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1.
J Chem Phys ; 155(11): 114113, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34551543

RESUMO

We present a methodology that provides a complete parametric description of the time evolution of the electronically and vibrationally excited states as detected by ultrafast transient absorption (TA). Differently from previous approaches, which started fitting the data after ≈100 fs, no data are left out in our methodology, and the "coherent artifact" and the instrument response function are fully taken into account. In case studies, the method is applied to solvents, the dye Nile blue, and all-trans ß-carotene in cyclohexane solution. The estimated Damped Oscillation Associated Spectra (DOAS) and phases express the most important vibrational frequencies present in the molecular system. By global fit alone of the experimental data, it is difficult to interpret in detail the underlying dynamics. Since it is unfeasible to directly fit the data by a theoretical simulation, our enhanced DOAS methodology thus provides a useful "middle ground" where the theoretical description and the fit of the experimental data can meet. ß-carotene in cyclohexane was complementarily studied with femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). The fs-ps dynamics of ß-carotene in cyclohexane in TA and FSRS experiments can be described by a sequential scheme S2 → hot S1 → S1' → S1 → S0 with lifetimes of 167 fs (fixed), 0.35, 1.1, and 9.6 ps. The correspondence of DOAS decaying concomitantly with hot S1 and the Species Associated Difference Spectra of hot S1 in TA and FSRS suggest that we observe here features of the vibrational relaxation and nuclear reorganization responsible for the hot S1 to S1 transition.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(25): 13934-13950, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142688

RESUMO

Photosensory receptors containing the flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain are modular proteins that fulfil a variety of biological functions ranging from gene expression to phototropism. The LOV photocycle is initiated by blue-light and involves a cascade of intermediate species, including an electronically excited triplet state, that leads to covalent bond formation between the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore and a nearby cysteine residue. Subsequent conformational changes in the polypeptide chain arise due to the remodelling of the hydrogen bond network in the cofactor binding pocket, whereby a conserved glutamine residue plays a key role in coupling FMN photochemistry with LOV photobiology. Although the dark-to-light transition of LOV photosensors has been previously addressed by spectroscopy and computational approaches, the mechanistic basis of the underlying reactions is still not well understood. Here we present a detailed computational study of three distinct LOV domains: EL222 from Erythrobacter litoralis, AsLOV2 from the second LOV domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1, and RsLOV from Rhodobacter sphaeroides LOV protein. Extended protein-chromophore models containing all known crucial residues involved in the initial steps (femtosecond-to-microsecond) of the photocycle were employed. Energies and rotational barriers were calculated for possible rotamers and tautomers of the critical glutamine side chain, which allowed us to postulate the most energetically favoured glutamine orientation for each LOV domain along the assumed reaction path. In turn, for each evolving species, infrared difference spectra were constructed and compared to experimental EL222 and AsLOV2 transient infrared spectra, the former from original work presented here and the latter from the literature. The good agreement between theory and experiment permitted the assignment of the majority of observed bands, notably the ∼1635 cm-1 transient of the adduct state to the carbonyl of the glutamine side chain after rotation. Moreover, both the energetic and spectroscopic approaches converge in suggesting a facile glutamine flip at the adduct intermediate for EL222 and more so for AsLOV2, while for RsLOV the glutamine keeps its initial configuration. Additionally, the computed infrared shifts of the glutamine and interacting residues could guide experimental research addressing early events of signal transduction in LOV proteins.


Assuntos
Glutamina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Avena/química , Cisteína/química , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Modelos Moleculares , Distribuição Normal , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fototropinas/química , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Sphingomonadaceae/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2291, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863895

