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1.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): E8-E12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scarce and differing reasons for including closing questions in qualitative research exist, but how data generated from these questions are used remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to understand if and how researchers use closing questions in qualitative research, specifically the research questions were: (a) "Why do qualitative researchers include or exclude closing questions during interviews?" and (b) "How do qualitative researchers use data from closing questions?" METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design using a single, asynchronous, web-based, investigator-designed survey containing 14 items was used to collect data. Convenience and snowball sampling were used to recruit participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Codes were developed from the qualitative data. Subcategories were derived from similar codes, and these subcategories were further scrutinized and were used to create broad categories. RESULTS: The number of respondents per question ranged from 76 to 99; most identified nursing and sociology as their academic disciplines, lived in the United States, and were involved in qualitative research for 1-10 years. Data, the interview, the interviewee, and the interviewer were broad categories to emerge as reasons for including closing questions. Only one respondent reported a reason for excluding closing questions. The uses of closing question data were described in four broad categories: analysis, data, the interview guide, and inquiry. DISCUSSION: Researchers frequently included closing questions in qualitative studies. The reasons for including these questions and how data are used vary, and support limited previously published literature. One unique reason, adding "new breath" to the interview, emerged. Study findings can aid qualitative researchers in deciding whether to include closing questions.


Assuntos
Internet , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos
2.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 39(11): 935-945, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204027

RESUMO

PROBLEM: This study investigates the experience of depression from the perspective of Black single mothers, an understudied diverse-sub-group who consistently report high levels of depressive symptoms that go undetected and untreated. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 210 Black single mothers aged 18-45 who reside in urban communities. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to categorize the responses of Black single mothers to an open-ended question that asks about feelings of depression according to the four domains of the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Percentages and frequencies were used to describe the results of the analysis. FINDINGS: The 303 usable responses were most consistent with the depressed affect domain (N = 172), followed by somatic activity (N = 108), interpersonal symptoms (N = 21), and lack of positive affect (N = 2). The most prevalent raw responses included sadness (N = 59), forms of anger (N = 48), depressed (N = 24), cry (N = 23), do not want to be around people (N = 21), lonely (N = 17), tired (N = 16), and stressed (N = 12). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Consider culture and individualized assessments to explore feelings of anger and sadness when screening for depressive symptoms in specific sub-groups of Black single mothers. Consider the use of appropriate screening tools.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Emoções , Mães/psicologia , Pais Solteiros/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nurse Educ Today ; 50: 8-11, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Situated in a research-intensive School of Nursing, the Advanced Qualitative Collective (AQC) provides an innovative educational forum for the study of qualitative research by doctoral and postdoctoral scholars. This long-standing collective is guided by a faculty facilitator using a collaborative co-learning approach to address individual and group needs, from the conception of research projects through dissemination of completed qualitative research. This article describes the dynamics of the AQC and the ways a co-created pedagogical entity supports professional development among its diverse members. The informal, participatory style, and dynamic content used by the AQC resists a course structure typical of doctoral education in health sciences, and promotes engagement and self-direction. The AQC provides opportunities for members to examine theoretical frameworks and methodologies rarely addressed within a positivism-dominant learning environment while simultaneously serving as an alternative exemplar for the pedagogy of research.


