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1.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002977, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647817

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002875.].

2.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies reported an association between Caesarean section (CS) birth and childhood obesity. However, there are several limitations in the current literature. These include an inability to distinguish between planned and emergency CS, small study sample sizes and not adjusting for pre-pregnancy body-mass-index (BMI). We examined the association between CS delivery and childhood obesity using the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). METHODS: Mother-infant pairs were recruited into the MCS. Use of sampling weights ensured the sample was representative of the population. The exposure was categorised as normal vaginal delivery (VD) [reference], assisted VD, planned CS and emergency CS. Childhood obesity prevalence, at age three, five, seven, eleven and fourteen years was calculated using the International Obesity Taskforce criteria. Mixed-effects linear regression models were fitted with associations adjusted for several potential confounders like maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, education and infant macrosomia. Linear regression models were fitted evaluating body fat percentage (BF%), at age seven and fourteen years. RESULTS: Of the 18,116 infants, 3872 (21.4%) were delivered by CS; 9.2% by planned CS. Obesity prevalence was 5.4%, 5.7%, 6.5%, 7.1% and 7.6% at age three, five, seven, eleven and fourteen years respectively. The mixed-effects linear regression model showed no association between planned (adjusted mean difference = 0.00; [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10; 0.10], p-value = 0.97) or emergency CS (adjusted mean difference = 0.08; [95% CI -0.01; 0.17], p-value = 0.09) and child BMI. At age seven years, there was no association between planned CS and BF% (adjusted mean difference = 0.13; [95% CI -0.23; 0.49]); there was no association at age fourteen years. CONCLUSIONS: Infants born by planned CS did not have a significantly higher BMI or BF% compared to those born by normal VD. This may suggest that the association, described in the literature, could be due to the indications/reasons for CS birth or residual confounding.

3.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 73(12): 1063-1070, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results in the association between Caesarean section (CS) birth and childhood obesity. Many of these studies had small sample sizes, were unable to distinguish between elective/planned and emergency CS, and did not adjust for the key confounder maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). We investigated the association between CS delivery, particularly elective/planned and childhood obesity, using the Growing Up in New Zealand prospective longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Pregnant women planning to deliver their babies on the New Zealand upper North Island were invited to participate. Mode of delivery was categorised into spontaneous vaginal delivery (VD) (reference), assisted VD, planned CS and emergency CS. The main outcome was childhood obesity defined according to the International Obesity Taskforce criteria at age 24 and 54 months. Multinomial logistic regression and mixed-effects linear regression models were fitted with associations adjusted for several potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 6599 infants, 1532 (23.2%) were delivered by CS. At age 24 months, 478 (9.3%) children were obese. There was a statistically significant association between planned CS adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR=1.59; (95% CI 1.09 to 2.33)) and obesity but not for emergency CS (aRRR=1.27; (95% CI 0.89 to 1.82)). At age 54 months there was no association between planned CS (aRRR=0.89; (95% CI 0.54 to 1.45)) and obesity as well as for emergency CS (aRRR=1.19; (95% CI 0.80 to 1.77)). At all-time points those born by planned CS had a higher mean BMI (adjusted mean difference=0.16; (95% CI 0.00 to 0.31), p=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Planned CS was an independent predictor of obesity in early childhood. This suggests that birth mode influences growth, at least in the short term. This association occurred during a critical phase of human development, the first 2 years of life, and if causal might result in long-term detrimental cardiometabolic changes.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environmental contribution of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is approximately 17%-50%, highlighting the importance of investigating factors potentially contributing to the likelihood of its development, and of gaining a greater understanding of the pathogenesis surrounding ASD. The objective of this study was to examine the association between preeclampsia and ASD using a population-based cohort study. METHODS: All singleton live births in Sweden from 1982 to 2010 were included, using data from Swedish National Registers. Exposures of interest included: (a) preeclampsia (classified according to ICD-8, ICD-9 and ICD-10) and (b) preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) combined, used as a proxy for preeclampsia with placental dysfunction. ASD status was based on ICD-9 and ICD-10. The cohort consisted of 2,842,230 children, with 54,071 cases of ASD. Follow-up began from the child's first birthday, and data were censored at first diagnosis of ASD, death, migration or end of study period (31st December 2016). We conducted multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusting for several perinatal and sociodemographic factors, selected a priori. We further controlled for shared genetic and familial confounding using sibling-matched analysis. RESULTS: In the adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, preeclampsia was associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of ASD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.25, 95% CI:1.19, 1.30) compared with those unexposed to preeclampsia, while in the sibling-matched analysis the HR was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.28). The HR for preeclampsia and SGA combined was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.49, 1.85) in the adjusted Cox model and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.53, 2.48) in the sibling-matched analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to preeclampsia or preeclampsia/SGA (i.e. SGA baby exposed to preeclampsia) was associated with ASD. The stronger association with preeclampsia/SGA than preeclampsia alone suggests that placental pathology may be a mechanism for the increased likelihood of ASD.