RESUMO

Plants need to protect themselves from excess light, which causes photo-oxidative damage and lowers the efficiency of photosynthesis. Photosystem II subunit S (PsbS) is a pH sensor protein that plays a crucial role in plant photoprotection by detecting thylakoid lumen acidification in excess light conditions via two lumen-faced glutamates. However, how PsbS is activated under low-pH conditions is unknown. To reveal the molecular response of PsbS to low pH, here we perform an NMR, FTIR and 2DIR spectroscopic analysis of Physcomitrella patens PsbS and of the E176Q mutant in which an active glutamate has been replaced. The PsbS response mechanism at low pH involves the concerted action of repositioning of a short amphipathic helix containing E176 facing the lumen and folding of the luminal loop fragment adjacent to E71 to a 310-helix, providing clear evidence of a conformational pH switch. We propose that this concerted mechanism is a shared motif of proteins of the light-harvesting family that may control thylakoid inter-protein interactions driving photoregulatory responses.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Bryopsida/fisiologia , Luz/efeitos adversos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Bryopsida/efeitos da radiação , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio/efeitos da radiação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/isolamento & purificação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/ultraestrutura , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Tilacoides/efeitos da radiação
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5682, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33173168

RESUMO

The Rhizoclosmatium globosum genome encodes three rhodopsin-guanylyl cyclases (RGCs), which are predicted to facilitate visual orientation of the fungal zoospores. Here, we show that RGC1 and RGC2 function as light-activated cyclases only upon heterodimerization with RGC3 (NeoR). RGC1/2 utilize conventional green or blue-light-sensitive rhodopsins (λmax = 550 and 480 nm, respectively), with short-lived signaling states, responsible for light-activation of the enzyme. The bistable NeoR is photoswitchable between a near-infrared-sensitive (NIR, λmax = 690 nm) highly fluorescent state (QF = 0.2) and a UV-sensitive non-fluorescent state, thereby modulating the activity by NIR pre-illumination. No other rhodopsin has been reported so far to be functional as a heterooligomer, or as having such a long wavelength absorption or high fluorescence yield. Site-specific mutagenesis and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations support the idea that the unusual photochemical properties result from the rigidity of the retinal chromophore and a unique counterion triad composed of two glutamic and one aspartic acids. These findings substantially expand our understanding of the natural potential and limitations of spectral tuning in rhodopsin photoreceptors.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos/genética , Rodopsina , Biologia Computacional , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/isolamento & purificação , Genes Fúngicos , Genoma Fúngico , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Processos Fotoquímicos , Células Fotorreceptoras/fisiologia , Rodopsina/biossíntese , Rodopsina/química , Rodopsina/genética
5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(41): 17346-17355, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878439

RESUMO

Photosynthesis in plants starts with the capture of photons by light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). Structural biology and spectroscopy approaches have led to a map of the architecture and energy transfer pathways between LHC pigments. Still, controversies remain regarding the role of specific carotenoids in light-harvesting and photoprotection, obligating the need for high-resolution techniques capable of identifying excited-state signatures and molecular identities of the various pigments in photosynthetic systems. Here we demonstrate the successful application of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) to a multichromophoric biological complex, trimers of LHCII. We demonstrate the application of global and target analysis (GTA) to FSRS data and utilize it to quantify excitation migration in LHCII trimers. This powerful combination of techniques allows us to obtain valuable insights into structural, electronic, and dynamic information from the carotenoids of LHCII trimers. We report spectral and dynamical information on ground- and excited-state vibrational modes of the different pigments, resolving the vibrational relaxation of the carotenoids and the pathways of energy transfer to chlorophylls. The lifetimes and spectral characteristics obtained for the S1 state confirm that lutein 2 has a distorted conformation in LHCII and that the lutein 2 S1 state does not transfer to chlorophylls, while lutein 1 is the only carotenoid whose S1 state plays a significant energy-harvesting role. No appreciable energy transfer takes place from lutein 1 to lutein 2, contradicting recent proposals regarding the functions of the various carotenoids (Son et al. Chem. 2019, 5 (3), 575-584). Also, our results demonstrate that FSRS can be used in combination with GTA to simultaneously study the electronic and vibrational landscapes in LHCs and pave the way for in-depth studies of photoprotective conformations in photosynthetic systems.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4248, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843623

