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1.
J Intern Med ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies prevent viral replication. Critically ill COVID-19 patients show viral material in plasma, associated with a dysregulated host response. If these antibodies influence survival and viral dissemination in ICU-COVID patients is unknown. PATIENTS/METHODS: We studied the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies levels on survival, viral RNA-load in plasma, and N-antigenaemia in 92 COVID-19 patients over ICU admission. RESULTS: Frequency of N-antigenaemia was >2.5-fold higher in absence of antibodies. Antibodies correlated inversely with viral RNA-load in plasma, representing a protective factor against mortality (Adjusted HR [CI 95%], p): (S IgM [AUC ≥ 60]: 0.44 [0.22; 0.88], 0.020); (S IgG [AUC ≥ 237]: 0.31 [0.16; 0.61], <0.001). Viral RNA-load in plasma and N-antigenaemia predicted increased mortality: (N1-viral load [≥ 2.156 copies/ml]: 2.25 [1.16; 4.36], 0.016); (N-antigenaemia: 2.45 [1.27; 4.69], 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Low anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels predict mortality in critical COVID-19. Our findings support that these antibodies contribute to prevent systemic dissemination of SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445327

RESUMO

The fight against cancer is one of the main challenges for medical research. Recently, nanotechnology has made significant progress, providing possibilities for developing innovative nanomaterials to overcome the common limitations of current therapies. In this context, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) represent a promising nano-tool able to offer interesting applications for cancer research. Following this path, we combined the silver proprieties with Artemisia arborescens characteristics, producing novel nanoparticles called Artemisia-AgNPs. A "green" synthesis method was performed to produce Artemisia-AgNPs, using Artemisia arborescens extracts. This kind of photosynthesis is an eco-friendly, inexpensive, and fast approach. Moreover, the bioorganic molecules of plant extracts improved the biocompatibility and efficacy of Artemisia-AgNPs. The Artemisia-AgNPs were fully characterized and tested to compare their effects on various cancer cell lines, in particular HeLa and MCF-7. Artemisia-AgNPs treatment showed dose-dependent growth inhibition of cancer cells. Moreover, we evaluated their impact on the cell cycle, observing a G1 arrest mediated by Artemisia-AgNPs treatment. Using a clonogenic assay after treatment, we observed a complete lack of cell colonies, which demonstrated cell reproducibility death. To have a broader overview on gene expression impact, we performed RNA-sequencing, which demonstrated the potential of Artemisia-AgNPs as a suitable candidate tool in cancer research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisia/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/genética , Artemisia/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Células PC-3 , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Prata/uso terapêutico
3.
EClinicalMedicine ; : 100975, 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222846

RESUMO

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2) has led to more than 165 million COVID-19 cases and >3.4 million deaths worldwide. Epidemiological analysis has revealed that the risk of developing severe COVID-19 increases with age. Despite a disproportionate number of older individuals and long-term care facilities being affected by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, very little is understood about the immune responses and development of humoral immunity in the extremely old person after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we conducted a serological study to investigate the development of humoral immunity in centenarians following a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in a long-term care facility. Methods: Extreme aged individuals and centenarians who were residents in a long-term care facility and infected with or exposed to SARS-CoV-2 were investigated between April and June 2020 for the development of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Blood samples were collected from positive and bystander individuals 30 and 60 days after original diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Plasma was used to quantify IgG, IgA, and IgM isotypes and subsequent subclasses of antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The function of anti-spike was then assessed by virus neutralization assays against the native SARS-CoV-2 virus. Findings: Fifteen long-term care residents were investigated for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All individuals had a Clinical Frailty scale score ≥5 and were of extreme older age or were centenarians. Six women with a median age of 98.8 years tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Anti-spike IgG antibody titers were the highest titers observed in our cohort with all IgG positive individuals having virus neutralization ability. Additionally, 5 out of the 6 positive participants had a robust IgA anti-SARS-CoV-2 response. In all 5, antibodies were detected after 60 days from initial diagnosis.