5.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520432

RESUMO

AIM: Breastfeeding is associated with IQ, school attendance and income. Despite the known benefits of breastfeeding, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding up to 6-months is low globally. We examined the effect of short-term breastfeeding on long-term IQ. METHODS: In this secondary analysis of the prospective Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study, children were categorised as predominantly breastfed (n = 288) versus exclusively formula-fed (n = 254) at 2-months of age. Infants (n = 404) receiving mixed-feeding were excluded. Outcome was assessed using the KBIT II at 5-years. Multivariable linear regression was used to adjust for confounding variables. RESULTS: Following adjustment for confounding variables, children, predominately breastfed at 2-months of age, demonstrated increased overall IQ (2.00 points (95% CI: 0.35 to 3.65) ; p = 0.018) and non-verbal IQ at 5-years of age (1.88 points (95% CI: 0.22 to 3.54); p = 0.027) compared to those never breastfed. No significant relationship was found with verbal IQ (p = 0.154). CONCLUSION: A significant increase in composite and non-verbal IQ at 5-years of age was associated with short-term breastfeeding. This study adds to a growing body of evidence that short-term breastfeeding promotes healthy cognitive development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13701, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548567

RESUMO

Prediction of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in asymptomatic women remains a great challenge; accurate and reproducible screening tools are still not available in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate whether the maternal serum metabolome together with clinical factors could be used to identify asymptomatic women at risk of sPTB. We conducted two case-control studies using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyse maternal serum samples collected at 15- and 20-weeks' gestation from 164 nulliparous women from Cork, and 157 from Auckland. Smoking and vaginal bleeding before 15 weeks were the only significant clinical predictors of sPTB for Auckland and Cork subsets, respectively. Decane, undecane, and dodecane were significantly associated with sPTB (FDR < 0.05) in the Cork subset. An odds ratio of 1.9 was associated with a one standard deviation increase in log (undecane) in a multiple logistic regression which also included vaginal bleeding as a predictor. In summary, elevated serum levels of the alkanes decane, undecane, and dodecane were associated with sPTB in asymptomatic nulliparous women from Cork, but not in the Auckland cohort. The association is not strong enough to be a useful clinical predictor, but suggests that further investigation of the association between oxidative stress processes and sPTB risk is warranted.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with maternal cardiovascular changes. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, potentiates the actions of nitric oxide and has been proposed to alter maternal hemodynamics, potentially improving placental perfusion. Recently, the Dutch trial was stopped prematurely due to excess neonatal mortality secondary to pulmonary hypertension. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil on maternal hemodynamics in pregnancies with severe early-onset FGR. METHODS: In this UK multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 135 women with singleton pregnancies and severe early-onset FGR (defined as a combination of estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference below the 10th centile and absent/reversed end diastolic flow in the umbilical artery on Doppler velocimetry diagnosed between 22+0 -29+6 weeks' gestation), to receive either sildenafil 25mg three times daily or placebo until 32+0 weeks' gestation or delivery. The maternal blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), augmentation index, pulse wave velocity (PWV), cardiac output, stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral resistance were recorded before, 1-2 hours after, and 48-72 hours post-randomization, and 24-48 hours postnatally. For continuous data, the analysis was performed using repeated measures ANOVA methods including terms for time, treatment allocation and their interaction. RESULTS: Sildenafil increased maternal HR by 4bpm when compared to placebo [5bpm (95%CI: 1, 12) vs 1 (-5, 8); P=0.004] and reduced systolic BP by 1mmHg more than placebo [-4mmHg (-9, 1) vs -3mmHg (-8, 5); P=0.048]. Even after adjusting for maternal BP, sildenafil reduced aortic PWV by 0.6 m/sec more than placebo did [-0.90m/sec (-1.31, -0.51) vs -0.26 (-0.75, 0.59); P=0.001]. Sildenafil was associated with a non-significant decrease in the SV index [-5.5m/m2 /beat (-11, -0.5) vs 0 (-0.5, 4); P=0.056]. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil in a dose of 25 mg three times daily increases HR, reduces BP and reduces arterial stiffness in pregnancies complicated by FGR. These changes are modest, consistent with the anticipated vasodilatory effect and their clinical impact on the mother and baby, in both the short- and long-term, remains uncertain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e031238, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, there is no robust enough test to predict small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, who are at increased lifelong risk of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of metabolomics in predicting SGA babies and elucidate which metabolites are predictive of this condition. DATA SOURCES: Two independent researchers explored 11 electronic databases and grey literature in February 2018 and November 2018, covering publications from 1998 to 2018. Both researchers performed data extraction and quality assessment independently. A third researcher resolved discrepancies. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Cohort or nested case-control studies were included which investigated pregnant women and performed metabolomics analysis to evaluate SGA infants. The primary outcome was birth weight <10th centile-as a surrogate for fetal growth restriction-by population-based or customised charts. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Two independent researchers extracted data on study design, obstetric variables and sampling, metabolomics technique, chemical class of metabolites, and prediction accuracy measures. Authors were contacted to provide additional data when necessary. RESULTS: A total of 9181 references were retrieved. Of these, 273 were duplicate, 8760 were removed by title or abstract, and 133 were excluded by full-text content. Thus, 15 studies were included. Only two studies used the fifth centile as a cut-off, and most reports sampled second-trimester pregnant women. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was the most common metabolomics approach. Untargeted studies in the second trimester provided the largest number of predictive metabolites, using maternal blood or hair. Fatty acids, phosphosphingolipids and amino acids were the most prevalent predictive chemical subclasses. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Significant heterogeneity of participant characteristics and methods employed among studies precluded a meta-analysis. Compounds related to lipid metabolism should be validated up to the second trimester in different settings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018089985.