RESUMO

Femtosecond time-resolved crystallography (TRC) on proteins enables resolving the spatial structure of short-lived photocycle intermediates. An open question is whether confinement and lower hydration of the proteins in the crystalline state affect the light-induced structural transformations. Here, we measured the full photocycle dynamics of a signal transduction protein often used as model system in TRC, Photoactive Yellow Protein (PYP), in the crystalline state and compared those to the dynamics in solution, utilizing electronic and vibrational transient absorption measurements from 100 fs over 12 decades in time. We find that the photocycle kinetics and structural dynamics of PYP in the crystalline form deviate from those in solution from the very first steps following photon absorption. This illustrates that ultrafast TRC results cannot be uncritically extrapolated to in vivo function, and that comparative spectroscopic experiments on proteins in crystalline and solution states can help identify structural intermediates under native conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/efeitos da radiação , Cinética , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/efeitos da radiação , Conformação Proteica , Análise Espectral
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(26): 11464-11473, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475117

RESUMO

UV-absorbing rhodopsins are essential for UV vision and sensing in all kingdoms of life. Unlike the well-known visible-absorbing rhodopsins, which bind a protonated retinal Schiff base for light absorption, UV-absorbing rhodopsins bind an unprotonated retinal Schiff base. Thus far, the photoreaction dynamics and mechanisms of UV-absorbing rhodopsins have remained essentially unknown. Here, we report the complete excited- and ground-state dynamics of the UV form of histidine kinase rhodopsin 1 (HKR1) from eukaryotic algae, using femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) and transient absorption spectroscopy, covering time scales from femtoseconds to milliseconds. We found that energy-level ordering is inverted with respect to visible-absorbing rhodopsins, with an optically forbidden low-lying S1 excited state that has Ag- symmetry and a higher-lying UV-absorbing S2 state of Bu+ symmetry. UV-photoexcitation to the S2 state elicits a unique dual-isomerization reaction: first, C13═C14 cis-trans isomerization occurs during S2-S1 evolution in <100 fs. This very fast reaction features the remarkable property that the newly formed isomer appears in the excited state rather than in the ground state. Second, C15═N16 anti-syn isomerization occurs on the S1-S0 evolution to the ground state in 4.8 ps. We detected two ground-state unprotonated retinal photoproducts, 13-trans/15-anti (all-trans) and 13-cis/15-syn, after relaxation to the ground state. These isomers become protonated in 58 µs and 3.2 ms, respectively, resulting in formation of the blue-absorbing form of HKR1. Our results constitute a benchmark of UV-induced photochemistry of animal and microbial rhodopsins.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(2): 183113, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672539

RESUMO

Multi-spanning membrane proteins usually require solubilization to allow proper purification and characterization, which generally impairs their structural and functional integrity. We have tested the efficacy of several commonly used detergents and membrane-mimicking nanodiscs with respect to solubilization, spectral properties, thermal stability and oligomeric profile of two membrane proteins from the eubacterial rhodopsin family, green proteorhodopsin (PR) and Gloeobacter violaceus rhodopsin (GR). Good solubilization was observed for the detergents TritonX-100 and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), but DPC in particular strongly affected the thermal stability of PR and especially GR. The least deleterious effects were obtained with n-dodecyl-ß-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) and octyl glucose neopentyl glycol (OGNG), which adequately stabilized the native oligomeric and monomeric state of PR and GR, respectively. The transition from the oligomeric to the monomeric state is accompanied by a small red-shift. Both GR and PR were rather unstable in SMA-nanodiscs, but the highest thermal stability was realized by the MSP-nanodisc environment. The size of the MSP-nanodisc was too small to fit the PR hexamer, but large enough to contain the PR monomer and GR trimer. This permitted the comparison of the photocycle of trimeric GR in a membrane-mimicking (MSP-nanodisc) and a detergent (DDM) environment. The ultrarapid early phase of the photocycle (femto- to picosecond lifetimes) showed very similar kinetics in either environment, but the slower part, initiated with proton transfer and generation of the M intermediate, proceeded faster in the nanodisc environment. The implications of our results for the biophysical characterization of PR and GR are discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nanopartículas/química , Rodopsina/química , Cianobactérias/química , Detergentes/química , Maltose/análogos & derivados , Maltose/química , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Fosforilcolina/química , Estabilidade Proteica , Tioglucosídeos/química
9.
ACS Omega ; 4(1): 1238-1243, 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459397