Assuntos
Docentes/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Comportamento Cooperativo , Currículo , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem
4.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 17: 373, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26705100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In osteoarthritis, chondrocytes adopt an abnormal hypertrophic morphology and upregulate the expression of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes, MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5. The activation of the hedgehog signalling pathway has been established in osteoarthritis and is thought to influence both of these processes. However, the role of this pathway in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis is unclear as previous studies have been unable to isolate the effects of hedgehog pathway activation from other pathological processes. In this study we test the hypothesis that hedgehog pathway activation causes cartilage degradation in healthy cartilage and in an in vitro model of inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Isolated articular chondrocytes from the bovine metacarpal-phalangeal joint were stimulated for up to 24 hours with the agonist, recombinant Indian hedgehog (r-Ihh). ADAMTS-5 and MMP-13 gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. In addition, healthy bovine cartilage explants were treated with r-Ihh or the hedgehog antagonist, cyclopamine, and sGAG release into the media was measured over 72 hours. Studies were repeated using chondrocytes and cartilage explants from human knee joint. Finally, studies were conducted to determine the effect of hedgehog pathway activation on matrix catabolism in the presence of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1ß. RESULTS: Addition of r-Ihh activated hedgehog signalling, confirmed by upregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 expression, but did not increase ADAMTS-5 or MMP-13 expression in bovine or human chondrocytes. Furthermore, r-Ihh did not induce sGAG release in healthy bovine or human cartilage explants. IL-1ß treatment induced sGAG release, but this response was not altered by the stimulation or inhibition of hedgehog signalling. Hedgehog pathway activation was downregulated by IL-1ß. Conversely, r-Ihh weakly suppressed IL-1ß-induced ADAMTS-5 expression. CONCLUSION: Our results show for the first time that Indian hedgehog does not cause extracellular matrix degradation in healthy ex vivo cartilage or in the presence of IL-1ß and that IL-1ß downregulates Indian hedgehog induced signalling. Thus, we suggest reported hedgehog induced matrix catabolism in osteoarthritis must be due to its interaction with pathological factors other than IL-1ß. Hence, hedgehog signalling and its downstream effects are highly context-dependent.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
5.
Acta Biomater ; 11: 27-36, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25281788

RESUMO

Cartilage tissue lacks an intrinsic capacity for self-regeneration due to slow matrix turnover, a limited supply of mature chondrocytes and insufficient vasculature. Although cartilage tissue engineering has achieved some success using agarose as a scaffolding material, major challenges of agarose-based cartilage repair, including non-degradability, poor tissue-scaffold integration and limited processing capability, have prompted the search for an alternative biomaterial. In this study, silk fiber-hydrogel composites (SF-silk hydrogels) made from silk microfibers and silk hydrogels were investigated for their potential use as a support material for engineered cartilage. We demonstrated the use of 100% silk-based fiber-hydrogel composite scaffolds for the development of cartilage constructs with properties comparable to those made with agarose. Cartilage constructs with an equilibrium modulus in the native tissue range were fabricated by mimicking the collagen fiber and proteoglycan composite architecture of native cartilage using biocompatible, biodegradable silk fibroin from Bombyx mori. Excellent chondrocyte response was observed on SF-silk hydrogels, and fiber reinforcement resulted in the development of more mechanically robust constructs after 42 days in culture compared to silk hydrogels alone. Thus, we demonstrate the versatility of silk fibroin as a composite scaffolding material for use in cartilage tissue repair to create functional cartilage constructs that overcome the limitations of agarose biomaterials, and provide a much-needed alternative to the agarose standard.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Cartilagem/química , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Fibroínas/química , Hidrogéis/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Bombyx , Cartilagem/lesões , Cartilagem/metabolismo , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Sefarose/química
6.
J Biomech ; 46(11): 1784-91, 2013 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23791084

RESUMO

The tensile modulus of articular cartilage is much larger than its compressive modulus. This tension-compression nonlinearity enhances interstitial fluid pressurization and decreases the frictional coefficient. The current set of studies examines the tensile and compressive properties of cylindrical chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs over different developmental stages through a novel method that combines osmotic loading, video microscopy, and uniaxial unconfined compression testing. This method was previously used to examine tension-compression nonlinearity in native cartilage. Engineered cartilage, cultured under free-swelling (FS) or dynamically loaded (DL) conditions, was tested in unconfined compression in hypertonic and hypotonic salt solutions. The apparent equilibrium modulus decreased with increasing salt concentration, indicating that increasing the bath solution osmolarity shielded the fixed charges within the tissue, shifting the measured moduli along the tension-compression curve and revealing the intrinsic properties of the tissue. With this method, we were able to measure the tensile (401±83kPa for FS and 678±473kPa for DL) and compressive (161±33kPa for FS and 348±203kPa for DL) moduli of the same engineered cartilage specimens. These moduli are comparable to values obtained from traditional methods, validating this technique for measuring the tensile and compressive properties of hydrogel-based constructs. This study shows that engineered cartilage exhibits tension-compression nonlinearity reminiscent of the native tissue, and that dynamic deformational loading can yield significantly higher tensile properties.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Força Compressiva , Cães , Módulo de Elasticidade , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Mecânico , Resistência à Tração
7.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 50(10): 15-8, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22998538