5.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(6): e13501, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma has been linked to disease severity and mortality. We compared RT-qPCR to droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma from COVID-19 patients (mild, moderate, and critical disease). METHODS: The presence/concentration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma was compared in three groups of COVID-19 patients (30 outpatients, 30 ward patients and 30 ICU patients) using both RT-qPCR and ddPCR. Plasma was obtained in the first 24h following admission, and RNA was extracted using eMAG. ddPCR was performed using Bio-Rad SARS-CoV-2 detection kit, and RT-qPCR was performed using GeneFinder™ COVID-19 Plus RealAmp Kit. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected, using ddPCR and RT-qPCR, in 91% and 87% of ICU patients, 27% and 23% of ward patients and 3% and 3% of outpatients. The concordance of the results obtained by both methods was excellent (Cohen's kappa index = 0.953). RT-qPCR was able to detect 34/36 (94.4%) patients positive for viral RNA in plasma by ddPCR. Viral RNA load was higher in ICU patients compared with the other groups (P < .001), by both ddPCR and RT-qPCR. AUC analysis revealed Ct values (RT-qPCR) and viral RNA load values (ddPCR) can similarly differentiate between patients admitted to wards and to the ICU (AUC of 0.90 and 0.89, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both methods yielded similar prevalence of RNAemia between groups, with ICU patients showing the highest (>85%). RT-qPCR was as useful as ddPCR to detect and quantify SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia in plasma.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quartos de Pacientes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(5): 3789-3799, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089499

RESUMO

1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives are widely used in research on antineoplastic drugs. Recently, we discovered a novel unsymmetrical 1,3,4-oxadiazole compound with antiproliferative properties called 2j. To further investigate its possible targets and molecular mechanisms, RNA-seq was performed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained after treatment. Data were analyzed using functional (Gene Ontology term) and pathway (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment of the DEGs. The hub genes were determined by the analysis of protein-protein interaction networks. The connectivity map (CMap) information provided insight into the model action of antitumor small molecule drugs. Hub genes have been identified through function gene networks using STRING analysis. The small molecular targets obtained by CMap comparison showed that 2j is a tubulin inhibitor and it acts mainly affecting tumor cells through the cell cycle, FoxO signaling pathway, apoptotic, and p53 signaling pathways. The possible targets of 2j could be TUBA1A and TUBA4A. Molecular docking results indicated that 2j interacts at the colchicine-binding site on tubulin.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765477

RESUMO

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are derived from exogenous retrovirus infections in the evolution of primates and account for about 8% of the human genome. They were considered as silent passengers within our genomes for a long time, however, reactivation of HERVs has been associated with tumors and autoimmune diseases, especially the HERV-K (HML-2) family, the most recent integration groups with the least number of mutations and the most biologically active to encode functional retroviral proteins and produce retrovirus-like particles. Increasing studies are committed to determining the potential role of HERV-K (HML-2) in pathogenicity. Although there is still no evidence for HERV-K (HML-2) as a direct cause of diseases, aberrant expression profiles of the HERV-K (HML-2) transcripts and their regulatory function to their proximal host-genes were identified in different diseases. In this review, we summarized the advances between HERV-K (HML-2) and diseases to provide basis for further studies on the causal relationship between HERV-K (HML-2) and diseases. We recommended more attention to polymorphic integrated HERV-K (HML-2) loci which could be genetic causative factors and be associated with inter-individual differences in tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12656, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728085

RESUMO

This study evidenced the presence of parasites in a cesspit of an aristocratic palace of nineteenth century in Sardinia (Italy) by the use of classical paleoparasitological techniques coupled with next-generation sequencing. Parasite eggs identified by microscopy included helminth genera pathogenic for humans and animals: the whipworm Trichuris sp., the roundworm Ascaris sp., the flatworm Dicrocoelium sp. and the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium sp. In addition, 18S rRNA metabarcoding and metagenomic sequencing analysis allowed the first description in Sardinia of aDNA of the human specific T. trichiura species and Ascaris genus. Their presence is important for understanding the health conditions, hygiene habits, agricultural practices and the diet of the local inhabitants in the period under study.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/isolamento & purificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/história , Metagenômica/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Trichuris/classificação , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , História do Século XIX , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Itália , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tricuríase/história , Trichuris/genética , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(5): 428-432, 2020 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525825