RESUMO

Algae, plants, bacteria, and fungi contain flavin-binding light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains that function as blue light sensors to control cellular responses to light. In the second LOV domain of phototropins, called LOV2 domains, blue light illumination leads to covalent bond formation between protein and flavin that induces the dissociation and unfolding of a C-terminally attached α helix (Jα) and the N-terminal helix (A'α). To date, the majority of studies on these domains have focused on versions that contain truncations in the termini, which creates difficulties when extrapolating to the much larger proteins that contain these domains. Here, we study the influence of deletions and extensions of the A'α helix of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) on the light-triggered structural response of the protein by Fourier-transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Deletion of the A'α helix abolishes the light-induced unfolding of Jα, whereas extensions of the A'α helix lead to an attenuated structural change of Jα. These results are different from shorter constructs, indicating that the conformational changes in full-length phototropin LOV domains might not be as large as previously assumed, and that the well-characterized full unfolding of the Jα helix in AsLOV2 with short A'α helices may be considered a truncation artifact. It also suggests that the N- and C-terminal helices of phot-LOV2 domains are necessary for allosteric regulation of the phototropin kinase domain and may provide a basis for signal integration of LOV1 and LOV2 domains in phototropins.

10.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(19): 4242-4250, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998011

RESUMO

Microbial rhodopsins constitute a key protein family in optobiotechnological applications such as optogenetics and voltage imaging. Spectral tuning of rhodopsins into the deep-red and near-infrared spectral regions is of great demand in such applications because more bathochromic light into the near-infrared range penetrates deeper in living tissue. Recently, retinal analogues have been successfully used in ion transporting and fluorescent rhodopsins to achieve red-shifted absorption, activity, and emission properties. Understanding their photochemical mechanism is essential for further design of appropriate retinal analogues but is yet only poorly understood for most retinal analogue pigments. Here, we report the photoreaction dynamics of red-shifted analogue pigments of the proton pump proteorhodopsin (PR) containing A2 (all- trans-3,4-dehydroretinal), MOA2 (all- trans-3-methoxy-3,4-dehydroretinal), or DMAR (all- trans-3-dimethylamino-16-nor-1,2,3,4-didehydroretinal), utilizing femto- to submillisecond transient absorption spectroscopy. We found that the A2 analogue photoisomerizes in 1.4, 3.0, and/or 13 ps upon 510 nm light illumination, which is comparable to the native retinal (A1) in PR. On the other hand, the deprotonation of the A2 pigment Schiff base was observed with a dominant time constant of 67 µs, which is significantly slower than the A1 pigment. In the MOA2 pigment, no isomerization or photoproduct formation was detected upon 520 nm excitation, implying that all the excited molecules returned to the initial ground state in 2.0 and 4.2 ps. The DMAR pigment showed very slow excited state dynamics similar to the previously studied MMAR pigment, but only very little photoproduct was formed. The low efficiency of the photoproduct formation likely is the reason why DMAR analogue pigments of PR showed very weak proton pumping activity.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído/análogos & derivados , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Luz , Retinaldeído/efeitos da radiação , Rodopsinas Microbianas/efeitos da radiação
11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(1): 520-530, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511841