RESUMO

A report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for more than 4,600 deaths in underage youth annually. Alcohol abuse is common among college-age youth and may progress to alcohol dependence, which includes tolerance, craving, physical dependence, and loss of control. Although treatment for alcohol dependence is effective, like all other chronic disorders, relapse is common. The purpose of this article is to examine the issues surrounding alcohol abuse and dependence as well as maintaining sobriety in light of the high-risk college student drinking environment.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Humanos , Motivação , Prevenção Secundária , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Neurosci Res ; 88(14): 3024-33, 2010 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20806407

RESUMO

Inhibition of microtubule dynamic instability prevents growth cone turning in response to guidance cues, yet specific changes in microtubule polymerization as growth cones encounter boundaries have not been investigated. In this study, we examined the rate and direction of microtubule polymerization in response to soluble nerve growth factor (NGF) and immobilized chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by expressing enhanced GFP-EB3 in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. GFP-EB3 comets were monitored in live cells using time-lapse epifluorescent microscopy. With an automated tracking system, the rate of microtubule polymerization was calculated as the frame-to-frame displacement of EB3 comets. Our results demonstrate that the rate of microtubule polymerization is increased following NGF treatment, whereas contact with CSPGs decreases microtubule polymerization rates. This reduction in microtubule polymerization rates was specifically localized to neurites in direct contact with CSPGs and not at noncontacting neurites. Additionally, we found an increase in the percentage of microtubules polymerizing in the retrograde direction in neurites at CSPG boundaries, with a concomitant decrease in the rate of retrograde microtubule polymerization. These results implicate localized changes in microtubule dynamics as an important component of the growth cone response to guidance cues.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Cones de Crescimento/fisiologia , Microtúbulos/fisiologia , Polimerização , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/química , Proteoglicanas de Sulfatos de Condroitina/fisiologia , Cones de Crescimento/química , Microtúbulos/química , Fator de Crescimento Neural/química , Fator de Crescimento Neural/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/química , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/embriologia , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Cell Mol Bioeng ; 2(3): 386-394, 2009 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20703332

RESUMO

This study examines how variations in the duty cycle (the duration of applied loading) of deformational loading can influence the mechanical properties of tissue engineered cartilage constructs over one month in bioreactor culture. Dynamic loading was carried out with three different duty cycles: 1 h on/1 h off for a total of 3 h loading/day, 3 h continuous loading, or 6 h of continuous loading per day, with all loading performed 5 days/week. All loaded groups showed significant increases in Young's modulus after one month (vs. free swelling controls), but only loading for a continuous 3 and 6 h showed significant increases in dynamic modulus by this time point. Histological analysis showed that dynamic loading can increase cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and collagen types II and IX, as well as prevent the formation of a fibrous capsule around the construct. Type II and IX collagen deposition increased with increased with duration of applied loading. These results point to the efficacy of dynamic deformational loading in the mechanical preconditioning of engineered articular cartilage constructs. Furthermore, these results highlight the ability to dictate mechanical properties with variations in mechanical input parameters, and the possible importance of other cartilage matrix molecules, such as COMP, in establishing the functional material properties of engineered constructs.

10.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 36(5): 769-79, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18299986

RESUMO

High-serum media have been shown to produce significant improvement in the properties of tissue-engineered articular cartilage when applied in combination with dynamic deformational loading. To mitigate concerns regarding the culture variability introduced by serum, we examined the interplay between low-serum/ITS-supplemented media and dynamic deformational loading. Our results show that low serum/ITS supplementation does not support the same level of tissue formation as compared to high serum controls. In free-swelling culture, using a combination of ITS with concentrations of FBS above 2% negated the beneficial effects of ITS. Although there were beneficial effects with loading and 0.2%FBS + ITS, these constructs significantly underperformed relative to 20%FBS constructs. At 2%FBS + ITS, the free-swelling construct stiffness and composition approached or exceeded that of 20%FBS constructs. With dynamic loading, the properties of 2%FBS + ITS constructs were significantly lower than free-swelling controls and 20%FBS constructs by day 42. By priming the chondrocytes in 20%FBS prior to exposure to low-serum/ITS media, we observed that low-serum/ITS media produced significant enhancement in tissue properties compared to constructs grown continuously in 20%FBS.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/citologia , Cartilagem Articular/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Condrócitos/fisiologia , Condrogênese/fisiologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Soro/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro/metabolismo , Elasticidade , Estresse Mecânico
11.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 31(15): E486-93, 2006 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16816748