RESUMO

Older adults have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, with many outbreaks occurring in Long Term Care Facilities (LTCFs). We discuss this vulnerability among LTCF residents using an ecological framework, on levels spanning from the individual to families and caregivers, institutions, health services and systems, communities, and contextual government policies. Challenges abound for fully understanding the burden of COVID-19 in LTCF, including differences in nomenclature, data collection systems, cultural differences, varied social welfare models, and (often) under-resourcing of the LTC sector. Registration of cases and deaths may be limited by testing capacity and policy, record-keeping and reporting procedures. Hospitalization and death rates may be inaccurate depending on atypical presentations and whether or not residents' goals of care include escalation of care and transfer to hospital. Given the important contribution of frailty, use of the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is discussed as a readily implementable measure, as are lessons learned from the study of frailty in relation to influenza. Biomarkers hold emerging promise in helping to predict disease severity and address the puzzle of why some frail LTCF residents are resilient to COVID-19, either remaining test-negative despite exposure or having asymptomatic infection, while others experience the full range of illness severity including critical illness and death. Strong and coordinated surveillance and research focused on LTCFs and their frail residents is required. These efforts should include widespread assessment of frailty using feasible and readily implementable tools such as the CFS, and rigorous reporting of morbidity and mortality in LTCFs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fragilidade , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
10.
Cell ; 182(2): 429-446.e14, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526206

RESUMO

The mode of acquisition and causes for the variable clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. We utilized a reverse genetics system to generate a GFP reporter virus to explore severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and a luciferase reporter virus to demonstrate sera collected from SARS and COVID-19 patients exhibited limited cross-CoV neutralization. High-sensitivity RNA in situ mapping revealed the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the nose with decreasing expression throughout the lower respiratory tract, paralleled by a striking gradient of SARS-CoV-2 infection in proximal (high) versus distal (low) pulmonary epithelial cultures. COVID-19 autopsied lung studies identified focal disease and, congruent with culture data, SARS-CoV-2-infected ciliated and type 2 pneumocyte cells in airway and alveolar regions, respectively. These findings highlight the nasal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 with likely subsequent aspiration-mediated virus seeding to the lung in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. These reagents provide a foundation for investigations into virus-host interactions in protective immunity, host susceptibility, and virus pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Genética Reversa/métodos , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrose Cística/patologia , DNA Recombinante , Feminino , Furina/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Células Vero , Virulência , Replicação Viral
11.
Retrovirology ; 17(1): 10, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), suspected to be transposition-defective, may reshape the transcriptional network of the human genome by regulatory elements distributed in their long terminal repeats (LTRs). HERV-K (HML-2), the most preserved group with the least number of accumulated of mutations, has been associated with aberrant gene expression in tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases. Because of the high sequence similarity between different HERV-Ks, current methods have limitations in providing genome-wide mapping specific for individual HERV-K (HML-2) members, a major barrier in delineating HERV-K (HML-2) function. RESULTS: In an attempt to obtain detailed distribution information of HERV-K (HML-2), we utilized a PCR-based target enrichment sequencing protocol for HERV-K (HML-2) (PTESHK) loci, which not only maps the presence of reference loci, but also identifies non-reference loci, enabling determination of the genome-wide distribution of HERV-K (HML-2) loci. Here we report on the genomic data obtained from three individuals. We identified a total of 978 loci using this method, including 30 new reference loci and 5 non-reference loci. Among the 3 individuals in our study, 14 polymorphic HERV-K (HML-2) loci were identified, and solo-LTR330 and N6p21.32 were identified as polymorphic for the first time. CONCLUSIONS: Interestingly, PTESHK provides an approach for the identification of the genome-wide distribution of HERV-K (HML-2) and can be used for the identification of polymorphic loci. Since polymorphic HERV-K (HML-2) integrations are suspected to be related to various diseases, PTESHK can supplement other emerging techniques in accessing polymorphic HERV-K (HML-2) elements in cancer and autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Genoma Humano , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Humanos , Provírus/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais
14.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102941