9.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002875, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia has been suggested to increase the risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD); however, most studies were unable to adjust for potential confounders including pre-existing comorbidities such as renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine the association between preeclampsia and the risk of ESKD in healthy women, while taking into account pre-existing comorbidity and potential confounders. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR), women who had singleton live births in Sweden between 1982 and 2012, including those who had preeclampsia, were identified. Women with a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), CVD, hypertension, or diabetes prior to the first pregnancy were excluded. The outcome was a diagnosis of ESKD, identified from the Swedish Renal Registry (SRR) from January 1, 1991, onwards along with the specified cause of renal disease. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the association between preeclampsia and ESKD adjusting for several potential confounders: maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, native country, and smoking. This analysis accounts for differential follow-up among women because women had different lengths of follow-up time. We performed subgroup analyses according to preterm preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA), and women who had 2 pregnancies with preeclampsia in both. The cohort consisted of 1,366,441 healthy women who had 2,665,320 singleton live births in Sweden between 1982 and 2012. At the first pregnancy, women's mean (SD) age and BMI were 27.8 (5.13) and 23.4 (4.03), respectively, 15.2% were smokers, and 80.7% were native Swedish. The overall median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 7.4 years (3.2-17.4) and 16.4 years (10.3-22.0) among women with ESKD diagnosis. During the study period, 67,273 (4.9%) women having 74,648 (2.8% of all pregnancies) singleton live births had preeclampsia, and 410 women developed ESKD with an incidence rate of 1.85 per 100,000 person-years. There was an association between preeclampsia and ESKD in the unadjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.93-6.33; p < 0.001), which remained in the extensively adjusted (HR = 4.96, 95% CI 3.89-6.32, p < 0.001) models. Women who had preterm preeclampsia (adjusted HR = 9.19; 95% CI 5.16-15.61, p < 0.001) and women who had preeclampsia in 2 pregnancies (adjusted HR = 7.13, 95% CI 3.12-16.31, p < 0.001) had the highest risk of ESKD compared with women with no preeclampsia. Considering this was an observational cohort study, and although we accounted for several potential confounders, residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that women with preeclampsia and no major comorbidities before their first pregnancy are at a 5-fold increased risk of ESKD compared with parous women with no preeclampsia; however, the absolute risk of ESKD among women with preeclampsia remains small. Preeclampsia should be considered as an important risk factor for subsequent ESKD. Whether screening and/or preventive strategies will reduce the risk of ESKD in women with adverse pregnancy outcomes is worthy of further investigation.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e025003, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the social, biological, behavioural and psychological factors related to physical activity (PA) in early pregnancy. DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. SETTING: The study was conducted in Cork, Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies were recruited and then interviewed at 15±1 weeks' gestation. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The biopsychosocial model identified factors including social (age), biological (body mass index), behavioural (diet) and psychological (anxiety) at 15±1 weeks' gestation. PA subgroups were identified based on a latent class analysis of their responses to a set of questions about the amount and intensity of activity they were engaging in during the pregnancy. Associations were estimated with multivariable multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: From a total of 2579, 1774 (69%) women were recruited; ages ranged from 17 to 45 years. Based on a combination of model fit, theoretical interpretability and classification quality, the latent class analyses identified three PA subgroups: low PA (n=393), moderate PA (n=960) and high PA (n=413). The fully adjusted model suggests non-smokers, and consumers of fruit and vegetables were more likely to be in the high PA subgroup (vs low). Women with more than 12 years of schooling and a higher socioeconomic status were more likely to be in the moderate PA subgroup (vs low). CONCLUSION: The findings highlight potential links between PA, a low education level and a low socioeconomic background. These factors should be considered for future interventions to improve low PA levels during pregnancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN 12607000551493.

