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1.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(4): 431-441, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172106

RESUMO

Reuse of disposable personal protective equipment is traditionally discouraged, yet in times of heightened medical applications such as the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, it can be difficult to obtain. In this article we examine the reuse of disposable gowns with respect to still providing personnel protection. XR7, a fluorescent powder, was used to track contamination of gowns after manipulation of rodent cages. Mouse cages were treated with XR7 prior to manipulations. Disposable gowns were labeled for single person use and hung in common procedure spaces within the vivarium between usages. A simulated rack change of 140 cages was completed using XR7-treated cages. One individual changed all cages with a break occurring after the first 70 cages, requiring the gown to be removed and reused once. To simulate research activities, 5 individuals accessed 3 XR7-treated cages daily for 5 d. Each mouse in the XR7-treated cages was manipulated at least once before returning cages to the housing room. Disposable gowns were reused 5 times per individual. Gowns, gloves, clothing, bare arms, and hands were scanned for fluorescence before and after removing PPE. Fluorescence was localized to gloves and gown sleeves in closest contact with animals and caging. No fluorescence was detected on underlying clothing, or bare arms and hands after removing PPE. Fluorescence was not detected in procedure spaces where gowns were hung. The lack of fluorescence on personnel or surfaces indicate that gowns can be reused 1 time for routine husbandry tasks and up to 5 times for research personnel. A method for decontamination of used gowns using Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) was also validated for use in areas where animals are considered high risk such as quarantine, or for fragile immunocompromised rodent colonies.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Pandemias , Roupa de Proteção , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Pessoal de Saúde , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(7): 776-785, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize how class rank and other criteria are used to evaluate applicants for veterinary internship and residency positions. SAMPLE: Program directors for 572 internship and residency programs. PROCEDURES: A survey was sent to program directors asking them to score the importance of 7 items (cover letter, letters of reference, curriculum vitae, veterinary class rank, grade point average, grades for classes specifically related to the internship or residency specialty area, and interview) they could use in evaluating applicants for an internship or residency and to rank those 7 items, along with an open item asking participants to list other criteria they used, from most to least important. RESULTS: Responses were obtained for 195 internship and 222 residency programs. For both internship programs and residency programs, mean importance scores assigned to the 7 items resulted in the same ordering from most to least important, with letters of reference, interview, curriculum vitae, and cover letter most important. Rankings of the importance of the 7 items, along with an "other" item, were similar for internship and residency programs; the most important item was a candidate's letters of reference, followed by the interview, cover letter, and curriculum vitae. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that although most veterinary internship and residency programs consider class rank and overall grade point average when evaluating applicants, these 2 items were not the most important. For both internship and residency programs, the most important items were an applicant's letters of reference, followed by the interview, cover letter, and curriculum vitae. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;258:776-785).


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Animais , Capacitação em Serviço , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993847

RESUMO

Buprenorphine is a commonly used opioid for mitigating pain in laboratory mice after surgical procedures; however, the dosing interval necessary for standard buprenorphine may require treatment every 4 to 6 h to maintain an adequate plane of analgesia. An alternative formulation that provides prolonged plasma concentration with long-lasting effects would be beneficial in achieving steady-state analgesia. We evaluated a long-lasting and highly concentrated formulation of buprenorphine(Bup-LHC) in mice. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to assess plasma concentrations in male C57BL/6J (B6)and female CD1 mice after subcutaneous injection of 0.9 mg/kg. The Bup-LHC formulation provided plasma drug levels that exceeded the therapeutic level for at least 12 h in male B6 mice and was below therapeutic levels by 8 h in female CD1 mice. An experimental laparotomy model was used to assess analgesic efficacy. Female CD1 mice were treated with either Bup-LHC (0.9 mg/kg) or saline at 1 h before undergoing an ovariectomy via a ventral laparotomy. At 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after surgery, pain was assessed based on the following behaviors: orbital tightness, grooming, wound licking, rearing, arched posture, ataxia, piloerection, nest building, and general activity. At 3 and 6 h after surgery, Bup-LHC-treated mice had significantly less wound licking and orbital tightness and considerably higher activity levels than did saline-treated mice. At 12 h, wound licking, orbital tightness and activity in Bup-LHC-treated mice were no longer significantly different from those of saline-treated mice. The results of this study suggest that Bup-LHC at 0.9 mg/kg provides sufficient plasma concentrations for analgesia in mice for 6 to 12 h after administration, as demonstrated behaviorally for at least 6 h after surgery.

