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2.
Pathol Oncol Res ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478179

RESUMO

In preclinical studies serotonin stimulates and dopamine inhibits tumour growth and angiogenesis. Information regarding serotonin and dopamine receptor (5-HTR and DRD) expression in human cancers is limited. Therefore, we screened a large tumour set for receptor mRNA overexpression using functional genomic mRNA (FGmRNA) profiling, and we analysed protein expression and location of 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR2B, DRD1, and DRD2 with immunohistochemistry in different tumour types. With FGmRNA profiling 11,756 samples representing 43 tumour types were compared to 3,520 normal tissue samples to analyse receptor overexpression. 5-HTR2B overexpression was present in many tumour types, most frequently in uveal melanomas (56%). Receptor overexpression in rare cancers included 5-HTR1B in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (17%), DRD1 in ependymoma (30%) and synovial sarcoma (21%), and DRD2 in astrocytoma (13%). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high 5-HTR2B protein expression on melanoma and gastro-intestinal stromal tumour cells and endothelial cells of colon, ovarian, breast, renal and pancreatic tumours. 5-HTR1B expression was predominantly low. High DRD2 protein expression on tumour cells was observed in 48% of pheochromocytomas, and DRD1 expression ranged from 14% in melanoma to 57% in renal cell carcinoma. In conclusion, 5-HTR1B, 5-HTR2B, DRD1, and DRD2 show mRNA overexpression in a broad spectrum of common and rare cancers. 5-HTR2B protein is frequently highly expressed in human cancers, especially on endothelial cells. These findings support further investigation of especially 5HTR2B as a potential treatment target.

3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547438

RESUMO

Sodium restriction may potentially reduce iodine intake. This study aimed to determine the effect of sodium restriction (dietary counseling) on 24-h urinary iodine excretion. Diuretics provide an alternative to sodium restriction and are frequently added to sodium restriction, so the effects of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg daily) and combined therapy were also studied. We performed a post-hoc analysis of a Dutch multi-center, randomized cross-over trial in 45 patients with diabetic kidney disease with a mean age of 65 ± 9 years, mean eGFR of 65 ± 27 mL/min/1.73 m2, median albuminuria of 648 [230-2008] mg/24 h and 84% were male. During regular sodium intake with placebo, mean 24 h urinary sodium and iodine excretion were 224 ± 76 mmol/24 h and 252 ± 94 ug/24 h, respectively (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Mean iodine excretion did not change significantly if sodium restriction and hydrochlorothiazide were applied separately; mean difference -8 ug/day (95% CI -38, 22; p = 0.6) and 14 ug/day (95% CI -24, 52; p = 0.5), respectively. Combined therapy induced a significant decrease in mean iodine excretion (-37 ug/day; 95% CI -67, -7; p = 0.02), yet this was not seen to a clinically meaningful level. The number of patients with an estimated intake below recommended daily allowances did not differ significantly between the four treatment periods (p = 0.3). These findings show that sodium restriction is not a risk factor for iodine deficiency.

4.
Clin Chem ; 65(11): 1388-1396, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, several indole markers are measured separately to support diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We have developed a sensitive mass spectrometry method that simultaneously quantifies all relevant tryptophan-related indoles (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) in platelet-rich plasma. Direct-matrix derivatization was used to make the chemical properties of the indoles uniform and to improve the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay. METHODS: In situ derivatization was performed directly in platelet-rich plasma with propionic anhydride at an ambient temperature. The derivatized indoles were extracted by online solid-phase extraction and eluted to the analytical column for separation followed by mass spectrometric detection. The method was validated according to international guidelines. Platelet-rich plasma samples from 68 healthy individuals and 40 NET patients were analyzed for tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. RESULTS: The method reproducibly quantified relevant indoles in 8.5 min, including online sample cleanup. Intra- and interassay imprecision, evaluated at 3 different concentrations, ranged from 2.0% to 12% and 1.9% to 13%, respectively. The limit of quantification was sufficient to measure endogenous concentrations of all 4 indoles. Healthy individuals and NET patients had different concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, but tryptophan concentrations were the same. CONCLUSIONS: Direct-matrix derivatization in combination with LC-MS/MS is a powerful tool for the simultaneous quantification of all tryptophan-related indoles in platelet-rich plasma. Simultaneous profiling of relevant indoles improves the biochemical characterization and follow-up of NETs.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540245