11.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 10(6): 616-620, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134881

RESUMO

Breastfeeding may reduce obesity risk, but this association could be confounded by breastfeeding families' characteristics. We investigated if body composition differs at birth among infants who were either exclusively breast- or formula-fed. We hypothesized the two groups would differ in body composition, even at birth, prior to their post-natal feeding experience. Healthy primiparous carrying singleton pregnancy were recruited at 15 weeks' gestation. PEA POD® measured body composition within 72 hours of delivery and infant feeding was prospectively captured. Out of the 1,152 infants recruited, 117 (10.2%) and 239 (20.7%) went on to be either exclusively breast- or formula-fed, respectively. Breastfed infants were heavier at birth, but their percentage fat mass (FM) was lower than that of exclusively formula-fed infants (covariate adjusted ß = -1.91 percentage points of FM; 95% CI -2.82 to -1.01). Differences in intra-uterine exposures, irrespective of early diet, may partly explain an infant's obesity risk.

12.
J Psychosom Res ; 120: 105-109, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare pregnancy outcomes for women with and without severe fear of childbirth (FOC) reported in the second trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, 389 singleton pregnancies were followed up using medical records of participants in a study investigating FOC in Cork, Republic of Ireland. FOC was measured using the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire Part A (W-DEQ A). Severe FOC was defined as W-DEQ A ≥ 85, moderate FOC, W-DEQ-A 66-84 and low FOC, W-DEQ A 0-65. Outcome measures were birthweight, birthweight centile, gestational age, and Apgar scores at 1 min and Apgar at 5 min. Linear regression was used to assess the association between FOC and each outcome measure with adjustment for maternal age, smoking, parity and marital status. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in mean birthweight (mean difference = -0.03; [95% CI: -444.69, 315.82]), mean birthweight centile (mean difference = 0.03; [95%CI: -15.97, 23.53]), or mean gestational age (mean difference = -0.06; [95%CI: -11.69, 4.82]) in women with severe FOC (n = 18) compared with women with low FOC (n = 371). In the adjusted models, there was only a slight correlation between severe FOC and Apgar scores at 1 min (mean difference = -0.09 [95%CI: -1.28, 0.32]) and Apgar scores at 5 min (mean difference = -0.18 [95%CI: -1.16, 1.08]). CONCLUSION: While a slight association was noted between severe FOC and Apgar scores, overall findings are reassuring and could inform educational interventions which may alleviate FOC. Awareness of FOC for health care professionals is vital to consider women's mental well-being.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5920, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976066

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a multisystemic disorder leading to the development of a placental ischemic microenvironment with a resultant increase in oxidative stress. There is evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and the innate immune system both play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. Mitochondrial DAMPs such as mtDNA bind specific pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) on the endosomal surface of immune cells, in particular neutrophils, subsequently activating them and triggering an innate response. We hypothesised that the exaggerated innate immune response seen in preeclampsia is provoked by dysfunctional mitochondria. Here we provide evidence that TLR9 activity is significantly increased at time of disease in women with preeclampsia. Furthermore, we show activation of neutrophil markers, Calprotectin, Myeloperoxidase (MPO), and IL-8 are significantly increased at time of disease compared to uncomplicated pregnancies. This research supports a potential role of TLR9 activation of an innate immune response evident in preeclampsia which may possibly be initially triggered by dysfunctional mitochondria.