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: The use of a microscopy based material testing technique to assess the local material properties of rat caudal intervertebral discs under uniaxial compression. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the cell environment of rat caudal intervertebral discs during mechanical loading and elucidate better the role of the nucleus pulposus to the overall disc material properties. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Rat tail models of disc degeneration have been widely used for their similarity with the degeneration phenomena in human beings. Degenerative patterns in the disc are often inhomogeneous, however, only average material properties of rodent discs have been studied. Knowledge of the spatially varying properties within the disc is necessary to understand the disc cell milieu during tissue loading. METHODS: Rat caudal motion segments were tested intact, sectioned, and with alterations of nucleus pulposus using microscopy based techniques. Local displacements and strains were obtained using digital image correlation. Strains and load measurements were used to get the average apparent Young's modulus, peak stress, local Young's modulus, and local Poisson's ratio. RESULTS: There was no difference observed in the average apparent Young's modulus among experimental groups. Peak stresses decreased significantly when the nucleus pulposus was replaced with extremely fluid-like materials. The axial displacement field showed 3 distinct linear distributions in samples which were sectioned. The center region in all groups had significantly smaller axial strain and showed a higher local Young's modulus. CONCLUSIONS: The average equilibrium Young's modulus may be dependent on short-range ultrastructural organization. Spatially varying material properties within the intervertebral disc may be caused by orientation of fiber bundles in the different regions of the anulus fibrosus. The fiber bundles are better able to resist compressive loads when oriented parallel rather than perpendicular to the loading direction. At equilibrium, the anulus fibrosus also appears to have a shielding effect independent of the material filling up the nucleus pulposus space.


Assuntos
Força Compressiva/fisiologia , Disco Intervertebral/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Disco Intervertebral/citologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cauda/fisiologia
12.
J Biomech ; 39(8): 1489-97, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15990101

RESUMO

Dynamic deformational loading has been shown to significantly increase the development of material properties of chondrocyte-seeded agarose hydrogels, however little is known about the spatial development of the material properties within these constructs. In this study, a technique that combines video microscopy and optimized digital image correlation, was applied to assess the spatial development of material properties in tissue-engineered cartilage constructs cultured in free-swelling and dynamically-loaded conditions (3h/day, 5 days/week, and maintained in free-swelling conditions when not being loaded) over a 6-week period. Although homogeneous at day 0, both free-swelling and dynamically loaded samples progressively developed stiffer outer edges and a softer central region. The distribution of GAGs and collagens were shown to mimic this profile. These results indicate that although dynamic loading augments the development of bulk properties in these samples, possibly by overcoming some of the diffusion limitation and nutrient transport issues, the overall profile of construct properties in the axial direction remains qualitatively the same as in free-swelling culture conditions. Poisson's ratio of these constructs increased over time in culture with increased fixed charged density contributed by the GAGs, but this increase was significantly less in dynamically loaded samples by day 42. Polarized light microscopy of Picrosirius Red labeled samples, at an angle perpendicular to the direction of loading, suggests that these differences in Poisson's ratio may be due to improved organization of collagen network in the dynamically loaded samples.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/metabolismo , Colágeno/biossíntese , Sefarose , Animais , Bovinos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/citologia , Força Compressiva , Mecanotransdução Celular , Estresse Mecânico , Fatores de Tempo , Engenharia Tecidual , Suporte de Carga
13.
J Orthop Res ; 23(1): 134-41, 2005 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15607885

