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2.
Pain ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021563

RESUMO

Phantom limb pain is thought to be sustained by reentrant neural pathways which provoke dysfunctional reorganization in the somatosensory cortex. We hypothesized that disrupting reentrant pathways with a 6-day-long continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom pain 4 weeks after treatment. We enrolled patients who had an upper- or lower-limb amputation and established phantom pain. Each was randomized to receive a 6-day perineural infusion of either ropivacaine or normal saline. The primary outcome was the average phantom pain severity as measured with a Numeric Rating Scale (0-10) at 4 weeks, after which an optional crossover treatment was offered within the following 0-12 weeks. Pretreatment pain scores were similar in both groups, with a median [interquartile range] of 5.0 [4.0, 7.0] for each. After 4 weeks, average phantom limb pain intensity was a mean (SD) of 3.0 (2.9) in patients given local anesthetic versus 4.5 (2.6) in those given placebo (difference (95% CI) 1.3 (0.4, 2.2), P=0.003). Patients given local anesthetic had improved global impression of change and less pain-induced physical and emotional dysfunction, but did not differ on depression scores. For subjects who received only the first infusion (no self-selected crossover), the median decrease in phantom limb pain at 6 months for treated subjects was 3.0 [0, 5.0] vs. 1.5 [0, 5.0] for the placebo group; there appeared to be little residual benefit at 12 months. We conclude that a 6-day continuous peripheral nerve block reduces phantom limb pain as well as physical and emotional dysfunction for at least 1 month.

5.
J Fish Dis ; 43(9): 1087-1095, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720361

RESUMO

Although zebrafish continue to increase in popularity as a vertebrate animal model for biomedical research, chronic infectious diseases in laboratory populations remain prevalent. The presence of pathogens such as Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, a parasitic nematode found in the intestine of infected zebrafish, can significantly influence experimental endpoints and negatively impact reproducibility of research findings. Thus, there is a need for screening tests for zebrafish with the sensitivity to detect even low levels of pathogens present in tissues. Assays based on the detection of DNA are commonly used for such screening tests. Newer technologies such as digital PCR provide an opportunity to improve the sensitivity and precision of these assays, so they can be reliably used to detect pathogen DNA in water, reducing the need for lethal testing. We have designed a qPCR-based assay with the sensitivity to detect less than 5 copies of the P. tomentosa SSU-rDNA gene in tissues of infected zebrafish and environmental DNA from aquarium water housing infected fish. In addition, we adapted this test to a dPCR platform to provide a precise quantification of P. tomentosa DNA and demonstrate the resistance of this assay to inhibitors commonly found in freshwater aquaria.

6.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(10): 1754-1762, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate pain catastrophizing presentations up to 6 months postoperatively and subsequent changes in pain intensity and physical function. DESIGN: Prospective observational multisite study. SETTING: Two tertiary care facilities between 2016 and 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients (N=348) undergoing a mastectomy, thoracic surgery, total knee or hip arthroplasty, spinal fusion, or major abdominal surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores, Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale, average pain intensity, and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) physical function. RESULTS: Four pain catastrophizing trajectories were identified in 348 surgical patients during the 6 months of postoperative recovery: stable, remitting, worsening, and unremitting. Linear mixed-effects models found that the unremitting trajectory was associated with higher pain intensity over time. The average pain intensity of participants in the remitting trajectory was estimated to decrease at a faster rate over the 6 months after surgery than pain of other trajectories, despite participants reporting high preoperative Pain Catastrophizing Scale and pain scores. Worsening and unremitting trajectories were associated with reduced physical function. Preoperative average pain intensity scores were not associated with postoperative physical function scores, nor were participants' preoperative physical function scores associated with average pain intensity scores postoperatively. Prolonged hospitalization, smoking, and preoperative opioid prescriptions were associated with the unremitting trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that preoperative pain catastrophizing scores alone may not be adequate for estimating long-term patient-reported outcomes during postoperative rehabilitation. Pain catastrophizing has a dynamic presentation and is associated with changes in pain intensity and physical function up to 6 months postoperatively. Routine assessments can inform the delivery of early interventions to surgical patients at risk of experiencing a pain catastrophizing trajectory associated with suboptimal outcomes during rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
7.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(4): 315-330, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224120

