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1.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(11): 441-448, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739336

RESUMO

Stigma in health care settings can have negative consequences on women living with HIV, such as increasing the likelihood of missed visits and reducing trust in their clinical providers. Informed by prior stigma research and considering knowledge gaps related to the effect of patient-provider race concordance, we conducted this study to assess if patient-provider race concordance moderates the expected association between HIV-related stigma in health care settings and patients' trust in their providers. Moderation analyses were conducted using Women's Interagency HIV Study data (N = 931). We found significant main effects for patient-provider race concordance. Higher experienced stigma was associated with lower trust in providers in all patient-provider race combinations [White-White: B = -0.89, standard error (SE) = 0.14, p = 0.000, 95% confidence interval, CI (-1.161 to -0.624); Black patient-White provider: B = -0.19, SE = 0.06, p = 0.003, 95% CI (-0.309 to -0.062); and Black-Black: B = -0.30, SE = 0.14, p = 0.037, 95% CI (-0.575 to -0.017)]. Higher anticipated stigma was also associated with lower trust in providers [White-White: B = -0.42, SE = 0.07, p = 0.000, 95% CI (-0.552 to -0.289); Black patient-White provider: B = -0.17, SE = 0.03, p = 0.000, 95% CI (-0.232 to -0.106); and Black-Black: B = -0.18, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI (-0.293 to -0.066)]. Significant interaction effects indicated that the negative associations between experienced and anticipated HIV-related stigma and trust in providers were stronger for the White-White combination compared with the others. Thus, we found that significant relationships between HIV-related experienced and anticipated stigma in health care settings and trust in providers exist and that these associations vary across different patient-provider race combinations. Given that reduced trust in providers is associated with antiretroviral medication nonadherence and higher rates of missed clinical visits, interventions to address HIV-related stigma in health care settings may improve continuum of care outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Confiança , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Estigma Social
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 426-438, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study describes prevention behavior and psychosocial health among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative people during the early wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We assessed differences by HIV status and associations between social disruption and psychosocial health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional telephone/videoconference administered survey of 3411 PLHIV and HIV-negative participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). METHODS: An instrument combining new and validated measures was developed to assess COVID-19 prevention efforts, social disruptions (loss of employment, childcare, health insurance, and financial supports), experiences of abuse, and psychosocial health. Interviews were performed between April and June 2020. Associations between social disruptions and psychosocial health were explored using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics and HIV status. RESULTS: Almost all (97.4%) participants reported COVID-19 prevention behavior; 40.1% participants reported social disruptions, and 34.3% reported health care appointment disruption. Men living with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative men to experience social disruptions (40.6% vs. 32.9%; P < 0.01), whereas HIV-negative women were more likely than women with HIV to experience social disruptions (51.1% vs. 39.8%, P < 0.001). Participants who experienced ≥2 social disruptions had significantly higher odds of depression symptoms [aOR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.56], anxiety (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.27), and social support dissatisfaction (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the psychosocial health impact related to the COVID-19 pandemic by providing context specific to PLHIV. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease social disruption and address psychosocial health needs among the most vulnerable populations.

3.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642834

RESUMO

In this mixed-methods study, we examine the relationship between provider communication and patient health literacy on HIV continuum of care outcomes among women living with HIV in the United States. We thematically coded qualitative data from focus groups and interviews (N = 92) and conducted mediation analyses with quantitative survey data (N = 1455) collected from Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. Four qualitative themes related to provider communication emerged: importance of respect and non-verbal cues; providers' expressions of condescension and judgement; patient health literacy; and unclear, insufficient provider communication resulting in diminished trust. Quantitative mediation analyses suggest that higher health literacy is associated with higher perceived patient-provider interaction quality, which in turn is associated with higher levels of trust in HIV providers, improved antiretroviral medication adherence, and reduced missed clinical visits. Findings indicate that enhancing provider communication and bolstering patient health literacy could have a positive impact on the HIV continuum of care.