RESUMO

Human body microbes interact with the host, forming microbial communities that are in continual flux during the aging process. Previous studies have mostly focused on surveying a single body habitat to determine the age-related variation in the bacterial and fungal communities. A more comprehensive understanding of the variation in the human microbiota and mycobiota across multiple body habitats related to aging is still unclear. To obtain an integrated view of the spatial distribution of microbes in a specific Mediterranean population across a wide age range, we surveyed the bacterial and fungal communities in the skin, oral cavity, and gut in the young, elderly, and centenarians in Sardinia using 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequencing. We found that the distribution and correlation of bacterial and fungal communities in Sardinians were largely determined by body site. In each age group, the bacterial and fungal communities found in the skin were significantly different in structure. In the oral cavity, age had a marginal impact on the structures of the bacterial and fungal communities. Furthermore, the gut bacterial communities in centenarians clustered separately from those of the young and elderly, while the fungal communities in the gut habitat could not be separated by host age.IMPORTANCE Site-specific microbial communities are recognized as important factors in host health and disease. To better understand how the human microbiota potentially affects and is affected by its host during the aging process, the fundamental issue to address is the distribution of microbiota related to age. Here, we show an integrated view of the spatial distribution of microbes in a specific Mediterranean population (Sardinians) across a wide age range. Our study indicates that age plays a critical role in shaping the human microbiota in a habitat-dependent manner. The dynamic age-related microbiota changes we observed across multiple body sites may provide possibilities for modulating microbe communities to maintain or improve health during aging.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/genética , Microbiota , Micobioma , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , DNA Intergênico/genética , Ecossistema , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pele/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(1): 3-17, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088679

RESUMO

On 31 December 2019 the Wuhan Health Commission reported a cluster of atypical pneumonia cases that was linked to a wet market in the city of Wuhan, China. The first patients began experiencing symptoms of illness in mid-December 2019. Clinical isolates were found to contain a novel coronavirus with similarity to bat coronaviruses. As of 28 January 2020, there are in excess of 4,500 laboratory-confirmed cases, with > 100 known deaths. As with the SARS-CoV, infections in children appear to be rare. Travel-related cases have been confirmed in multiple countries and regions outside mainland China including Germany, France, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Canada, and the United States, as well as Hong Kong and Taiwan. Domestically in China, the virus has also been noted in several cities and provinces with cases in all but one provinence. While zoonotic transmission appears to be the original source of infections, the most alarming development is that human-to-human transmission is now prevelant. Of particular concern is that many healthcare workers have been infected in the current epidemic. There are several critical clinical questions that need to be resolved, including how efficient is human-to-human transmission? What is the animal reservoir? Is there an intermediate animal reservoir? Do the vaccines generated to the SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV or their proteins offer protection against 2019-nCoV? We offer a research perspective on the next steps for the generation of vaccines. We also present data on the use of in silico docking in gaining insight into 2019-nCoV Spike-receptor binding to aid in therapeutic development. Diagnostic PCR protocols can be found at https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus/laboratory-diagnostics-for-novel-coronavirus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Viagem , Vacinação , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais , Zoonoses
17.
mSystems ; 4(4)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289141

RESUMO

Sardinia, Italy, has a high prevalence of residents who live more than 100 years. The reasons for longevity in this isolated region are currently unknown. Gut microbiota may hold a clue. To explore the role gut microbiota may play in healthy aging and longevity, we used metagenomic sequencing to determine the compositional and functional differences in gut microbiota associated with populations of different ages in Sardinia. Our data revealed that the gut microbiota of both young and elderly Sardinians shared similar taxonomic and functional profiles. A different pattern was found in centenarians. Within the centenarian group, the gut microbiota was correlated with the functional independence measurement of the host. Centenarians had a higher diversity of core microbiota species and microbial genes than those in the young and elderly. We found that the gut microbiota in Sardinian centenarians displayed a rearranged taxonomic pattern compared with those of the young and elderly, featured by depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Eubacterium rectale and enriched for Methanobrevibacter smithii and Bifidobacterium adolescentis Moreover, functional analysis revealed that the microbiota in centenarians had high capacity for central metabolism, especially glycolysis and fermentation to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), although the gut microbiota in centenarians was low in genes encoding enzymes involved in degradation of carbohydrates, including fibers and galactose.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiota has been proposed as a promising determinant for human health. Centenarians as a model for extreme aging may help us understand the correlation of gut microbiota with healthy aging and longevity. Here we confirmed that centenarians had microbiota elements usually associated with benefits to health. Our finding of a high capacity of glycolysis and related SCFA production represented a healthy microbiome and environment that is regarded as beneficial for host gut epithelium. The low abundance of genes encoding components of pathways involved in carbohydrate degradation was also found in the gut microbiota of Sardinian centenarians and is often associated with poor gut health. Overall, our study here represents an expansion of previous research investigating the age-related changes in gut microbiota. Furthermore, our study provides a new prospective for potential targets for gut microbiota intervention directed at limiting gut inflammation and pathology and enhancing a healthy gut barrier.