RESUMO

Taurine is a sulfur containing nutrient that has been shown to protect against oxidative stress, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology leading to late graft failure after renal transplantation. We prospectively investigated whether high urinary taurine excretion, reflecting high taurine intake, is associated with low risk for development of late graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Urinary taurine excretion was measured in a longitudinal cohort of 678 stable RTR. Prospective associations were assessed using Cox regression analyses. Graft failure was defined as the start of dialysis or re-transplantation. In RTR (58% male, 53 ± 13 years old, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45 ± 19 mL/min/1.73 m2), urinary taurine excretion (533 (210-946) µmol/24 h) was significantly associated with serum free sulfhydryl groups (ß = 0.126; P = 0.001). During median follow-up for 5.3 (4.5-6.0) years, 83 (12%) patients developed graft failure. In Cox regression analyses, urinary taurine excretion was inversely associated with graft failure (hazard ratio: 0.74 (0.67-0.82); P < 0.001). This association remained significant independent of potential confounders. High urinary taurine excretion is associated with low risk of late graft failure in RTR. Therefore, increasing taurine intake may potentially support graft survival in RTR. Further studies are warranted to determine the underlying mechanisms and the potential of taurine supplementation.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546852

RESUMO

Many phenylketonuria (PKU) patients cannot adhere to the severe dietary restrictions as advised by the European PKU guidelines, which can be accompanied by aggravated neuropsychological impairments that, at least in part, have been attributed to brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies. Supplementation of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) to an unrestricted diet has previously been shown to effectively improve brain monoamines in PKU mice of various ages. To determine the additive value of LNAA supplementation to a liberalized phenylalanine-restricted diet, brain and plasma monoamine and amino acid concentrations in 10 to 16-month-old adult C57Bl/6 PKU mice on a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet with LNAA supplementation were compared to those on a non-supplemented severe or less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet. LNAA supplementation to a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet was found to improve both brain monoamine and phenylalanine concentrations. Compared to a severe phenylalanine-restricted diet, it was equally effective to restore brain norepinephrine and serotonin even though being less effective to reduce brain phenylalanine concentrations. These results in adult PKU mice support the idea that LNAA supplementation may enhance the effect of a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet and suggest that cerebral outcome of PKU patients treated with a less severe phenylalanine-restricted diet may be helped by additional LNAA treatment.

7.
J Neurochem ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376341

RESUMO

The kynurenine (Kyn) pathway, which regulates neuroinflammation and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation, is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related changes in Kyn metabolism and altered cerebral Kyn uptake along large neutral amino acid transporters, could contribute to these diseases. To gain further insight into the role and prognostic potential of the Kyn pathway in PD and AD, we investigated systemic and cerebral Kyn metabolite production and estimations of their transporter-mediated uptake in the brain. Kyn metabolites and large neutral amino acids were retrospectively measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of clinically well-characterized PD patients (n = 33), AD patients (n = 33), and age-matched controls (n = 39) using solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry. Aging was disease independently associated with increased Kyn, kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid in serum and CSF. Concentrations of kynurenic acid were reduced in CSF of PD and AD patients (p = 0.001; p = 0.002) but estimations of Kyn brain uptake did not differ between diseased and controls. Furthermore, serum Kyn and quinolinic acid levels strongly correlated with their respective content in CSF and Kyn in serum negatively correlated with AD disease severity (p = 0.002). Kyn metabolites accumulated with aging in serum and CSF similarly in PD patients, AD patients, and control subjects. In contrast, kynurenic acid was strongly reduced in CSF of PD and AD patients. Differential transporter-mediated Kyn uptake is unlikely to majorly contribute to these cerebral Kyn pathway disturbances. We hypothesize that the combination of age- and disease-specific changes in cerebral Kyn pathway activity could contribute to reduced neurogenesis and increased excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative disease.