4.
J Nurs Meas ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: How the Area Deprivation Index (ADI) performs compared to other measures of socioeconomic status (SES) is unknown. The study purpose is to compare the ADI and other measures of SES in their ability to predict pain severity/interference. METHODS: Four measures of SES were compared-ADI, income, education, and subjective social status (SSS). RESULTS: Pain severity/interference correlated positively with ADI (r = .396/r = .33), and negatively with income (r = -.507/r = -.428) and education (r = -.271/r = -.102). Criterion scores of the pain severity model suggest income performs best (AIC = 428.29/BIC = 436.22), followed by ADI (AIC = 437.24/BIC = 445.17), with education performing least well (AIC = 446.35/BIC = 454.29). Similar results were seen for the pain interference model. CONCLUSIONS: Neighborhood-level factors warrant consideration along with individual-level factors when attempting to understand the impact of SES on chronic low back pain.

5.
Blood Adv ; 5(23): 4922-4934, 2021 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496009

RESUMO

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have a lower risk for HIV-1 infection. We reported restriction of ex vivo HIV-1 infection in SCD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that was due, in part, to the upregulation of antiviral, inflammatory, and hemolytic factors, including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Here, we investigated whether individuals with sickle cell trait (SCT), who develop mild hemolysis, also restrict HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo infection of SCT PBMCs exhibited an approximately twofold reduction of HIV-1 replication and lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcription products, 2-long terminal repeat circle, HIV-1 integration, and gag RNA expression. SCT PBMCs had higher HO-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and reduced ribonucleotide reductase 2 (RNR2) protein levels. HO-1 inhibition by tin porphyrin eliminated ex vivo HIV-1 restriction. Among Howard University clinic recruits, higher levels of HO-1 and RNR2 mRNA and lower HIV-1 env mRNA levels were found in SCT individuals living with HIV-1. To determine the population-level effect of SCT on HIV-1 prevalence, we assessed SCT among women living with HIV (WLH) in the WIHS (Women Interagency HIV-1 Study). Among WIHS African-American participants, the prevalence of SCT was lower among women with HIV compared with uninfected women (8.7% vs 14.2%; odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.92; P = .020). WIHS WLH with SCT had higher levels of CD4+/CD8+ ratios over 20 years of follow-up (P = .003) than matched WLH without SCT. Together, our findings suggest that HIV-1 restriction factors, including HO-1 and RNR2, might restrict HIV-1 infection among individuals with SCT and limit the pathogenicity of HIV.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0242641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the challenges and costs associated with implementing HIV-1 incidence assay testing, there is great interest in evaluating the use of commercial HIV diagnostic tests for determining recent HIV infection. A diagnostic test with the capability of providing reliable data for the determination of recent HIV infection without substantial modifications to the test protocol would have a significant impact on HIV surveillance. The Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo Assay is an antigen/antibody immunoassay, which meets the criteria as the first screening test in the recommended HIV laboratory diagnostic algorithm for the United States. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/Co) for determining recent infection, including estimation of the mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and false recent rate (FRR), and selection of recency cutoffs. RESULTS: The MDRI estimates for the S/Co recency cutoff of 400 is within the 4 to 12 months range recommended for HIV incidence assays, and the FRR rate for this cutoff was 1.5%. Additionally, ARCHITECT Combo S/Co values were compared relative to diagnostic test results from two prior prospective HIV-1 diagnostic studies in order to validate the use of the S/Co for both diagnostic and recency determination. CONCLUSION: Dual-use of the ARCHITECT Combo assay data for diagnostic and incidence purposes would reduce the need for separate HIV incidence testing and allow for monitoring of recent infection for incidence estimation and other public health applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Antígenos HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Reações Falso-Positivas , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Razão Sinal-Ruído
7.
AIDS Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287753

RESUMO

Social support is associated with improved HIV care and quality of life. We utilized latent class analysis to identify three classes of baseline emotional and tangible perceived social support, termed "Strong", "Wavering" and "Weak". "Weak" vs. "Strong" perceived social support was associated over time with an 8% decreased risk of optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for emotional and 6% decreased risk for tangible perceived social support. Importantly, "Wavering" vs "Strong" social support also showed a decreased risk of ART adherence of 6% for emotional and 3% for tangible support. "Strong" vs. "Weak" perceived support had a similar association with undetectable viral load, but the association for "Strong" vs. "Wavering" support was not statistically significant. Intensity of social support is associated with HIV care outcomes, and strong social support may be needed for some individuals. It is important to quantify the level or intensity of social support that is needed to optimize HIV outcomes.