RESUMO

The orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is a two-domain photoactive protein that noncovalently binds an echinenone (ECN) carotenoid and mediates photoprotection in cyanobacteria. In the dark, OCP assumes an orange, inactive state known as OCPO; blue light illumination results in the red active state, known as OCPR. The OCPR state is characterized by large-scale structural changes that involve dissociation and separation of C-terminal and N-terminal domains accompanied by carotenoid translocation into the N-terminal domain. The mechanistic and dynamic-structural relations between photon absorption and formation of the OCPR state have remained largely unknown. Here, we employ a combination of time-resolved UV-visible and (polarized) mid-infrared spectroscopy to assess the electronic and structural dynamics of the carotenoid and the protein secondary structure, from femtoseconds to 0.5 ms. We identify a hereto unidentified carotenoid excited state in OCP, the so-called S* state, which we propose to play a key role in breaking conserved hydrogen-bond interactions between carotenoid and aromatic amino acids in the binding pocket. We arrive at a comprehensive reaction model where the hydrogen-bond rupture with conserved aromatic side chains at the carotenoid ß1-ring in picoseconds occurs at a low yield of <1%, whereby the ß1-ring retains a trans configuration with respect to the conjugated π-electron chain. This event initiates structural changes at the N-terminal domain in 1 µs, which allow the carotenoid to translocate into the N-terminal domain in 10 µs. We identified infrared signatures of helical elements that dock on the C-terminal domain ß-sheet in the dark and unfold in the light to allow domain separation. These helical elements do not move within the experimental range of 0.5 ms, indicating that domain separation occurs on longer time scales, lagging carotenoid translocation by at least 2 decades of time.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
12.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(22): 6469-6474, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376338

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR)-driven rhodopsins are of great interest in optogenetics and other optobiotechnological developments such as artificial photosynthesis and deep-tissue voltage imaging. Here we report that the proton pump proteorhodopsin (PR) containing a NIR-active retinal analogue (PR:MMAR) exhibits intense NIR fluorescence at a quantum yield of 3.3%. This is 130 times higher than native PR ( Lenz , M. O. ; Biophys J. 2006 , 91 , 255 - 262 ) and 3-8 times higher than the QuasAr and PROPS voltage sensors ( Kralj , J. ; Science 2011 , 333 , 345 - 348 ; Hochbaum , D. R. ; Nat. Methods 2014 , 11 , 825 - 833 ). The NIR fluorescence strongly depends on the pH in the range of 6-8.5, suggesting potential application of MMAR-binding proteins as ultrasensitive NIR-driven pH and/or voltage sensors. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy showed that upon near-IR excitation, PR:MMAR features an unusually long fluorescence lifetime of 310 ps and the absence of isomerized photoproducts, consistent with the high fluorescence quantum yield. Stimulated Raman analysis indicates that the NIR-absorbing species develops upon protonation of a conserved aspartate, which promotes charge delocalization and bond length leveling due to an additional methylamino group in MMAR, in essence providing a secondary protonated Schiff base. This results in much smaller bond length alteration along the conjugated backbone, thereby conferring significant single-bond character to the C13═C14 bond and structural deformation of the chromophore, which interferes with photoinduced isomerization and extends the lifetime for fluorescence. Hence, our studies allow for a molecular understanding of the relation between absorption/emission wavelength, isomerization, and fluorescence in PR:MMAR. As acidification enhances the resonance state, this explains the strong pH dependence of the NIR emission.


Assuntos
Retinaldeído/análogos & derivados , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Fluorescência , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Prótons , Bases de Schiff/química , Análise Espectral Raman
13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(7): 1788-1792, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569927

RESUMO

Photoprotection is fundamental in photosynthesis to avoid oxidative photodamage upon excess light exposure. Excited chlorophylls (Chl) are quenched by carotenoids, but the precise molecular origin remains controversial. The cyanobacterial HliC protein belongs to the Hlip family ancestral to plant light-harvesting complexes, and binds Chl a and ß-carotene in 2:1 ratio. We analyzed HliC by watermarked femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy to follow the time evolution of its vibrational modes. We observed a 2 ps rise of the C═C stretch band of the 2Ag- (S1) state of ß-carotene upon Chl a excitation, demonstrating energy transfer quenching and fast excess-energy dissipation. We detected two distinct ß-carotene conformers by the C═C stretch frequency of the 2Ag- (S1) state, but only the ß-carotene whose 2Ag- energy level is significantly lowered and has a lower C═C stretch frequency is involved in quenching. It implies that the low carotenoid S1 energy that results from specific pigment-protein or pigment-pigment interactions is the key property for creating a dissipative energy channel. We conclude that watermarked femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy constitutes a promising experimental method to assess energy transfer and quenching mechanisms in oxygenic photosynthesis.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(45): 30402-30409, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29125160

