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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 1021785, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36393831

RESUMO

Purpose: Patients with rare or ultra-rare genetic diseases, which affect 350 million people worldwide, may experience a diagnostic odyssey. High-throughput sequencing leads to an etiological diagnosis in up to 50% of individuals with heterogeneous neurodevelopmental or malformation disorders. There is a growing interest in additional omics technologies in translational research settings to examine the remaining unsolved cases. Methods: We gathered 30 individuals with malformation syndromes and/or severe neurodevelopmental disorders with negative trio exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization results through a multicenter project. We applied short-read genome sequencing, total RNA sequencing, and DNA methylation analysis, in that order, as complementary translational research tools for a molecular diagnosis. Results: The cohort was mainly composed of pediatric individuals with a median age of 13.7 years (4 years and 6 months to 35 years and 1 month). Genome sequencing alone identified at least one variant with a high level of evidence of pathogenicity in 8/30 individuals (26.7%) and at least a candidate disease-causing variant in 7/30 other individuals (23.3%). RNA-seq data in 23 individuals allowed two additional individuals (8.7%) to be diagnosed, confirming the implication of two pathogenic variants (8.7%), and excluding one candidate variant (4.3%). Finally, DNA methylation analysis confirmed one diagnosis identified by genome sequencing (Kabuki syndrome) and identified an episignature compatible with a BAFopathy in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of Coffin-Siris with negative genome and RNA-seq results in blood. Conclusion: Overall, our integrated genome, transcriptome, and DNA methylation analysis solved 10/30 (33.3%) cases and identified a strong candidate gene in 4/30 (13.3%) of the patients with rare neurodevelopmental disorders and negative exome sequencing results.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413998

RESUMO

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in DNM1 cause developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) as a result of a dominant-negative mechanism impeding vesicular fission. Thus far, pathogenic variants in DNM1 have been studied with a canonical transcript that includes the alternatively spliced exon 10b. However, after performing RNA sequencing in 39 pediatric brain samples, we find the primary transcript expressed in the brain includes the downstream exon 10a instead. Using this information, we evaluated genotype-phenotype correlations of variants affecting exon 10a and identified a cohort of eleven previously unreported individuals. Eight individuals harbor a recurrent de novo splice site variant, c.1197-8G>A (GenBank: NM_001288739.1), which affects exon 10a and leads to DEE consistent with the classical DNM1 phenotype. We find this splice site variant leads to disease through an unexpected dominant-negative mechanism. Functional testing reveals an in-frame upstream splice acceptor causing insertion of two amino acids predicted to impair oligomerization-dependent activity. This is supported by neuropathological samples showing accumulation of enlarged synaptic vesicles adherent to the plasma membrane consistent with impaired vesicular fission. Two additional individuals with missense variants affecting exon 10a, p.Arg399Trp and p.Gly401Asp, had a similar DEE phenotype. In contrast, one individual with a missense variant affecting exon 10b, p.Pro405Leu, which is less expressed in the brain, had a correspondingly less severe presentation. Thus, we implicate variants affecting exon 10a as causing the severe DEE typically associated with DNM1-related disorders. We highlight the importance of considering relevant isoforms for disease-causing variants as well as the possibility of splice site variants acting through a dominant-negative mechanism.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369750

RESUMO

Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (1p36DS) is one of the most common terminal deletion syndromes (incidence between 1/5000 and 1/10,000 live births in the American population), due to a heterozygous deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 1. The 1p36DS is characterized by typical craniofacial features, developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, epilepsy, cardiomyopathy/congenital heart defect, brain abnormalities, hearing loss, eyes/vision problem, and short stature. The aim of our study was to (1) evaluate the incidence of the 1p36DS in the French population compared to 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and trisomy 21; (2) review the postnatal phenotype related to microarray data, compared to previously publish prenatal data. Thanks to a collaboration with the ACLF (Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française), we have collected data of 86 patients constituting, to the best of our knowledge, the second-largest cohort of 1p36DS patients in the literature. We estimated an average of at least 10 cases per year in France. 1p36DS seems to be much less frequent than 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and trisomy 21. Patients presented mainly dysmorphism, microcephaly, developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, epilepsy, brain malformations, behavioral disorders, cardiomyopathy, or cardiovascular malformations and, pre and/or postnatal growth retardation. Cardiac abnormalities, brain malformations, and epilepsy were more frequent in distal deletions, whereas microcephaly was more common in proximal deletions. Mapping and genotype-phenotype correlation allowed us to identify four critical regions responsible for intellectual disability. This study highlights some phenotypic variability, according to the deletion position, and helps to refine the phenotype of 1p36DS, allowing improved management and follow-up of patients.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430143

RESUMO

Clark-Baraitser syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant intellectual disability syndrome caused by pathogenic variants in the TRIP12 (Thyroid Hormone Receptor Interactor 12) gene. TRIP12 encodes an E3 ligase in the ubiquitin pathway. The ubiquitin pathway includes activating E1, conjugating E2 and ligating E3 enzymes which regulate the breakdown and sorting of proteins. This enzymatic pathway is crucial for physiological processes. A significant proportion of TRIP12 variants are currently classified as variants of unknown significance (VUS). Episignatures have been shown to represent a powerful diagnostic tool to resolve inconclusive genetic findings for Mendelian disorders and to re-classify VUSs. Here, we show the results of DNA methylation episignature analysis in 32 individuals with pathogenic, likely pathogenic and VUS variants in TRIP12. We identified a specific and sensitive DNA methylation (DNAm) episignature associated with pathogenic TRIP12 variants, establishing its utility as a clinical biomarker for Clark-Baraitser syndrome. In addition, we performed analysis of differentially methylated regions as well as functional correlation of the TRIP12 genome-wide methylation profile with the profiles of 56 additional neurodevelopmental disorders.