RESUMO

We used odds ratios and a hurdle model to analyze parasite co-infections over 25 years on >20,000 young-of-the year of endangered Shortnose and Lost River Suckers. Host ecologies differed as did parasite infections. Shortnose Suckers were more likely to be caught inshore and 3-5 times more likely to have Bolbophorus spp. and Contracaecum sp. infections, and Lost River Suckers were more likely to be caught offshore and approximately three times more likely to have Lernaea cyprinacea infections. An observed peak shift seems likely to be due to a lower host size limit for Bolbophorus spp. (13.6 mm) compared with L. cyprinacea (23.4 mm). The large data set allowed us to generate strong hypotheses: (i) that a major marsh restoration project had unintended consequences that resulted in an increase in infections; (ii) that co-infection with Bolbophorus spp. increased the odds of infection by L. cyprinacea and Contracaecum sp.; (iii) that significant declines in the odds of infection over approximately 25 days were due to parasite-induced host mortality; (iv) that the fish's small size relative to L. cyprinacea and Contracaecum sp. might be directly lethal; (v) that the absence of L. cyprinacea infections in the early 1990s was associated with good year-class production of the suckers; and (vi) that parasites might increase the odds of vagrancy from the nursery ground.

8.
Pain Med ; 21(4): 660, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096541
10.
Zebrafish ; 17(2): 139-146, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971888

RESUMO

The zebrafish is a widely used animal model in biomedical research. Despite this, pathogens continue to be common in laboratory zebrafish. It is important to determine and describe the pathophysiology of cryptic infections on zebrafish to elucidate the impacts on experimental endpoints. Body condition is a basic measurement used experimentally and in health monitoring of animals. We exposed three wild-type zebrafish strains: AB, WIK, and 5D to Pseudoloma neurophilia. After 8 weeks postexposure, we individually imaged and processed fish for histology. Morphometric analysis was performed on images and an index of body condition was calculated based on the ratio of length/width from the dorsal aspect. Histological sections from each fish were examined to establish sex, severity of infection, and tissue distribution. We observed a significant decrease in body condition in female fish that was not observed in males. In addition, we observed a negative correlation between the total gonadal area of P. neurophilia exposed females and unexposed controls. These results illustrate the sex-specific impacts of a common chronic pathogen on zebrafish health and a commonly used experimental endpoint, further supporting the establishment of rigorous health monitoring programs in laboratory zebrafish colonies that include screening for chronic infectious diseases.

11.
Reg Anesth Pain Med ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The role of caregiver psychosocial characteristics and their relation to postsurgical caregiving capability remains unclear. The objective of this study was to explore caregiver psychosocial variables following surgery of patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted where questionnaires were administered to caregivers preoperatively and 1 week/2 weeks/1 month postoperatively. Measures included demographics, caregiver activities and National Institutes of Health Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (NIH PROMIS) item banks. Bivariate analysis assessed differences between participants reporting baseline pain and those reporting no baseline pain. Generalized estimating equation models examined PROMIS T-scores across time. RESULTS: 190 caregivers were enrolled and completed surveys. 18% of caregivers reported experiencing a painful condition where they experienced pain during most days of the week. Across all time points, the majority of caregivers reported no worse than mild impairment across PROMIS scores. Compared with baseline, caregivers reported lower PROMIS satisfaction with social roles across all postoperative time points (p<0.001) and higher depression and fatigue at postoperative day 7 (p=0.002) and 14 (p=0.006). PROMIS sleep disturbance was only higher at day 7 (p=0.01). Caregivers reporting a baseline pain condition reported PROMIS scores indicative of higher anxiety (p=0.02), depression (p=0.003), sleep disturbances (p<0.001) and fatigue (p<0.001) and lower levels of satisfaction with social roles (p=0.002) compared with those caregivers without baseline pain. CONCLUSION: While there were transient worsening in PROMIS scores, it is unclear whether these were clinically meaningful. Postsurgical caregivers reporting baseline pain were characterized by worse functioning across all PROMIS scales.