RESUMO

Anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) are of great interest due to their ability to inhibit electrical signaling in optogenetic experiments. The photochemistry of ACRs is currently poorly understood and an improved understanding would be beneficial for rational design of ACRs with modified properties. Activation/deactivation of ACRs involves a series of photoreactions ranging from femtoseconds to seconds, thus real-time observation is essential to comprehend the full complexity of the photochemical processes. Here we investigate the photocycle of an ACR from Proteomonas sulcata (PsACR1), which is valuable for optogenetic applications due to the red-shifted absorption and action spectra compared to the prototype ACRs from Guillardia theta: GtACR1 and GtACR2, and the fast channel closing properties. From femto-to-submillisecond transient absorption spectroscopy, flash photolysis, and point mutations of acidic residues near the retinal Schiff base (RSB), E64, and D230, we found that the photoisomerization occurs in ∼500 fs independent of the protonation state of E64. Notably, E64 is involved in the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network near the RSB after photoisomerization. Furthermore, we suggest that E64 works as a primary proton acceptor during deprotonation of the RSB as has been proposed for GtACR1. Our findings allow for a deeper understanding of the photochemistry on the activation/deactivation of ACRs.

15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7217, 2017 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28775289

RESUMO

Channelrhodopsin (ChR) is a key protein of the optogenetic toolkit. C1C2, a functional chimeric protein of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ChR1 and ChR2, is the only ChR whose crystal structure has been solved, and thus uniquely suitable for structure-based analysis. We report C1C2 photoreaction dynamics with ultrafast transient absorption and multi-pulse spectroscopy combined with target analysis and structure-based hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. Two relaxation pathways exist on the excited (S1) state through two conical intersections CI1 and CI2, that are reached via clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations: (i) the C13=C14 isomerization path with 450 fs via CI1 and (ii) a relaxation path to the initial ground state with 2.0 ps and 11 ps via CI2, depending on the hydrogen-bonding network, hence indicating active-site structural heterogeneity. The presence of the additional conical intersection CI2 rationalizes the relatively low quantum yield of photoisomerization (30 ± 3%), reported here. Furthermore, we show the photoreaction dynamics from picoseconds to seconds, characterizing the complete photocycle of C1C2.


Assuntos
Channelrhodopsins/química , Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Isomerismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Teoria Quântica , Análise Espectral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Sci Rep ; 7: 43484, 2017 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28262765

RESUMO

Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study fast photo-induced processes, such as electron, proton and energy transfer, isomerization and molecular dynamics, in a diverse range of samples, including solid state materials and proteins. Many such experiments suffer from signal distortion by scattered excitation light, in particular close to the excitation (pump) frequency. Scattered light can be effectively suppressed by a polarizer oriented perpendicular to the excitation polarization and positioned behind the sample in the optical path of the probe beam. However, this introduces anisotropic polarization contributions into the recorded signal. We present an approach based on setting specific polarizations of the pump and probe pulses, combined with a polarizer behind the sample. Together, this controls the signal-to-scatter ratio (SSR), while maintaining isotropic signal. We present SSR for the full range of polarizations and analytically derive the optimal configuration at angles of 40.5° between probe and pump and of 66.9° between polarizer and pump polarizations. This improves SSR by (or compared to polarizer parallel to probe). The calculations are validated by transient absorption experiments on the common fluorescent dye Rhodamine B. This approach provides a simple method to considerably improve the SSR in transient absorption spectroscopy.

17.
Sci Rep ; 6: 37362, 2016 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27857208

RESUMO

Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes (BphPs) are of great interest for in vivo imaging. They utilize biliverdin (BV) as a chromophore, which is a heme degradation product, and therefore they are straightforward to use in mammalian tissues. Here, we report on fluorescence properties of NIR FPs with key alterations in their BV binding sites. BphP1-FP, iRFP670 and iRFP682 have Cys residues in both PAS and GAF domains, rather than in the PAS domain alone as in wild-type BphPs. We found that NIR FP variants with Cys in the GAF or with Cys in both PAS and GAF show blue-shifted emission with long fluorescence lifetimes. In contrast, mutants with Cys in the PAS only or no Cys residues at all exhibit red-shifted emission with shorter lifetimes. Combining these results with previous biochemical and BphP1-FP structural data, we conclude that BV adducts bound to Cys in the GAF are the origin of bright blue-shifted fluorescence. We propose that the long fluorescence lifetime follows from (i) a sterically more constrained thioether linkage, leaving less mobility for ring A than in canonical BphPs, and (ii) that π-electron conjugation does not extend on ring A, making excited-state deactivation less sensitive to ring A mobility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Fitocromo/metabolismo , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biliverdina/química , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Fluorescência , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Mutação , Fitocromo/genética , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
18.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(21): 4380-4384, 2016 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27766868