RESUMO

Inspired by the depth-dependent inhomogeneity of articular cartilage, it was hypothesized that a novel layered agarose technique, using a 2% (wt/vol) top and a 3% (wt/vol) bottom layer, would create an inhomogenous tissue construct with distinct material properties in conjoined regions. The biochemical and mechanical development of these constructs was observed alongside uniform 2% and 3% constructs. Initially, uniform 3% agarose disks had the highest bulk Young's modulus (E(Y) approximately 28 kPa) of all groups. After 28 days of culture in 20% FBS-containing media, however, uniform 2% chondrocyte-seeded constructs achieved the highest Young's modulus compared to bilayered and 3% agarose disks. Though all three groups contained similar GAG content ( approximately 1.5% ww), uniform 2% agarose disks on day 28 possessed the highest collagen content ( approximately 1% ww). Unlike in either homogeneous construct type, microscopic analysis of axial strain fields in bilayered constructs in response to applied static compression revealed two mechanically disparate regions on day 0: a softer 2% layer and a stiffer 3% layer. With time in culture, this inhomogeneity became less distinct, as indicated by increased continuity in both the local displacement field and local E(Y), and depended on the level of FBS supplementation of the feed media, with lower FBS concentrations (10%) more closely maintaining the original distinction of material properties. These results shed positive light on a layered agarose technique for the production of inhomogeneous bilayered chondrocyte-seeded agarose constructs with applications for investigations of chondrocyte mechanotransduction and for possible use in the tissue engineering of inhomogeneous articular cartilage constructs.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Condrócitos/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Colágeno/análise , DNA/análise , Glicosaminoglicanos/análise , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Sefarose
14.
Biorheology ; 41(3-4): 223-37, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15299255

RESUMO

Chondrocytes embedded in agarose and subjected to dynamic deformational loading produce a functional matrix with time in culture, but there is usually a delay in the development of significant differences compared to free swelling. In this study, we hypothesized that the initial presence of a cell-associated matrix would expedite construct development in response to dynamic deformational loading. Seeded samples with enzymatically isolated chondrocytes and chondrons (the chondrocyte and its pericellular matrix) and examined the effects of seeding density and dynamic loading on the development of tissue properties. At 60 million/ml, dynamic loading significantly augmented the development of material properties in chondrocyte- and chondron-seeded constructs. Biochemical content and histological analysis indicated that the deposition of GAG, link protein and collagens are affected by the pre-existing cell-associated matrix of the chondron-seeded samples. The pericellular matrix associated with the chondrons did not expedite the development of material properties in response to deformational loading, disproving our hypothesis. The relative concentration and distribution of matrix proteins may play a major role in the disparate responses observed for the chondrocyte- and chondron-seeded cultures. In further support of these findings, culturing chondrocytes in agarose for two weeks prior to the application of deformational loading also did not exhibit expedited construct development.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/química , Colágeno/análise , Géis , Reologia/métodos , Estresse Mecânico
15.
J Biomech Eng ; 126(6): 779-86, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15796336

RESUMO

Interstitial fluid pressurization plays an important role in cartilage biomechanics and is believed to be a primary mechanism of load support in synovial joints. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic degradation on the interstitial fluid load support mechanism of articular cartilage in unconfined compression. Thirty-seven immature bovine cartilage plugs were tested in unconfined compression before and after enzymatic digestion. The peak fluid load support decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) from 84 +/- 10% to 53 +/- 19% and from 80 +/- 10% to 46 +/- 21% after 18-hours digestion with 1.0 u/mg-wet-weight and 0.7 u/mg-wet-weight of collagenase, respectively. Treatment with 0.1 u/ml of chondroitinase ABC for 24 hours also significantly reduced the peak fluid load support from 83 +/- 12% to 48 +/- 16% (p < 0.0001). The drop in interstitial fluid load support following enzymatic treatment is believed to result from a decrease in the ratio of tensile to compressive moduli of the solid matrix.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Condroitina ABC Liase/farmacologia , Colagenases/farmacologia , Líquido Extracelular/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/citologia , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos , Força Compressiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Compressiva/fisiologia , Líquido Extracelular/citologia , Líquido Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Articulação do Joelho/citologia , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico
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