14.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e023562, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826791

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia are currently triaged on the basis of hypertension and dipstick proteinuria. This may result in significant false positive and negative diagnoses resulting in increased morbidity or unnecessary intervention. Recent data suggest that placental growth factor testing may be a useful adjunct in the management of women presenting with preterm pre-eclampsia. The primary objective of this trial is to determine if the addition of placental growth factor testing to the current clinical assessment of women with suspected preterm pre-eclampsia, is beneficial for both mothers and babies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, stepped wedge cluster, randomised trial aiming to recruit 4000 women presenting with symptoms suggestive of preterm pre-eclampsia between 20 and 36+6 weeks' gestation. The intervention of an unblinded point of care test, performed at enrolment, will quantify maternal levels of circulating plasma placental growth factor. The intervention will be rolled out sequentially, based on randomisation, in the seven largest maternity units on the island of Ireland. Primary outcome is a composite outcome of maternal morbidity (derived from the modified fullPIERS model). To ensure we are not reducing maternal morbidity at the expense of earlier delivery and worse neonatal outcomes, we have established a co-primary outcome which will examine the effect of the intervention on neonatal morbidity, assessed using a composite neonatal score. Secondary analyses will examine further clinical outcomes (such as mode of delivery, antenatal detection of growth restriction and use of antihypertensive agents) as well as a health economic analysis, of incorporation of placental growth factor testing into routine care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted from each of the seven maternity hospitals involved in the trial. The results of the trial will be presented both nationally and internationally at conference and published in an international peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02881073.

15.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025051, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between caesarean section (CS) birth and body fat percentage (BF%), body mass index (BMI) and being overweight or obese in early childhood. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Babies After Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact on Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Infants born to mothers recruited from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study, Cork University Maternity Hospital between November 2007 and February 2011. OUTCOME MEASURE: Overweight or obese defined according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria. RESULTS: Of the 1305 infants, 362 (27.8%) were delivered by CS. On regression analysis, BF% at 2 months did not differ significantly by delivery mode. Infants born by CS had a higher mean BMI at 6 months compared with those born vaginally (adjusted mean difference=0.24; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.41, p value=0.009). At 2 years, no difference was seen across the exposure groups in the risk of being overweight or obese. At 5 years, the association between prelabour CS and the risk of overweight or obesity was not statistically significant (adjusted relative risk ratio, aRRR=1.37; 95% CI 0.69 to 2.69) and the association remained statistically nonsignificant when children who were macrosomic at birth were excluded from the model (aRRR=0.86; 95% CI 0.36 to 2.08). CONCLUSION: At 6 months of age, children born by CS had a significantly higher BMI but this did not persist into future childhood. There was no evidence to support an association between mode of delivery and long-term risk of obesity in the child.

16.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(8): 1014-1023, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821844

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is growing evidence of the considerable impact of fear of childbirth on women's health and well-being, but prevalence reports of high and severe fear of childbirth and reported risk factors have been inconsistent in various studies. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of high and severe fear of childbirth, and to identify risk factors of childbirth fear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a convenience sample of 882 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Cork, Ireland. Fear of childbirth was assessed using the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire version A (W-DEQ A) using a cut-off ≥66 to define high fear and ≥85 to define severe fear. Associated risk factors were investigated using univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression analyses. Four W-DEQ A subscales were calculated using a cut-off ≥2.5 to determine the nature of childbirth fear. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of severe fear of childbirth was 5.3% and high fear of childbirth was 36.7%. The prevalence of severe fear of childbirth was 7.4% in nulliparous women and 4.3% in multiparous women; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P < 0.07). The prevalence of high fear of childbirth was 43% in nulliparous women and 33.6% in multiparous women, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.005). High fear of childbirth was associated with single marital status when compared with married or co-habiting women (P < 0.008). In a multivariate analysis, high fear of childbirth was significantly associated with low perceived informational support (adjusted relative risk ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-5.13) and possible depression (assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) (adjusted relative risk ratio 12.87, 95% CI 6.07-27.25). In the W-DEQ A subscales, 35.6% of women scored ≥2.5 in Negative Emotions, 29.4% scored ≥2.5 in Lack of Positive Emotions, 9.9% scored ≥2.5 in Social Isolation and 7.8% scored ≥2.5 in Moment of Birth. CONCLUSIONS: Fear of childbirth is relatively common, with varying severity, and was more common in first-time mothers. Using W-DEQ A subscales provided additional information about the nature of the fear, in addition to severity of fear of childbirth.