5.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 59(6): 737-741, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878683

RESUMO

In cynomolgus macaques, plasma levels of sustained-release formulations of meloxicam meet or exceed efficacious concentrations for 48 to 72 h, thereby allowing less animal handling and providing more consistent efficacy than standard formulations of meloxicam. The goal of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous dose of a sustained-release formulation of meloxicam (Melox-SR) with those of oral (Melox-PO) and standard subcutaneous (Melox-SC) formulations dosed every 24 h for 3 consecutive days. Dogs (5 or 6 adult male Beagles) each received the following 3 treat- ments: first, Melox-SR (10 mg/mL, 0.6 mg/kg SC once), next Melox-SC (0.2 mg/kg SC once, followed by 0.1 mg/kg SC every 24 h), and finally Melox-PO (same dosage as Melox-SC), with a washout period of at least 2 wk between formulations. Blood was collected at 0 (baseline), 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after the initial administration of each formulation for comparison of meloxicam plasma concentrations. Blood was also collected before administration and at 48 h after Melox-SR injection for CBC and chemistry analysis. Plasma concentrations (mean ± 1 SD) of Melox-SR peaked at the 1-h time point (2180 ± 359 ng/ mL), whereas those of Melox-PO (295 ± 55 ng/mL) and Melox-SC (551 ± 112 ng/mL) peaked at the 4-h time point. Melox-SR yielded significantly higher plasma concentrations than Melox-PO and Melox-SC until the 48 and 72-h time points, respec- tively. Melox-SC plasma concentrations were significantly higher than those of Melox-PO at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. No lesions were noted at the Melox-SR injection sites, and Melox-SR administration was not associated with changes in the CBC and serum chemistry panels. A single 0.6-mg/kg dose of Melox-SR can yield plasma concentrations that exceed 350 ng/mL for at least 72 h in adult male dogs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Cães , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Meloxicam/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/sangue , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/sangue , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Cães/sangue , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Meloxicam/sangue , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem
6.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 59(3): 275-281, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164795

RESUMO

Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis) are used as an animal model for several viruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, and Tacaribe virus. However, despite ongoing studies regarding these pathogens, little is known regarding the bats' normal physiology. In this study, phlebotomy of the propetagial (cephalic) vein was performed to establish baseline hematologic parameters in an apparently healthy, captive population of Jamaican fruit bats. Furthermore, we compared results from physically restrained and isoflurane-anesthetized bats. Our findings indicate significant increases in WBC count, lymphocytes, and monocytes in the anesthetized bats. However, RBC and platelet parameters were not different between the 2 groups. This information on the normal hematologic parameters of Jamaican fruit bats, adds to our overall understanding of the normal physiology of this species, and expands our knowledge on bat species in general.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Animais , Quirópteros/sangue , Quirópteros/classificação , Feminino , Isoflurano/administração & dosagem , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Restrição Física/veterinária , Zoonoses Virais
7.
Comp Med ; 70(1): 5, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054563

Assuntos
Dor , Roedores , Animais
8.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 59(2): 204-211, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918790

RESUMO

Objectively recognizing postoperative pain in mice is challenging, making it difficult to determine an appropriate postoperative analgesic regimen. Adult male mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations after exposure to adult female urine (FiUSV). To determine if FiUSV can be used as a indicator of postoperative pain, FiUSV produced by male C57BL/6J mice were assessed for 5 d before and after vasectomy or sham surgery with or without sustained-release buprenorphine. Postoperative pain was assessed by monitoring vocalization using an ultrasonic microphone and by evaluating orbital tightness, posture, and piloerection at postoperative time points. Before vasectomy or sham surgery, 25 of 38 male mice produced FiUSV on 4 of 5 d (143 ± 93 FiUSV). Vasectomized mice without postoperative analgesia produced significantly fewer FiUSV (59 ± 26 FiUSV) compared with baseline (212 ± 102 FiUSV) at 4 h postoperatively, but returned to baseline by 28 h. Vasectomized mice treated with buprenorphine and sham-surgery mice had no change in FiUSV from baseline at any time point after surgery. Activity was decreased compared with baseline in vasectomized mice, regardless of receiving postoperative analgesia or not, but only at the 4-h time point. There were no differences in behavior scores between vasectomized mice and sham-surgery mice at any time point. These results show that FiUSV can be used to detect postoperative pain in male C57BL/6J mice after vasectomy.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina/farmacologia , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Ultrassom , Vocalização Animal , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Animais , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Período Pós-Operatório , Vasectomia/veterinária
9.
Comp Med ; 70(1): 45-55, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952557