12.
Arthroscopy ; 35(9): 2608-2616, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402223

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine in a prospective, randomized fashion whether liposomal bupivacaine extends the effectiveness of decreased pain scores and reduces narcotic requirements following hip arthroscopy when used in addition to a fascia iliaca blockade with plain bupivacaine alone. METHODS: Double-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial of participants undergoing hip arthroscopy. Randomized to receive a fascia iliaca blockade with 40 mL 0.25% plain bupivacaine (100 mg; control group) or 20 mL 0.5% plain bupivacaine (100 mg) plus 20 mL liposomal bupivacaine (266 mg; study group). The primary outcome was Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS) scores in the postanesthesia care unit and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 2, 3, and 14. Secondary outcomes included postoperative opioid consumption and subjective loss of anterior thigh sensation. RESULTS: Seventy-four patients were enrolled, and 70 completed the study; 37 were randomized to the control group and 33 to the study group. There was no significant difference in postoperative DVPRS scores at any time point. There was no significant difference in total postoperative opioid use during any postoperative time points. While most patients reported anterior thigh numbness at discharge, significantly more patients in the study group reported anterior thigh numbness at POD2 (control, 19/37 numb vs study, 32/33 numb; P < .0001) and at POD3 (control, 8/37 numb vs study, 26/33 numb; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective evaluation comparing plain bupivacaine versus the liposomal formulation administered via a fascia iliaca blockade there were no significant differences in postoperative pain scores and narcotic pill usage. Given the highly significant findings of prolonged anterior thigh numbness out to POD3 in patients who received liposomal bupivacaine, this formulation did exhibit prolonged effects; however, it did not provide improved pain control when used in this surgical population, likely due to the innervation of the hip capsule from differential nerve plexi. Given the 6-fold increased cost of using the liposomal formulation, we are unable to recommend its use via a fascia iliaca blockade for hip arthroscopy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/métodos , Bupivacaína/uso terapêutico , Lesões do Quadril/cirurgia , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Fáscia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipossomos , Masculino , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
J Fish Dis ; 42(10): 1351-1357, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309582

RESUMO

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa is a pathogenic nematode parasite, causing emaciation and severe inflammatory lesions in the intestines in zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822). Emamectin benzoate is commercially available analogue of ivermectin used for treating salmon for sea lice, under the brand name SLICE® , and we have used this for treating zebrafish with the P. tomentosa. Here, SLICE® , 0.2 per cent active emamectin benzoate, was used for oral treatments at 0.35 mg emamectin benzoate/kg fish/day for 14 days starting at 7 days post-exposure (dpe). Another experiment entailed initiating treatment during clinical disease (starting at 28 dpe). Early treatment was very effective, but delaying treatment was less so, presumably due to inappetence in clinically affected fish. We evaluated emamectin benzoate delivered in water, using Lice-Solve™ (mectinsol; 1.4% active emamectin benzoate) in two experiments. Application of four 24-hr treatments, space over 7 days was initiated at 28 dpe at either 0.168 or 0.56 mg emamectin benzoate/L/bath, and both treatments completely eradicated infections. This was 3 or 10 times manufacture's recommended dose, but was not associated with clinical or histological side effects.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Enoplídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Infecções por Enoplida/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Masculino
14.
Zebrafish ; 16(5): 460-468, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216245

RESUMO

Pseudocapillaria tomentosa is an important pathogen in zebrafish facilities. We investigated heat, ultraviolet (UV) light, chlorine, iodine, and dessciation for killing the parasite's eggs. Eggs released with feces larvate in about 5-10 days, and treatments were evaluated by exposing fresh eggs and subsequently comparing larvation to untreated eggs as an indication of survival. Collectively, untreated eggs in all trials showed high levels of survival. Eggs were exposed to elevated temperatures (40°C, 45°C and 50°C) for 1, 8, or 24 h, which resulted in substantial reduction in viability of eggs. UV radiation was effective, with no larvation at 50-300 mWs/cm2 and <2% at 20 mWs/cm2. Three chlorine products (JT Baker, Clorox®, and Bi-Mart) were tested at 25, 50, 100, 500, and 3,000 ppm (pH 7.0-7.3) with 10 min exposure. All were effective at 500 or 1,000 ppm. There was variability between three products and trials at lower concentrations, but overall chlorine was not very effective at 25-100 ppm except for Bi-Mart brand at 100 ppm. Povidone-iodine was not effective at 25 or 50 ppm for 10 min, but was effective at 200 ppm for 1 h. Desiccation was effective, and no eggs larvated after 2 h drying.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Iodo/farmacologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos da radiação , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Raios Ultravioleta , Água , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Anesth Analg ; 129(2): 543-552, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897590