17.
J Pediatr ; 208: 121-126.e2, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare cerebral activity and oxygenation in preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestation) randomized to different cord clamping strategies. STUDY DESIGN: Preterm infants born at <32 weeks of gestation were randomized to immediate cord clamping, umbilical cord milking (cord stripped 3 times), or delayed cord clamping for 60 seconds with bedside resuscitation. All infants underwent electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral near infrared spectroscopy for the first 72 hours after birth. Neonatal primary outcome measures were quantitative measures of the EEG (17 features) and near infrared spectroscopy over 1-hour time frames at 6 and 12 hours of life. RESULTS: Forty-five infants were recruited during the study period. Twelve infants (27%) were randomized to immediate cord clamping, 19 (42%) to umbilical cord milking, and 14 (31%) to delayed cord clamping with bedside resuscitation. There were no significant differences between groups for measures of EEG activity or cerebral near infrared spectroscopy. Three of the 45 infants (6.7%) were diagnosed with severe IVH (2 in the immediate cord clamping group, 1 in the umbilical cord milking group; P = .35). CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in cerebral EEG activity and cerebral oxygenation values between cord management strategies at 6 and 12 hours. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN92719670.

18.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
19.
Pediatr Res ; 85(5): 687-692, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II play an important role in prenatal growth. During the first 2 months from birth, body fat doubles, and rapid weight gain during this time increases future risk of cardiometabolic disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether IGF measurements at birth associate with body composition and the trajectory of its changes in the first 2 months. METHODS: Umbilical cord IGF-I and -II concentrations were measured in term infants. Air displacement plethysmography was performed at birth and 2 months. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were corrected for infant length (L) to FM/L3 and FFM/L2, respectively. RESULTS: In 601 (317 male) infants, IGF-I concentrations at birth were associated with FM/L3 and FFM/L2 Z-scores at birth (R2 = 0.05 and 0.04, respectively, P < 0.001), and IGF-II concentrations were associated with FFM/L2 Z-scores at birth (R2 = 0.01, P = 0.02). Lower IGF-I concentrations were weakly associated with increases in FM/L3 Z-scores over the first 2 months (R2 = 0.01, P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: IGF-I concentrations at birth are associated with adiposity and lean mass at birth and inversely with the trajectory of FM accumulation over the first 2 months. IGF-I measurements only account for a small amount of the variance in these measures.

20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 5476350, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775382

RESUMO

Background: Our aim was to describe the steps in planning, implementing, and running a multicentre cohort study of maternal and perinatal health using a high-quality biobank comprised of maternal serum, plasma, and hair samples collected from five sites in Brazil. The Preterm SAMBA study, conducted by the Brazilian Network for Studies on Reproductive and Perinatal Health, was an innovative approach used to identify women at higher risk for preterm birth. It is also of great importance in the study of other maternal and perinatal complications in the context of Brazil, which is a middle-income country. Methods: We described phases of planning, implementing, and running the Preterm SAMBA study, a multicentre Brazilian cohort study of low-risk nulliparous pregnant women, to validate a set of metabolite biomarkers for preterm birth identified in an external cohort. Procedures and strategies used to plan, implement, and maintain this multicentre preterm birth study are described in detail. Barriers and experience cited in the current narrative are not usually discussed in the scientific literature or published study protocols. Results: Several barriers and strategies were identified in different phases of the Preterm SAMBA study at different levels of the study framework (steering committee; coordinating and local centres). Strategies implemented and resources used in the study are a legacy of the Brazilian Network, aimed at training collaborators in such complex settings. Conclusion: The Brazilian Network for Studies on Reproductive and Perinatal Health has gained some experience in conducting a multicentre cohort study using a resourceful biobank which may be helpful to other research groups and maternal/perinatal health networks that plan on employing a similar approach to a similar background.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
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