8.
Clin Chim Acta ; 498: 17-20, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melatonin is one of numerous biologically active compounds reported to be stored in platelets. As melatonin is increasingly linked to several diseases, we wanted to confirm the storage of melatonin in platelets using sensitive liquid chromatography in combination with isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The difference between melatonin levels analyzed in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) served as proxy for platelet levels of melatonin. METHODS: Melatonin concentrations were analyzed in PRP and PPP from nineteen healthy volunteers by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to assess if the melatonin levels measured in PRP and PPP were different. Results for melatonin concentrations obtained by LC-MS/MS or ELISA were compared using Passing-Bablok regression. RESULTS: Comparison of the ELISA with the LC-MS/MS method showed poor agreement for melatonin concentrations in PRP and PPP. No indication was found for storage of melatonin in platelets by either LC-MS/MS or ELISA (P = .89 and P = .53 for the LC-MS/MS and ELISA analysis, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this study we could find no evidence for melatonin storage in platelets.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108924

RESUMO

Dairy fat intake, reflected by the biomarkers C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, trans-C16:1 (n-7), trans-C18:1 (n-7) and CLA, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. It has, however, been questioned whether this association is genuine, since C15:0 and C17:0 are also biomarkers from fish. We investigated whether the above biomarkers are reliable markers for dairy fat intake in 864 healthy subjects. Subsequently, we explored the association between these biomarkers and cardiovascular risk factors. Intakes of dairy and fish were determined by Food Frequency Questionnaires FFQs. Fatty acids were analyzed in plasma triglycerides (TG) and phospholipids (PL). Median intakes of dairy and fish fat were 12.3 (8.4-17.4) g/day and 1.14 (0.53-1.75) g/day. All fatty acids, except TG C17:0, were associated with dairy fat (std.ß range TG: 0.12 for C14:0 till 0.25 for C15:0 and Trans-C18:1 (n-7); and std.ß range PL: 0.12 for C17:0 and Trans-C16:1 (n-7) till 0.24 for Trans-C18:1 (n-7) and CLA; p < 0.001). TG C17:0 was associated with fish fat (std.ß = 0.08; p = 0.03), whereas PL C17:0 was not. Associations remained after adjustment for fish/dairy fat intake. Strongest inverse associations with biological variables were found with PL C17:0 and Trans-C18:1 (n-7) (Std.ßs: waist circumference: -0.18, p < 0.001 and -0.10, p < 0.05; BMI: -0.17, p < 0.001, -0.11, p < 0.01; glucose: -0.10, p <0.01 and -0.08, p <0.05; high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP): -0.22, p < 0.001 and -0.16, p < 0.01; uric acid: -0.27, p < 0.001 and -0.24, p < 0.001). In conclusion, fatty acid biomarkers, except plasma TG C17:0, were associated with dairy fat intake, independent of fish fat intake. PL C17:0 and trans-C18:1 (n-7) were inversely associated with adiposity, diabetes, inflammation and uric acid.

10.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(3): 383-390, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at comparing precursors of endogenous corticosteroid production in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and in secondary adrenal insufficiency. DESIGN: Twenty patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and matched controls and 19 patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency participated in this ancillary analysis of two different studies. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Patients with primary adrenal insufficiency were on stable hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone therapy. Patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency received two different doses of hydrocortisone in a randomized crossover study. Main outcome measures were concentrations of precursors of cortisol and aldosterone measured by LC-MS/MS RESULTS: Compared to controls, progressively lower concentrations of the glucocorticoid precursors 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone concentrations were found in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency on lower hydrocortisone dose, secondary adrenal insufficiency on higher hydrocortisone dose and primary adrenal insufficiency, respectively. Half of the primary adrenal insufficient patients showed evidence of residual endogenous cortisol or aldosterone synthesis, as determined by quantifiable 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone conce ntrations. In secondary adrenal insufficient patients with higher endogenous cortisol production, as indicated by 11-deoxycortisol concentrations above the median, no increased cortisol exposure was observed both by plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and 24-hour free cortisol excretion in urine. CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal corticosteroid production is likely to continue during treatment in a considerable percentage of patients with both primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency. In patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency, this synthesis appears to be sensitive to the dose of hydrocortisone. However, the residual corticosteroid concentrations were quantitatively low and its clinical significance remains therefore to be determined.