8.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427766

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Few interventions have targeted resilience resources in people living with HIV (PLWH). We tested the acceptability of an existing resilience intervention in middle-age and older PLWH. Fourteen PLWH attended one 3-hr group session, which included videos, quizzes, and written activities. Participants provided quantitative and qualitative feedback. The mean acceptability rating was 8.71 (1.27) on a 10-point scale. A majority of participants reported that the intervention was an appropriate length; that it improved their resilience, mood, and ability to manage HIV; and that they would likely continue using the tools. Average content retention accuracy was 75% (12.66). Qualitative feedback suggested addressing HIV-specific stressors, including disclosure concerns, stigma, health concerns, and treatment adherence. The resilience intervention was deemed highly acceptable among older PLWH. Uptake may increase by addressing HIV-specific stressors and improving comprehensibility. Future research should further refine and test the efficacy of a modified version of the intervention.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2059-e2069, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may accelerate development of aging-related non-AIDS comorbidities (NACMs). The incidence of NACMs is poorly characterized among women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS: WLWH and HIV-seronegative participants followed in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) through 2009 (when >80% of WLWH used antiretroviral therapy) or onward were included, with outcomes measured through 31 March 2018. Sociodemographics, clinical covariates, and prevalent NACM were determined at enrollment. We used Poisson regression models to determine incident NACM burden (number of NACMs accrued through most recent WIHS visit out of 10 total NACMs assessed) by HIV serostatus and age. RESULTS: There were 3129 participants (2239 WLWH, 890 HIV seronegative) with 36 589 person-years of follow-up. At enrollment, median age was 37 years, 65% were black, and 47% currently smoked. In fully adjusted analyses, WLWH had a higher incident NACM rate compared with HIV-seronegative women (incidence rate ratio, 1.36 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.81]). Incident NACM burden was higher among WLWH vs HIV-seronegative women in most age strata (HIV × age interaction: P = .0438), and women <25 years old had the greatest incidence rate ratio by HIV serostatus at 1.48 (95% CI, 1.19-1.84) compared with those in older age groups. Incident NACM burden was associated with traditional comorbidity risk factors but not HIV-specific indices. CONCLUSIONS: Incident NACM burden was higher among WLWH than HIV-seronegative women. This difference was most dramatic among women aged <25 years, a group for whom routine comorbidity screening is not prioritized. Established non-HIV comorbidity risk factors were significantly associated with incident NACM burden. More data are needed to inform best practices for NACM screening, prevention, and management among WLWH, particularly young women.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Syphilis rates among women in the USA more than doubled between 2014 and 2018. We sought to identify correlates of syphilis among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to inform targeted interventions. METHODS: The retrospective cross-sectional analysis of secondary data included women with HIV or at-risk of HIV who enrolled in the multisite US WIHS cohort between 1994 and 2015. Syphilis screening was performed at baseline. Infection was defined serologically by a positive rapid plasma reagin test with confirmatory treponemal antibodies. Sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics stratified by baseline syphilis status were compared for women enrolled during early (1994-2002) and recent (2011-2015) years. Multivariable binomial modelling with backward selection (p>0.2 for removal) was used to model correlates of syphilis. RESULTS: The study included 3692 women in the early cohort and 1182 women in the recent cohort. Syphilis prevalence at enrolment was 7.5% and 3.7% in each cohort, respectively (p<0.01). In adjusted models for the early cohort, factors associated with syphilis included age, black race, low income, hepatitis C seropositivity, drug use, HIV infection and >100 lifetime sex partners (all p<0.05). In the recent cohort, age (adjusted prevalence OR (aPOR) 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.6 for 30-39 years; aPOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 1.0 for 40-49 years vs ≥50 years), hepatitis C seropositivity (aPOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1) and problem alcohol use (aPOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.4) were associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Syphilis screening is critical for women with HIV and at-risk of HIV. Targeted prevention efforts should focus on women with hepatitis C and problem alcohol use.