RESUMO

The two light, oxygen, and voltage domains of phototropin are blue-light photoreceptor domains that control various functions in plants and green algae. The key step of the light-driven reaction is the formation of a photoadduct between its FMN chromophore and a conserved cysteine, where the canonical reaction proceeds through the FMN triplet state. Here, complete photoreaction mapping of CrLOV2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phototropin and AsLOV2 from Avena sativa phototropin-1 was realized by ultrafast broadband spectroscopy from femtoseconds to microseconds. We demonstrate that in CrLOV2, a direct photoadduct formation channel originates from the initially excited singlet state, in addition to the canonical reaction through the triplet state. This direct photoadduct reaction is coupled by a proton or hydrogen transfer process, as indicated by a significant kinetic isotope effect of 1.4 on the fluorescence lifetime. Kinetic model analyses showed that 38% of the photoadducts are generated from the singlet excited state.


Assuntos
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/química , Mononucleotídeo de Flavina/química , Fotoquímica/métodos , Fototropinas/química
19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(17): 3472-6, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537211

RESUMO

Light-triggered reactions of biological photoreceptors have gained immense attention for their role as molecular switches in their native organisms and for optogenetic application. The light, oxygen, and voltage 2 (LOV2) sensing domain of plant phototropin binds a C-terminal Jα helix that is docked on a ß-sheet and unfolds upon light absorption by the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore. In this work, the signal transduction pathway of LOV2 from Avena sativa was investigated using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy from picoseconds to microseconds. In D2O buffer, FMN singlet-to-triplet conversion occurs in 2 ns and formation of the covalent cysteinyl-FMN adduct in 10 µs. We observe a two-step unfolding of the Jα helix: The first phase occurs concomitantly with Cys-FMN covalent adduct formation in 10 µs, along with hydrogen-bond rupture of the FMN C4═O with Gln-513, motion of the ß-sheet, and an additional helical element. The second phase occurs in approximately 240 µs. The final spectrum at 500 µs is essentially identical to the steady-state light-minus-dark Fourier transform infrared spectrum, indicating that Jα helix unfolding is complete on that time scale.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Modelos Moleculares , Desdobramento de Proteína , Vibração
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(35): 24729-36, 2016 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550793

RESUMO

Krokinobacter rhodopsin 2 (KR2) is a recently discovered light-driven Na(+) pump that holds significant promise for application as a neural silencer in optogenetics. KR2 transports Na(+) (in NaCl solution) or H(+) (in larger cation solution, e.g. in CsCl) during its photocycle. Here, we investigate the photochemistry of KR2 with the recently developed watermarked, baseline-free femto- to submillisecond transient stimulated Raman spectroscopy (TSRS), which enables us to investigate retinal chromophore dynamics in real time with high spectral resolution over a large time range. We propose a new photocycle from femtoseconds to submilliseconds: J (formed in ∼200 fs) → K (∼3 ps) → K/L1 (∼20 ps) → K/L2 (∼30 ns) → L/M (∼20 µs). KR2 binds a Na(+) ion that is not transported on the extracellular side, of which the function is unclear. We demonstrate with TSRS that for the D102N mutant in NaCl (with Na(+) unbound, Na(+) transport) and for WT KR2 in CsCl (with Na(+) unbound, H(+) transport), the extracellular Na(+) binding significantly influences the intermediate K/L/M state equilibrium on the photocycle, while the identity of the transported ion, Na(+) or H(+), does not affect the photocycle. Our findings will contribute to further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of KR2.

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