RESUMO

The guinea pig model of tuberculosis is used extensively to assess the efficacy of novel tuberculosis vaccines. There are established parameters to determine vaccine efficacy in this model, but the science community currently lacks established biomarkers for early detection and monitoring of experimental disease in guinea pigs. To define a set of biomarkers that could be used as benchmarks for disease progression and early endpoint criteria, we assessed serum biochemical and hematology parameters in 2 groups of guinea pigs-one vaccinated with the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine strain (BCG) and one sham-vaccinated with saline-and then experimentally infected with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. After infection, WBC showed the strongest differences between saline-inoculated and vaccinated animals, with more subtle changes in other serum biochemical parameters, including ALT and ALP. Therefore, this study provides a starting point for evaluating the utility of blood values as possible early endpoint criteria in the guinea pig model of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Determinação de Ponto Final/métodos , Cobaias , Vacinas contra a Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia
10.
Comp Med ; 69(6): 468-489, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822323

RESUMO

The use of effective regimens for mitigating pain remain underutilized in research rodents despite the general acceptance of both the ethical imperative and regulatory requirements intended to maximize animal welfare. Factors contributing to this gap between the need for and the actual use of analgesia include lack of sufficient evidence-based data on effective regimens, under-dosing due to labor required to dose analgesics at appropriate intervals, concerns that the use of analgesics may impact study outcomes, and beliefs that rodents recover quickly from invasive procedures and as such do not need analgesics. Fundamentally, any discussion of clinical management of pain in rodents must recognize that nociceptive pathways and pain signaling mechanisms are highly conserved across mammalian species, and that central processing of pain is largely equivalent in rodents and other larger research species such as dogs, cats, or primates. Other obstacles to effective pain management in rodents have been the lack of objective, science-driven data on pain assessment, and the availability of appropriate pharmacological tools for pain mitigation. To address this deficit, we have reviewed and summarized the available publications on pain management in rats, mice and guinea pigs. Different drug classes and specific pharmacokinetic profiles, recommended dosages, and routes of administration are discussed, and updated recommendations are provided. Nonpharmacologic tools for increasing the comfort and wellbeing of research animals are also discussed. The potential adverse effects of analgesics are also reviewed. While gaps still exist in our understanding of clinical pain management in rodents, effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies are available that can and should be used to provide analgesia while minimizing adverse effects. The key to effective clinical management of pain is thoughtful planning that incorporates study needs and veterinary guidance, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and mechanisms of action of drugs being considered, careful attention to individual differences, and establishing an institutional culture that commits to pain management for all species as a central component of animal welfare.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/ética , Cobaias , Camundongos , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Ratos , Analgesia/veterinária , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos/farmacocinética , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
11.
Comp Med ; 69(5): 374-383, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578163

RESUMO

Female urine-induced male mice ultrasonic vocalizations (FiUSV) are ultrasonic vocalizations produced by adult male mice after presentation of adult female urine, whereas intruder-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (IiUSV) are produced by resident adult female mice when interacting with an intruder female mouse. These affiliative behaviors may be reduced when mice have decreased wellbeing or are in pain and distress. To determine whether FiUSV and IiUSV can be used as proxy indicators of animal wellbeing, we assessed FiUSV produced by male C57BL/6J mice in response to female urine and IiUSV produced by female C57BL/6J mice in response to a female intruder at baseline and 1 and 3 h after administration of a sublethal dose of LPS (6 or 12.5 mg/kg IP) or an equal volume of saline. Behavior was assessed by evaluating orbital tightness, posture, and piloerection immediately after USV collection. We hypothesized that LPS-injected mice would have a decreased inclination to mate or to interact with same-sex conspecifics and therefore would produce fewer USV. At baseline, 32 of 33 male mice produced FiUSV (149 ± 127 USV in 2 min), whereas all 36 female mice produced IiUSV (370 ± 156 USV in 2 min). Saline-injected mice showed no change from baseline at the 1- and 3-h time points, whereas LPS-injected mice demonstrated significantly fewer USV than baseline, producing no USV at both 1 and 3 h. According to orbital tightness, posture, and piloerection, LPS-injected mice showed signs of poor wellbeing at 3 h but not 1 h. These findings indicate that FiUSV and IiUSV can be used as proxy indicators of animal wellbeing associated with acute inflammation in mice and can be detected before the onset of clinical signs.