11.
J Public Health Dent ; 81(1): 65-76, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research has shown inconsistent patterns of patients' HIV serostatus disclosure to their dentists. Common barriers to disclosure have included confidentiality concerns, fear of treatment refusal, and discrimination. This study evaluated the prevalence of HIV serostatus disclosure to the dentist, whether the frequency of dental care utilization is associated with disclosure, and reasons for nondisclosure among women living with HIV. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional oral health survey to 1,526 women living with HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study including questions regarding HIV serostatus disclosure to dentists. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dental care utilization (at least annually versus less than annually) and HIV serostatus disclosure to dentists. RESULTS: Overall, 83 percent of women reported that they disclosed their HIV serostatus to their dentist. The most common reasons for nondisclosure were: a) the dentist did not ask, b) believing that the dentist did not need to know, and c) not having a consistent dentist. In the multivariable logistic regression model, at least annual dental care utilization, compared to less than annual, led to a 59 percent reduction in the odds of HIV nondisclosure to the dentist. DISCUSSION: Study findings highlight that dentists who see their patients infrequently should consider methods for overcoming barriers to HIV nondisclosure and the possibility that their patient's HIV serostatus is undisclosed. Educating women living with HIV about how disclosure to dentists is a critical component of their dental assessment and treatment, and how preventive dental treatment can improve overall health outcomes, is important.


Assuntos
Revelação , Infecções por HIV , Confidencialidade , Estudos Transversais , Odontólogos , Feminino , Humanos , Autorrevelação
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(8): 1301-1311, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and burden of age-related non-AIDS comorbidities (NACMs) are poorly characterized among women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS: Virologically suppressed WLWH and HIV-seronegative participants followed in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) through at least 2009 (when >80% of WLWH used antiretroviral therapy) were included, with outcomes measured through 31 March 2018. Covariates, NACM number, and prevalence were summarized at most recent WIHS visit. We used linear regression models to determine NACM burden by HIV serostatus and age. RESULTS: Among 3232 women (2309 WLWH, 923 HIV-seronegative) with median observation of 15.3 years, median age and body mass index (BMI) were 50 years and 30 kg/m2, respectively; 65% were black; 70% ever used cigarettes. WLWH had a higher mean NACM number than HIV-seronegative women (3.6 vs 3.0, P < .0001) and higher prevalence of psychiatric illness, dyslipidemia, non-AIDS cancer, kidney, liver, and bone disease (all P < .01). Prevalent hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular and lung disease did not differ by HIV serostatus. Estimated NACM burden was higher among WLWH versus HIV-seronegative women in those aged 40-49 (P < .0001) and ≥60 years (P = .0009) (HIV × age interaction, P = .0978). In adjusted analyses, NACM burden was associated with HIV, age, race, income, BMI, alcohol abstinence, cigarette, and crack/cocaine use; in WLWH, additional HIV-specific indices were not associated, aside from recent abacavir use. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, NACM burden was high in the cohort, but higher in WLWH and in certain age groups. Non-HIV traditional risk factors were significantly associated with NACM burden in WLWH and should be prioritized in clinical guidelines for screening and intervention to mitigate comorbidity burden in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
AIDS Care ; 33(2): 229-238, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449377