11.
J Anal Toxicol ; 43(6): 452-464, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044238

RESUMO

People are constantly exposed to a wide variety of chemicals. Some of these compounds, such as parabens, bisphenols and phthalates, are known to have endocrine disrupting potencies. Over the years, these endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been a rising cause for concern. In this study, we describe setup and validation of two methods to measure EDCs in human urine, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The phenol method determines methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben and bisphenol A, F and S. The phthalate method determines in total 13 metabolites of dimethyl, diethyl, diisobutyl, di-n-butyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), butylbenzyl, diiso-nonyl and diisodecyl phthalate. Runtime was 7 and 8 min per sample for phenols and phthalates, respectively. The methods were validated by the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) for 13 compounds. In addition, EDCs were measured in forty 24-h urine samples, of which 12 EDCs were compared with the same samples measured in an established facility (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark). The intra-assay coefficient of variability (CV) was highest at 10% and inter-assay CV was highest at 12%. Recoveries ranged from 86 to 115%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.06 to 0.43 ng/mL. Of 21 compounds, 10 were detected above limit of detection in ≥93% of the samples. Eight compounds were in accordance to NIST reference concentrations. Differences in intercept were found for two compounds whereas slope differed for six compounds between our method and that used in the Danish facility. In conclusion, we set up and validated two high-throughput methods with very short runtime capable of measuring 5 parabens, 3 bisphenols and 13 different metabolites of 8 phthalates. Sensitivity of the phenol method was increased by using ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase.

12.
Clin Biochem ; 68: 15-23, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) increasingly being used for the quantification of steroid hormones, there is a need for studies that re-establish reference intervals and biological variation in well-defined cohorts. METHODS: A plasma steroid hormone profiling method using LC-MS/MS for quantification of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone was developed and validated. For reference interval assessment, 280 well-characterized healthy subjects from the LifeLines cohort were selected, including 40 women using oral contraceptive pills (OCP). The biological variation was examined in 30 healthy individuals. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months with 4 week intervals. RESULTS: The developed method proved to be robust and sensitive. The reference interval levels in men are higher, whereas in women the levels tend to decrease with increasing age. In addition, women using OCP had lower levels of 17-OH-progesterone and androstenedione. The biological variation is generally higher in women compared to men, especially with regard to the inter-individual variation. CONCLUSIONS: The gender-specific determination of the reference intervals, together with the observation that the biological variation demonstrated a high degree of variation, allows interpretation of data on individual and group level for improved biochemical characterization of patients in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Esteroides/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Androstenodiona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Progesterona/sangue , Valores de Referência , Testosterona/sangue
13.
Pediatr Res ; 85(7): 1041-1047, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phototherapy (PT) is the standard treatment of neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Fluorescent tube (FT)-emitted PT light is known to induce oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Nowadays, however, FTs have largely been replaced by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for delivering PT. Until now, it is unknown whether LED-PT causes oxidative DNA damage. We aim to determine whether LED-PT induces oxidative DNA damage in hyperbilirubinemic rats. METHODS: Adult Gunn rats, with genetically unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, received LED-PT in the clinically relevant doses of 10 or 30 µW/cm2/nm. Urine was collected at 0, 24, and 48 h of PT. A group of young Gunn rats received intensive LED-PT of 100 µW/cm2/nm for 24 h. Urine was collected every 8 h and analyzed for the levels of oxidative DNA damage marker 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and creatinine. DNA damage was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (γH2AX) of skin and spleen samples. RESULTS: LED-PT of 10 and 30 µW/cm2/nm did not affect urinary concentrations of 8-OHdG and creatinine or the 8-OHdG/creatinine ratio. Likewise, intensive LED-PT did not affect the 8-OHdG/creatinine ratio or the number of γH2AX-positive cells in the skin or spleen. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that LED-PT does not induce oxidative DNA damage in hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats either at clinically relevant or intensive dosages.