Assuntos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/urina , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos
12.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 58(6): 817-822, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662155

RESUMO

Blood collection methods in guinea pigs are limited due to the animals' compact neck, short limbs, and lack of a tail. Gingival venipuncture is a recently described blood sampling technique that is minimally traumatic with no significant alterations in hematologic parameters when multiple blood samples were collected weekly for 6 wk. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gingival vein can be used as an alternative blood collection site in guinea pigs, such that: (1) hematologic parameters would be consistent with samples collected from the cranial vena cava; and (2) no contaminants from the oral cavity would be introduced into the sample. Blood samples were obtained from both the gingival vein and cranial vena cava of anesthetized Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs for CBC (n = 9) and aerobic blood cultures (n = 10). Only MCV was significantly different between sampling sites. Bland-Altman analyses calculated a small mean bias for all hematologic parameters, indicating clinical interpretation is unlikely to be affected by the sampling site. Bacterial growth occurred in all 5 gingival vein blood samples prepared by using saline and 2 of the 5 prepared with dilute chlorhexidine. Bacteria did not grow from any cranial vena caval blood samples prepared with dilute chlorhexidine. No clinical signs of hemorrhage or trauma were detected at either site. These results provide evidence that gingival venipuncture can be used as an alternative blood collection method for guinea pigs for hematologic analysis but should not be used for blood culture.


Assuntos
Hemocultura , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Cobaias/sangue , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Feminino , Gengiva/irrigação sanguínea , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Veias , Veia Cava Superior
13.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 58(5): 577-582, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319903

RESUMO

Opioid analgesics have immunomodulatory properties, which often result in immunosuppression. Sustained-release buprenorphine (SR-Bup) has recently become available as an analgesic for pain management in mice, and little is known regarding potential effects of SR-Bup on the murine immune response. To this end, we immunized female CD1 mice with ovalbumin in complete Freud adjuvant and then treated them with either saline, SR-Bup, Bup-HCl, or SR-vehicle (SR-Veh) for 18 d. Splenocytes were isolated for culture and stimulation to assess cytokine responses, and blood was collected to determine serum antibody responses to ovalbumin. In all treatment groups, levels of IL10, TNFα, and IFNγ increased in ovalbumin-stimulated splenocytes compared with unstimulated splenocytes. Cytokine responses after stimulation did not differ between treatment groups except for IL10, which was significantly higher in SR-Bup-treated mice compared with those given saline or Bup-HCl. The antibody response was significantly increased after immunization but did not differ across treatment groups, except that the response to SR-Veh was lower. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of prolonged treatment with SR-Bup on innate and adaptive immunity are negligible.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Masculino , Camundongos , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor
14.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 58(4): 438-442, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076022

RESUMO

Social housing of laboratory rodents is recommended whenever possible to encourage natural behavior and social dynamics. Several identification methods are used to distinguish rodents from one another. One of the most common means of identifying mice is ear punching. The effect of ear punching for identification or genotyping on the welfare of mice remains a concern, because this method negatively affects welfare in other species. To assess the influence of ear punching on the welfare of mice, we implanted telemetry units in 6 female Swiss-Webster mice and monitored heart rate, body temperature, and activity after various routine procedures. The physiologic and behavioral responses to restraint (by scruffing) only, restraint and ear punching, and routine handling for husbandry were evaluated. The mean heart rate of mice after receiving an ear punch was significantly higher than baseline values at 30 min after the procedure, and the mean body temperature was significantly increased over baseline for at least 1 h. The heart rate, body temperature, and activity levels of mice after scruffing only and routine handling did not differ from baseline values. The proportion of time mice spent head grooming, a potentially nocifensive behavior, was increased immediately after ear punching and began to decline by 60 min. We show that the physiologic stress of mice receiving an ear punch was greater than that from restraint (scruffing) alone, whereas behavioral indices of pain were unchanged, suggesting that ear punching causes a transient response in mice.


Assuntos
Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/veterinária , Restrição Física , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 48(5): 130, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000818
17.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 57(3): 253-257, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784075

RESUMO

Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents that are highly resistant to denaturation. Sterilization of prion-contaminated mouse cages requires chemical agents and increased autoclave temperatures that damage traditional cages, thus increasing facility costs. Disposable cages are a possible alternative that might decrease replacement costs without compromising the environment of the mice. We compared our standard protocol of changing traditional cages and bedding once every 2 wk to an experimental protocol using disposable cages in which only the bedding was changed once every 2 wk over an 8-wk period. We hypothesized that disposable cages would retain an acceptable level of cleanliness (measured by ATP swabs and contact plates) for at least 8 wk when bedding is replaced every 14 d. Results from ATP swabs and contact plates showed no difference between the 2 protocols during the 8-wk experiment. Prolonged use (that is, as long as 8 wk) of disposable cages had no additional environmental concerns, compared with traditional cages.