RESUMO

To explore the associations of urbanicity with clinical/behavioral outcomes and sociodemographic factors among women living with HIV in the Southern United States, 523 participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study were classified into population density quartiles. Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes revealed that 7% resided in areas where >30% commute to urban areas, 2% resided in small towns or rural areas, and 91% resided in varying densities of urban areas. Although women in lower density, mostly suburban areas reported higher socioeconomic indicators such as advanced education and greater annual household income, larger proportions of women in the lowest density quartile perceived discrimination in health care settings and agreed with several internalized HIV stigma scale items. Women in the lower quartiles had higher CD4 counts, while those in the lowest quartile were more likely to have a suppressed HIV viral load, report being employed, and not report a history of drug use or current heavy alcohol use. More research is needed to understand the interplay between population density and mechanisms contributing to HIV control as well as increased internalized stigma and perceived discrimination, along with how to target interventions to improve outcomes for individuals with HIV across urban, suburban, and rural areas.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Densidade Demográfica , População Rural , Estigma Social , População Urbana , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 32(1): 37-46, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852297

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Women living with HIV (WLWH) have lower employment rates and more difficulty finding and keeping employment compared with their counterparts without HIV. These disparities affect physical, psychological, and socioeconomic outcomes, and they may compound the disadvantages associated with living with HIV. Although historical literature has emphasized the impact of clinical factors on employment, current evidence suggests that socioeconomic and psychosocial factors associated with HIV should be included for a more comprehensive view. Based on this broader inclusion, a conceptual framework is presented describing how socioeconomic and psychosocial characteristics influence employment acquisition and maintenance among WLWH. The framework posits that there is a reciprocal relationship between employment acquisition and occupational productivity, and psychological health, physical health, social support, and empowerment. Implications for future research and interventions include (a) an extended conceptualization of vocational rehabilitation and (b) the use of peer support groups to increase social capital, empowerment, knowledge, and resources among WLWH.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/reabilitação , Reabilitação Vocacional , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos de Autoajuda , Apoio Social
15.
AIDS Care ; 33(8): 1044-1051, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233937

RESUMO

Our objective was to examine the association between healthcare payer type and missed HIV care visits among 1,366 US women living with HIV (WLWH) enrolled in the prospective Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). We collected secondary patient-level data (October 1, 2017-September 30, 2018) from WLWH at nine WIHS sites. We used bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the relationship between healthcare payer type (cross-classification of patients' ADAP and health insurance enrollment) and missed visits-based retention in care, defined as no-show appointments for which patients did not reschedule. Our sample included all WLWH who self-reported having received HIV care at least once during the two consecutive biannual WIHS visits a year prior to October 1, 2017-September 30, 2018. In the bivariate model, compared to uninsured WLWH without ADAP, WLWH with private insurance + ADAP were more likely to be retained in care, as were WLWH with Medicaid only and private insurance only. In the adjusted model, WLWH with private insurance only were more likely to be retained in care compared to uninsured WLWH without ADAP. Private health insurance and ADAP are associated with increased odds of retention in care among WLWH.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Retenção nos Cuidados , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
16.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(5): 130-139, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85, p = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.


Assuntos
COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Ageusia/virologia , Anosmia/epidemiologia , Anosmia/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Calafrios/epidemiologia , Calafrios/virologia , Coinfecção , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/virologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/virologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(8): 356-366, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757978