18.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(8): 941-955, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094405

RESUMO

Understanding the heterogeneity of dysregulated pathways associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may provide prognostic and therapeutic avenues for disease management. As HCC involves a complex process of genetic and epigenetic modifications, we evaluated expression of both polyadenylated transcripts and microRNAs from HCC and liver samples derived from two cohorts of patients undergoing either partial hepatic resection or liver transplantation. Copy number variants were inferred from whole genome low-pass sequencing data, and a set of 56 cancer-related genes were screened using an oncology panel assay. HCC was associated with marked transcriptional deregulation of hundreds of protein-coding genes. In the partially resected livers, diminished transcriptional activity was observed in genes associated with drug catabolism and increased expression in genes related to inflammatory responses and cell proliferation. Moreover, several long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs not previously linked with HCC were found to be deregulated. In liver transplant recipients, down-regulation of genes involved in energy production and up-regulation of genes associated with glycolysis were detected. Numerous copy number variants events were observed, with hotspots on chromosomes 1 and 17. Amplifications were more common than deletions and spanned regions containing genes potentially involved in tumorigenesis. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 (NPM1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), G-protein-coupled receptors-like receptor Smoothened (SMO), and tumor protein P53 (TP53) were mutated in all tumors; another 26 cancer-related genes were mutated with variable penetrance. Conclusion: Our results underscore the marked molecular heterogeneity between HCC tumors and reinforce the notion that precision medicine approaches are needed for management of individual HCC. These data will serve as a resource to generate hypotheses for further research to improve our understanding of HCC biology. (Hepatology Communications 2018; 00:000-000).

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(3): e0006343, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538374

RESUMO

Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur. The host gene expression profiles of the lung tissue showed early activation of interferon responses and subsequent expression of inflammation-related genes that coincided with the clinical deterioration. Additionally, the lung tissue showed unchanged levels of lymphocyte markers and progressive downregulation of cell cycle genes and extracellular matrix components. Infection in the brain resulted in a limited breadth of the host responses, which is in accordance with the immunoprivileged status of this organ. Finally, we propose a model of the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection that integrates multiple components of the host responses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Henipavirus/genética , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Henipavirus/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Transcriptoma , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/virologia , Ciclo Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Furões/virologia , Vírus Hendra/imunologia , Vírus Hendra/patogenicidade , Henipavirus/genética , Infecções por Henipavirus/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferons/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/virologia , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vírus Nipah/patogenicidade , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
20.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171936, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187149

RESUMO

Influenza viruses cause mild to severe respiratory infections in humans. Due to efficient means of transmission, the viruses infect human population on a large scale. Apart from vaccines, antiviral drugs are used to control infection; neuraminidase inhibitors are thought to be the first choice of treatment, particularly for severe cases. Rapidly evolving and emerging influenza viruses with increased frequency of viral resistance to these drugs stress the need to explore novel antiviral compounds. In this study, we investigated antiviral activity of ginseng extract and ginsenosides, the ginseng-derived triterpene and saponin compounds, against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus in vitro and in vivo. Our data showed that treatment of mice with ginsenosides protected the animals from lethal 2009 pandemic H1N1 infection and lowered viral titers in animal lungs. Mechanistic studies revealed that ginsenosides interact with viral hemagglutinin protein and prevent the attachment of virus with α 2-3' sialic acid receptors present on host cell surfaces. The interference in the viral attachment process subsequently minimizes viral entry into the cells and decreases the severity of the viral infection. We also describe that sugar moieties present in ginsenosides are indispensible for their attachment with viral HA protein. On the basis of our observations, we can say that ginsenosides are promising candidates for the development of antiviral drugs for influenza viruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cães , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ligação Proteica
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