Assuntos
Equipamentos Descartáveis , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Equipamentos Descartáveis/microbiologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Camundongos , Príons , Saneamento , Esterilização
18.
ILAR J ; 59(2): 177-194, 2018 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668740

RESUMO

Animal models are critical to the advancement of our knowledge of infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnostics, therapeutics, and prevention strategies. The use of animal models requires thoughtful consideration for their well-being, as infections can significantly impact the general health of an animal and impair their welfare. Application of the 3Rs-replacement, refinement, and reduction-to animal models using biohazardous agents can improve the scientific merit and animal welfare. Replacement of animal models can use in vitro techniques such as cell culture systems, mathematical models, and engineered tissues or invertebrate animal hosts such as amoeba, worms, fruit flies, and cockroaches. Refinements can use a variety of techniques to more closely monitor the course of disease. These include the use of biomarkers, body temperature, behavioral observations, and clinical scoring systems. Reduction is possible using advanced technologies such as in vivo telemetry and imaging, allowing longitudinal assessment of animals during the course of disease. While there is no single method to universally replace, refine, or reduce animal models, the alternatives and techniques discussed are broadly applicable and they should be considered when infectious disease animal models are developed.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Comp Med ; 67(6): 498-503, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212581

RESUMO

Because of their ideal size and temperament, rabbits are commonly used in polyclonal antibody production. Immunostimulatory adjuvants-such as Freund complete and incomplete adjuvants as well as various proprietary products-trigger a robust immune response, which increases antibody concentrations. However, these adjuvants can cause excessive soft tissue reactions, prompting concerns regarding animal wellbeing. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of cationic liposome- oligonucleotide complexes (CLDC) as an alternative adjuvant to conventional adjuvants. On days 0 and 14, 15 female New Zealand white rabbits were vaccinated subcutaneously with 15 µg ovalbumin mixed with either CLDC, Freund adjuvant (day 0, complete; day 14, incomplete), or a proprietary adjuvant (n = 5 per group). Antibody titers were measured by direct ELISA on days 0, 14, and 28. Rabbits were palpated daily for lesion development, and all lesions were measured. Rabbits in all groups developed a significant antibody response to ovalbumin over 28 d. However, the differences between groups were not statistically significant. No rabbits in the CLDC group developed skin lesions, whereas 80% of rabbits that received Freund adjuvant and 100% of those that received the proprietary product developed skin lesions. This study demonstrates that CLDC may be a valuable and effective alternative adjuvant for polyclonal antibody production in rabbits-one that avoids the palpable injection-site lesions often seen with other adjuvants.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Oligonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Coelhos/imunologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Adjuvante de Freund/farmacologia , Injeções , Lipossomos , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/imunologia
20.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 56(4): 425-435, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724492

RESUMO

Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing. Our laboratory examined the efficacy of carprofen and extended-release (ER) buprenorphine, alone and as a multimodal combination, for relieving postsurgical pain in guinea pigs. Animals were assessed by using evoked (mechanical hypersensitivity), nonevoked (video ethogram, cageside ethogram, time-to-consumption test), and clinical (weight loss) measurements for 96 h during baseline, anesthesia-analgesia, and hysterectomy conditions. In addition, ER buprenorphine was evaluated pharmacologically. Guinea pigs treated with a single analgesic showed increased mechanical sensitivity for at least 96 h and indices of pain according to the video ethogram for as long as 8 h, compared with levels recorded during anesthesia-analgesia. In contrast, animals given both analgesics demonstrated increased mechanical sensitivity and behavioral evidence of pain for only 2 h after surgery compared with anesthesia-analgesia. The cageside ethogram and time-to-consumption tests failed to identify differences between conditions or treatment groups, highlighting the difficulty of identifying pain in guinea pigs without remote observation. Guinea pigs treated with multimodal analgesia or ER buprenorphine lost at least 10% of their baseline weights, whereas weight loss in carprofen animals was significantly lower (3%). Plasma levels for ER buprenorphine exceeded 0.9 ng/mL from 8 to 96 h after injection. Of the 3 analgesia regimens evaluated, multimodal analgesia provided the most effective pain control in guinea pigs. However the weight loss in the ER buprenorphine-treated animals may need to be considered during analgesia selection.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Buprenorfina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Cobaias , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Animais , Carbazóis/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Histerectomia , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
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