14.
Biomarkers ; 24(4): 360-372, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773031

RESUMO

Background: C14:0, C15:0, C17:0 and trans-C16:1(n-7) are often used as biomarkers for dairy fat intake. Trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA, two fatty acids which are also present in dairy, have hardly been explored. We investigated whether trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA can enrich the existing biomarker portfolio. Methods: Data were obtained from Lifelines (n = 769). Dairy fat intake was determined by FFQ. Fatty acids were measured in fasting plasma triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL) and cholesterol esters (CE). Results: Median (25th-75th percentile) intakes of dairy and dairy fat were 322(209-447) and 12.3(8.4-17.4) g/d respectively. A pilot study showed that trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA were only detectable in TG and PL. Of the established markers, TG C15:0 was most strongly associated with dairy fat intake (standardized ß (std.ß) = 0.286, R2 = 0.111). Of the less established markers, TG trans-C18:1(n-7) was most strongly associated with dairy fat intake (Std.ß = 0.292, R2 = 0.115), followed by PL CLA (Std.ß = 0.272, R2 = 0.103) and PL trans-C18:1(n-7) (Std.ß = 0.269, R2 = 0.099). In TG, a combination of C15:0 and trans-C18:1(n-7) performed best (R2 = 0.128). In PL, a combination of C14:0, C15:0, trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA performed best (R2 = 0.143). Conclusion: Trans-C18:1(n-7) and CLA can be used as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. Additionally, combining established with less established markers allowed even stronger predictions for dairy fat intake.

15.
Brain ; 142(3): 542-559, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668673

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.

16.
Br J Nutr ; 121(4): 426-438, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526692

RESUMO

Pregnant and lactating women and breastfed infants are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. The supplemental vitamin D dose that optimises maternal vitamin D status and breast milk antirachitic activity (ARA) is unclear. Healthy pregnant women were randomised to 10 (n 10), 35 (n 11), 60 (n 11) and 85 (n 11) µg vitamin D3/d from 20 gestational weeks (GW) to 4 weeks postpartum (PP). The participants also received increasing dosages of fish oil supplements and a multivitamin. Treatment allocation was not blinded. Parent vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in maternal plasma at 20 GW, 36 GW and 4 weeks PP, and in milk at 4 weeks PP. Median 25(OH)D and parent vitamin D at 20 GW were 85 (range 25-131) nmol/l and 'not detectable (nd)' (range nd-40) nmol/l. Both increased, seemingly dose dependent, from 20 to 36 GW and decreased from 36 GW to 4 weeks PP. In all, 35 µg vitamin D/d was needed to increase 25(OH)D to adequacy (80-249 nmol/l) in >97·5 % of participants at 36 GW, while >85 µg/d was needed to reach this criterion at 4 weeks PP. The 25(OH)D increments from 20 to 36 GW and from 20 GW to 4 weeks PP diminished with supplemental dose and related inversely to 25(OH)D at 20 GW. Milk ARA related to vitamin D3 dose, but the infant adequate intake of 513 IU/l was not reached. Vitamin D3 dosages of 35 and >85 µg/d were needed to reach adequate maternal vitamin D status at 36 GW and 4 weeks PP, respectively.

17.
Psychosom Med ; 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients undergoing chronic dialysis often display sustained elevations of inflammation markers and also have a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. Although multiple studies demonstrated cross-sectional associations between inflammation markers and depressive symptoms in this patient group, longitudinal associations have not been examined. We therefore investigated whether longitudinal associations exist between inflammation markers and depressive symptoms in chronic dialysis patients. METHODS: Data of three consecutive measurements of an observational, prospective cohort study among chronic dialysis patients were used. At baseline, 6 months and 12 months follow-up, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and inflammation markers (HsCRP, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα) were measured. We examined cross-sectional associations between inflammation markers and depressive symptoms using linear regression models. The longitudinal association between inflammation and depressive symptoms was assessed using a linear mixed model analyses. RESULTS: A total of 513 patients were included. Cross-sectional associations were found between HsCRP and depressive symptoms at baseline (ß= 0.9 (CI: 0.4-1.4)) and 6 months follow-up (ß= 1.1 (CI: 0.3-2.0)), and between IL-1ß and depressive symptoms at 6 months follow-up (ß= 1.3 (CI: 0.8-1.8)) and 12 months follow-up (ß= 1.2 (CI: 0.4-1.9)). Inflammation makers (HsCRP, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-10 and TNFa) at baseline were not associated with depressive symptoms at follow-up and vice versa. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the presence of cross-sectional associations between inflammation markers and depressive symptoms in chronic dialysis patients, but with our longitudinal data we found no longitudinal associations. This supports an associative instead of a causal relationship between inflammation and depressive symptoms.