RESUMO

Persistent postoperative opioid use is thought to contribute to the ongoing opioid epidemic in the United States. However, efforts to study and address the issue have been stymied by the lack of a standard definition, which has also hampered efforts to measure the incidence of and risk factors for persistent postoperative opioid use. The objective of this systematic review is to (1) determine a clinically relevant definition of persistent postoperative opioid use, and (2) characterize its incidence and risk factors for several common surgeries. Our approach leveraged a group of international experts from the Perioperative Quality Initiative-4, a consensus-building conference that included representation from anesthesiology, surgery, and nursing. A search of the medical literature yielded 46 articles addressing persistent postoperative opioid use in adults after arthroplasty, abdominopelvic surgery, spine surgery, thoracic surgery, mastectomy, and thoracic surgery. In opioid-naïve patients, the overall incidence ranged from 2% to 6% based on moderate-level evidence. However, patients who use opioids preoperatively had an incidence of >30%. Preoperative opioid use, depression, factors associated with the diagnosis of substance use disorder, preoperative pain, and tobacco use were reported risk factors. In addition, while anxiety, sex, and psychotropic prescription are associated with persistent postoperative opioid use, these reports are based on lower level evidence. While few articles addressed the health policy or prescriber characteristics that influence persistent postoperative opioid use, efforts to modify prescriber behaviors and health system characteristics are likely to have success in reducing persistent postoperative opioid use.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Manejo da Dor/normas , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Incidência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Terminologia como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Microbiome ; 7(1): 10, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helminth parasites represent a significant threat to the health of human and animal populations, and there is a growing need for tools to treat, diagnose, and prevent these infections. Recent work has turned to the gut microbiome as a utilitarian agent in this regard; components of the microbiome may interact with parasites to influence their success in the gut, meaning that the microbiome may encode new anthelmintic drugs. Moreover, parasite infections may restructure the microbiome's composition in consistent ways, implying that the microbiome may be useful for diagnosing infection. The innovation of these utilities requires foundational knowledge about how parasitic infection, as well as its ultimate success in the gut and impact on the host, relates to the gut microbiome. In particular, we currently possess limited insight into how the microbiome, host pathology, and parasite burden covary during infection. Identifying interactions between these parameters may uncover novel putative methods of disrupting parasite success. RESULTS: To identify interactions between parasite success and the microbiome, we quantified longitudinal associations between an intestinal helminth of zebrafish, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa, and the gut microbiome in 210 4-month-old 5D line zebrafish. Parasite burden and parasite-associated pathology varied in severity throughout the experiment in parasite-exposed fish, with intestinal pathologic changes becoming severe at late time points. Parasite exposure, burden, and intestinal lesions were correlated with gut microbial diversity. Robust generalized linear regression identified several individual taxa whose abundance predicted parasite burden, suggesting that gut microbiota may influence P. tomentosa success. Numerous associations between taxon abundance, burden, and gut pathologic changes were also observed, indicating that the magnitude of microbiome disruption during infection varies with infection severity. Finally, a random forest classifier accurately predicted a fish's exposure to the parasite based on the abundance of gut phylotypes, which underscores the potential for using the gut microbiome to diagnose intestinal parasite infection. CONCLUSIONS: These experiments demonstrate that P. tomentosa infection disrupts zebrafish gut microbiome composition and identifies potential interactions between the gut microbiota and parasite success. The microbiome may also provide a diagnostic that would enable non-destructive passive sampling for P. tomentosa and other intestinal pathogens in zebrafish facilities.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Disbiose/parasitologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Peixe-Zebra/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Interações Microbianas/fisiologia
18.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 131(2): 121-131, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460918