RESUMO

Resilience is defined as the ability and process to transform adversity into opportunities for growth and adaptation. Resilience may be especially important for people living with HIV (PLWH), who are susceptible to anxiety and depressive disorders, which are commonly linked to risk behaviors (i.e., alcohol and drug abuse), poor adherence to medical regimens, increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and related stigma and discrimination. To date, few studies have examined the impact of resilience on health-related behaviors and outcomes among PLWH, particularly among minority women living with HIV (WLWH) who are dealing with multiple stressors impacting their health. This study used a convergent parallel mixed-methods design to collect, analyze, and integrate qualitative and quantitative data from a subsample of WLWH enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). The aims of the study were to (1) qualitatively examine the resilience perspectives of 76 marginalized WLWH, and; (2) quantitatively assess the associations of resilience with HIV health outcomes-adherence to antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression-in the context of differing levels of internalized HIV-related stigma and depressive symptoms (n = 420). Findings from this mixed-methods study suggest that resilience is an important resource that can aid WLWH in coping constructively with adversity by capitalizing on intrapersonal traits and states, interpersonal and institutional resources, and spiritual and/or religious practices. Given the complex medical and social needs of marginalized WLWH, intervention strategies should focus on mitigating psychosocial burdens of stigma and depression, in addition to building resilience.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estigma Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 115, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ending the HIV epidemic requires that women living with HIV (WLWH) have access to structurally competent HIV-related and other health care. WLWH may not regularly engage in care due to inadequate quality; however, women's perspectives on the quality of care they receive are understudied. METHODS: We conducted 12 focus groups and three in-depth interviews with Black (90%) and Latina (11%) WLWH enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study in Atlanta, GA, Birmingham, AL, Brooklyn, NY, Chapel Hill, NC, Chicago, IL, and Jackson, MS from November 2017 to May 2018 (n = 92). We used a semi-structured format to facilitate discussions about satisfaction and dissatisfaction with health care engagement experiences, and suggestions for improvement, which were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Themes emerged related to women's health care satisfaction or dissatisfaction at the provider, clinic, and systems levels and across Institute of Medicine-defined quality of care domains (effectiveness, efficiency, equity, patient-centeredness, safety and timeliness). Women's degree of care satisfaction was driven by: 1) knowledge-based care resulting in desired outcomes (effectiveness); 2) coordination, continuity and necessity of care (efficiency); 3) perceived disparities in care (equity); 4) care delivery characterized by compassion, nonjudgment, accommodation, and autonomous decision-making (patient-centeredness); 5) attention to avoiding side effects and over-medicalization (safety); and 6) limited wait time (timeliness). CONCLUSIONS: Quality of care represents a key changeable lever affecting engage in care among WLWH. The communities most proximally affected by HIV should be key stakeholders in HIV-related quality assurance. Findings highlight aspects of the health care experience valued by WLWH, and potential participatory, patient-driven avenues for improvement.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Equidade em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , New England , Participação do Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
19.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105320926526, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515245

RESUMO

Women living with HIV are disproportionally affected by depression and mental healthcare access. A pilot feasibility trial using videoconferencing compared cognitive behavioral therapy for antiretroviral therapy adherence and depression (N = 11) to supportive psychotherapy (N = 11). Participants completed 10-12 weekly therapy sessions and 6-month follow-up. Retention at 6 months was 95 percent. Depression symptoms significantly decreased in both arms; antiretroviral therapy adherence remained high as measured via self-report and Wisepill. Satisfaction with intervention components was high; videoconferencing was highly acceptable and comparable to face-to-face counseling. This study demonstrates the feasibility of telemedicine-administered psychotherapy addressing mental health needs among women living with HIV.

20.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 151(7): 527-535, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) is a multidimensional, perception-based measure of how oral health affects social and physical functioning and self-image. OHRQoL is important for assessing women living with HIV (WLWH) who may have unmet dental needs and experience disparities that impact dental care accessibility. METHODS: In 2016, the authors conducted an assessment of OHRQoL among a national sample of 1,526 WLWH in the Women's Interagency HIV Study using the Oral Health Impact Profile instrument, which assesses the frequency of 14 oral health impact items. OHRQoL was measured using multivariable linear regression with a negative binomial distribution to assess the association between report of a recent unmet dental need and OHRQoL. RESULTS: "Fair or poor" oral health condition was reported by 37.8% (n = 576) of WLWH. Multivariable linear regression showed that unmet dental needs had the strongest positive association with poor OHRQoL (difference in Oral Health Impact Profile mean, 2.675; P < .001) compared with not having unmet needs. The frequency of dental care utilization was not associated with higher OHRQoL. Older age, fair or poor dental condition, smoking, symptoms of anxiety and loneliness, and poor OHRQoL were also associated with worse OHRQoL. CONCLUSION: Self-perceived impact of oral health on social and physical function and self-image, as measured by OHRQoL, may be an easily assessable but underrecognized aspect of OHRQoL, particularly among women aging with HIV. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists should implement OHRQoL assessments in their management of the care of patients with HIV to identify those who do have significant oral health impacts.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
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