18.
BMC Nephrol ; 19(1): 214, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intradialytic hypotension is a common complication of hemodialysis. The Hemocontrol biofeedback system, improving intradialytic hemodynamic stability, is associated with an initial transient increase in plasma sodium levels. Increases in sodium could affect blood pressure regulators. METHODS: We investigated whether Hemocontrol dialysis affects vasopressin and copeptin levels, endothelial function, and sympathetic activity in twenty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients. Each patient underwent one standard hemodialysis and one Hemocontrol hemodialysis. Plasma sodium, osmolality, nitrite and nitrate (NOx), endothelin-1, angiopoietins-1 and 2, and methemoglobin as measures of endothelial function, plasma catecholamines as indices of sympathetic activity and plasma vasopressin and copeptin levels were measured six times during each modality. Blood pressure, heart rate, blood volume, and heart rate variability were repeatedly monitored. Generalized Estimating Equations was used to compare the course of the parameters during the two treatment modalities. RESULTS: Plasma sodium and osmolality were significantly higher during the first two hours of Hemocontrol hemodialysis. Overall, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher during Hemocontrol dialysis. Neither the measures of endothelial function and sympathetic activity nor copeptin levels differed between the two dialysis modalities. In contrast, plasma vasopressin levels were significantly higher during the first half of Hemocontrol dialysis. The intradialytic course of vasopressin was associated with the course of MAP. CONCLUSIONS: A transient intradialytic increase in plasma sodium did not affect indices of endothelial function or sympathetic activity compared with standard hemodialysis, but coincided with higher plasma vasopressin levels. The beneficial effect of higher intradialytic sodium levels on hemodynamic stability might be mediated by vasopressin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT03578510 . Date of registration: July 5th, 2018. Retrospectively registered.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(9): 3411-3419, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982583

RESUMO

Context: Hydrocortisone (HC) treatment influences health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI). Glucocorticoids regulate tryptophan metabolism through the kynurenine pathway, which modulates mood and energy homeostasis. Objective: This study investigated whether tryptophan metabolism mediated the effect of HC dose on HRQOL in patients with secondary AI. Design, Setting, and Patients: Forty-seven patients with secondary AI participated in this double-blind randomized controlled cross-over trial in the University Medical Center Groningen. Intervention: Patients were treated for two 10-week periods with a daily HC dose of 0.2 to 0.3 mg/kg and 0.4 to 0.6 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Main Outcome Measures: Diary data and questionnaires were used to assess HRQOL. Tryptophan, kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine were measured in serum and dialyzed plasma and the kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp ratio) ratio was calculated. Results: A higher dose HC was associated with increased levels of tryptophan (95% CI for mean difference 0.37 to 12.5, P = 0.038), reduced levels of kynurenine (95% CI, -0.49 to -0.10, P = 0.004) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (95% CI, -10.6 to -2.35, P = 0.003), and a reduced Kyn/Trp ratio (95% CI, -0.84 to -0.50, P < 0.001). The Kyn/Trp ratio mediated the effect of a higher dose HC on fatigue (P = 0.041) and physical functioning (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Metabolism of tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway is reduced after a 10-week treatment with a higher dose HC and plays a role in the effect of HC on fatigue and physical functioning in patients with secondary AI.

20.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(11): 1905-1912, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a biomarker with various applications in medicine and also in doping control. METHODS: A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed that employs 15N-IGF1 as an internal standard. The method features urea-based IGF1/IGFBP-complex dissociation which is directly followed by tryptic digestion. Following solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample clean-up of the digest, IGF1 is detected by means of two signature peptides that enable quantification of total IGF1 as well as discrimination between IGF1 proteoforms with 'native' and modified or extended N-terminal sequences. RESULTS: Our method is capable of measuring plasma IGF1 concentrations over the clinically relevant range of 10-1000 ng/mL and was validated according to regulatory guidelines. Comparison with the IDS-iSYS IGF1 immunoassay revealed good correlation (R2>0.97) and no proportional bias between both assays was observed after normalizing the results against the WHO reference standard for IGF1 (02/254). Evaluation of several commercially available IGF1 preparations showed varying responses which were due to inconsistencies in purity and absolute amount of IGF1 present in these products. CONCLUSIONS: Our LC-MS/MS method introduces urea-based dissociation of IGF1/IGFBP-complexes to enable reliable quantification of IGF1 in plasma. Furthermore, the method is able to detect clinically relevant IGF1 levels without an enrichment procedure at the protein-level and thereby minimizes the risk of losing IGF1 proteoforms during sample preparation.

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