RESUMO

Parasites in wild populations almost always exhibit aggregation (overdispersion), in which relatively few hosts are infected with high numbers of the parasites. This pattern of infection has also been observed in laboratory studies, where many of the sources of natural variation are removed. Pseudocapillaria tomentosa (Nematoda) is common in zebrafish (Danio rerio) facilities. We describe here patterns of infections in zebrafish experimentally infected with larvated P. tomentosa eggs in various trials with defined numbers of eggs. One trial with eggs delivered in a gelatin diet is also included. Fish were exposed at 25, 75, and 200 eggs fish-1, and the minimal infectious dose was estimated to be 1.5 eggs fish-1. The ID50 (50% infective dose) was calculated to be 17.5 eggs fish-1. We also included data from a trial and 2 previously published experiments with undefined doses in which zebrafish were exposed to infectious water and detritus from a tank that previously contained infected fish. All doses resulted in a high prevalence of infection (>70%), except at the 25 eggs fish-1 dose, where the prevalence was 43-46%. Mean abundance of worms corresponded to dose, from 0.57 worms fish-1 at 25 eggs fish-1 to 7 worms fish-1 at 200 eggs fish-1. Variance to mean ratios (V/M) and the k parameters showed aggregation across the 8 separate trials, including the gelatin diet. Aggregation increased with increased parasite abundance. Given the consistent observation of aggregation across our experiments, the zebrafish/P. tomentosa system provides a potentially robust, high-throughput model to investigate factors that influence differences in host susceptibility within defined populations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
19.
Zebrafish ; 15(6): 558-565, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136899

RESUMO

A laboratory zebrafish colony developed red masses, predominantly under the jaw, in a significant portion of the population. The masses were diagnosed histopathologically as thyroid follicular hyperplasia, adenoma, or carcinoma in accordance with published morphologic criteria. After switching to a higher iodine brand of salt used to maintain a low level of salinity within the water system and a small diet change, the thyroid lesions regressed dramatically. Within 5 months the masses were no longer grossly visible. At the population level, external evaluations and histopathological assessments of whole-body sections document a regression in the prevalence of thyroid neoplasia and hyperplasia to normal thyroid conformation by 11 months after salt change. These findings suggest that a wide range of proliferative thyroid lesions, including neoplasms, in zebrafish may be hormone-dependent, even following lesion development. In addition, these results suggest that zebrafish have an adaptive ability to absorb iodine from water and food, which should be considered in discussions to standardize diets and when describing environmental parameters in publications.


Assuntos
Adenoma/veterinária , Hiperplasia/veterinária , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Iodo/deficiência , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/veterinária , Peixe-Zebra , Adenoma/etiologia , Adenoma/patologia , Adenoma/prevenção & controle , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Hiperplasia/etiologia , Hiperplasia/patologia , Hiperplasia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/prevenção & controle
20.
J Fish Dis ; 41(11): 1675-1687, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091262

RESUMO

Shortnose Sucker (Chasimistes brevirostris) and Lost River Sucker (Deltistes luxatus) are endemic to the Upper Klamath Basin of Southern Oregon and Northern California, and their populations are in decline. We used histopathology and external examination of 140 and external examination only of 310 underyearling suckers collected in 2013, 2015 and 2016 to document pathological changes, particularly those relating to parasites. The most severe infection was caused by a Contracaecum sp., infecting the atrium of 8%-33% of Shortnose Suckers. The most prevalent infections were caused by Bolbophorus sp. metacercariae in the muscle of Shortnose Suckers (21%-63%) and Lernaea cyprinacea in the skin and muscle of Lost River Suckers (30%-81%). Histology detected Bolbophorus in only 5% of cases where it was not seen externally. Three myxozoans were observed; a Parvicapsula sp. in the renal tubules (10%), a Myxobolus sp. in the intestinal mucosa (2%) and an unusual multicellular, presporogonic myxozoan in the intestinal lumen of one sucker. Severe gill epithelial hyperplasia was observed in several fish collected in 2016. Trichodinids and Ichthyobodo sp. were observed on some of the gills, but absent in many of the fish with severe lesions. A histiocytic sarcoma was observed in sucker.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Lagos/parasitologia , Oregon/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/patologia
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