137 PRS and these cortical thickness, surface area or hippocampal volume measures linked to memory function; a significant association between increasing PRS and decreasing total brain volume, independent of diagnosis status (R2 = 0.008, Beta = -0.09, p = 0.029), was observed. This did not survive correction for multiple testing. In conclusion, our study yielded only suggestive evidence that risk variants interacting with MIR137 impacts on cortical structure.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/metabolismo , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia
17.
Schizophr Res ; 195: 306-317, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28982554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia has a large genetic component, and the pathways from genes to illness manifestation are beginning to be identified. The Genetics of Endophenotypes of Neurofunction to Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS) Consortium aims to clarify the role of genetic variation in brain abnormalities underlying schizophrenia. This article describes the GENUS Consortium sample collection. METHODS: We identified existing samples collected for schizophrenia studies consisting of patients, controls, and/or individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for schizophrenia. Samples had single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data or genomic DNA, clinical and demographic data, and neuropsychological and/or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Data were subjected to quality control procedures at a central site. RESULTS: Sixteen research groups contributed data from 5199 psychosis patients, 4877 controls, and 725 FHR individuals. All participants have relevant demographic data and all patients have relevant clinical data. The sex ratio is 56.5% male and 43.5% female. Significant differences exist between diagnostic groups for premorbid and current IQ (both p<1×10-10). Data from a diversity of neuropsychological tests are available for 92% of participants, and 30% have structural MRI scans (half also have diffusion-weighted MRI scans). SNP data are available for 76% of participants. The ancestry composition is 70% European, 20% East Asian, 7% African, and 3% other. CONCLUSIONS: The Consortium is investigating the genetic contribution to brain phenotypes in a schizophrenia sample collection of >10,000 participants. The breadth of data across clinical, genetic, neuropsychological, and MRI modalities provides an important opportunity for elucidating the genetic basis of neural processes underlying schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico por imagem , Endofenótipos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
19.
Work ; 58(2): 85-93, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the global nature of schoolbag carriage, there has been extensive research on schoolbag weight and use with resultant guidance on many aspects of carrying a schoolbag. However, there is limited evidence of knowledge translation or parents' awareness of schoolbag carriage. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated parental awareness of factors related to schoolbag carriage. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous 30-item questionnaire and purposive sampling was used. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of primary school children through the schools. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were used and associations were tested using Chi-square analysis in SPSS v23. RESULTS: A total of 700 parents in Ireland (Ire) and the United States (US) participated in the study (n = 444 [Ire] and n = 256 [US]). Generally, parents had satisfactory awareness of appropriate schoolbag type and carriage. The majority of children owned a backpack (89.9% [Ire] vs. 93.7% [US]), although fewer parents considered this to be the most suitable bag for their child (69.6% [Ire] vs. 88.2% [US]). More Irish parents (29.2%) favoured a wheeled schoolbag compared to US parents (6.2%) (p < 0.001). The majority (70.8% [Ire] vs. 55.7% [US]) wanted more information. The preferred platforms for receiving information were a handout (78.1% [Ire] vs. 71.6% [US]) and on-line (44.6% [Ire] vs. 53.9% [US]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite gaps identified, parents had good awareness of factors relating to schoolbag carriage, but this study shows that they would like more information. The preferred platform for knowledge translation was a handout. Parents are the best advocates for safety promotion and represent the group most likely to improve schoolbag carriage among children.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Suporte de Carga , Adulto , Livros , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ombro , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(9): 958-966, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768312

RESUMO

Importance: Efforts to remediate the multiple cognitive function impairments in schizophrenia should consider white matter as one of the underlying neural mechanisms. Objective: To determine whether altered structural brain connectivity is responsible for 2 of the core cognitive deficits in schizophrenia- reduced information processing speed and impaired working memory. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study design took place in outpatient clinics from August 1, 2004, to August 31, 2015. Participants included 166 patients with schizophrenia and 213 healthy control individuals. These participants were from 3 independent cohorts, each of which had its own healthy control group. No participant had current or past neurological conditions or major medical conditions. Patients were diagnosed with either schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as defined by the DSM-IV. Controls had no Axis I psychiatric disorder. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mediation analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the associations among processing speed, working memory, and white matter microstructures. Whole-brain and regional diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy were used to measure white matter microstructures. Results: Of the study participants, the 166 patients with schizophrenia had a mean (SD) age of 38.2 (13.3) years and the 213 healthy controls had a mean (SD) age of 39.2 (14.0) years. There were significantly more male patients than controls in each of the 3 cohorts (117 [70%] vs 91 [43%]), but there were no significant differences in sex composition among the 3 cohorts. Patients had significantly reduced processing speed (Cohen d = 1.24; P = 6.91 × 10-30) and working memory deficits (Cohen d = 0.83; P = 1.10 × 10-14) as well as a significant whole-brain fractional anisotropy deficit (Cohen d = 0.63; P = 2.20 × 10-9). In schizophrenia, working memory deficit was mostly accounted for by processing speed deficit, but this deficit remained when accounting for working memory (Cohen d = 0.89; P = 2.21 × 10-17). Mediation analyses showed a significant association pathway from fractional anisotropy to processing speed to working memory (P = 5.01 × 10-7). The strength of this brain-to-cognition pathway in different white matter tracts was strongly associated with the severity of schizophrenia-associated fractional anisotropy deficits in the corresponding white matter tracts as determined by a meta-analysis (r = 0.85-0.94; all P < .001). The same pattern was observed in patients and controls either jointly or independently. Conclusions and Relevance: Study findings suggest that (1) processing speed contributes to the association between white matter microstructure and working memory in schizophrenia and (2) white matter impairment in schizophrenia is regional tract-specific, particularly in tracts normally supporting processing speed performance.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Anisotropia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto Jovem
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