Assuntos
Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X , Humanos , Facies , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6570, 2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323681

RESUMO

Disease gene discovery on chromosome (chr) X is challenging owing to its unique modes of inheritance. We undertook a systematic analysis of human chrX genes. We observe a higher proportion of disorder-associated genes and an enrichment of genes involved in cognition, language, and seizures on chrX compared to autosomes. We analyze gene constraints, exon and promoter conservation, expression, and paralogues, and report 127 genes sharing one or more attributes with known chrX disorder genes. Using machine learning classifiers trained to distinguish disease-associated from dispensable genes, we classify 247 genes, including 115 of the 127, as having high probability of being disease-associated. We provide evidence of an excess of variants in predicted genes in existing databases. Finally, we report damaging variants in CDK16 and TRPC5 in patients with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorders. This study predicts large-scale gene-disease associations that could be used for prioritization of X-linked pathogenic variants.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Humanos , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas
6.
Genet Med ; 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36214804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: KLHL20 is part of a CUL3-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in protein ubiquitination. KLHL20 functions as the substrate adaptor that recognizes substrates and mediates the transfer of ubiquitin to the substrates. Although KLHL20 regulates neurite outgrowth and synaptic development in animal models, a role in human neurodevelopment has not yet been described. We report on a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo missense variants in KLHL20. METHODS: Patients were ascertained by the investigators through Matchmaker Exchange. Phenotyping of patients with de novo missense variants in KLHL20 was performed. RESULTS: We studied 14 patients with de novo missense variants in KLHL20, delineating a genetic syndrome with patients having mild to severe intellectual disability, febrile seizures or epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, hyperactivity, and subtle dysmorphic facial features. We observed a recurrent de novo missense variant in 11 patients (NM_014458.4:c.1069G>A p.[Gly357Arg]). The recurrent missense and the 3 other missense variants all clustered in the Kelch-type ß-propeller domain of the KLHL20 protein, which shapes the substrate binding surface. CONCLUSION: Our findings implicate KLHL20 in a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, febrile seizures or epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder, and hyperactivity.

7.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(10): 855, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207321

RESUMO

Calcium concentration must be finely tuned in all eukaryotic cells to ensure the correct performance of its signalling function. Neuronal activity is exquisitely dependent on the control of Ca2+ homeostasis: its alterations ultimately play a pivotal role in the origin and progression of many neurodegenerative processes. A complex toolkit of Ca2+ pumps and exchangers maintains the fluctuation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration within the appropriate threshold. Two ubiquitous (isoforms 1 and 4) and two neuronally enriched (isoforms 2 and 3) of the plasma membrane Ca2+ATPase (PMCA pump) selectively regulate cytosolic Ca2+ transients by shaping the sub-plasma membrane (PM) microdomains. In humans, genetic mutations in ATP2B1, ATP2B2 and ATP2B3 gene have been linked with hearing loss, cerebellar ataxia and global neurodevelopmental delay: all of them were found to impair pump activity. Here we report three additional mutations in ATP2B3 gene corresponding to E1081Q, R1133Q and R696H amino acids substitution, respectively. Among them, the novel missense mutation (E1081Q) immediately upstream the C-terminal calmodulin-binding domain (CaM-BD) of the PMCA3 protein was present in two patients originating from two distinct families. Our biochemical and molecular studies on PMCA3 E1081Q mutant have revealed a splicing variant-dependent effect of the mutation in shaping the sub-PM [Ca2+]. The E1081Q substitution in the full-length b variant abolished the capacity of the pump to reduce [Ca2+] in the sub-PM microdomain (in line with the previously described ataxia-related PMCA mutations negatively affecting Ca2+ pumping activity), while, surprisingly, its introduction in the truncated a variant selectively increased Ca2+ extrusion activity in the sub-PM Ca2+ microdomains. These results highlight the importance to set a precise threshold of [Ca2+] by fine-tuning the sub-PM microdomains and the different contribution of the PMCA splice variants in this regulation.


Assuntos
Ataxia Cerebelar , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Aminoácidos , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Calmodulina/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/química , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio da Membrana Plasmática/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079864

RESUMO

The mitochondrial malate aspartate shuttle system (MAS) maintains the cytosolic NAD+/NADH redox balance, thereby sustaining cytosolic redox-dependent pathways, such as glycolysis and serine biosynthesis. Human disease has been associated with defects in four MAS-proteins (encoded by MDH1, MDH2, GOT2, SLC25A12) sharing a neurological/epileptic phenotype, as well as citrin deficiency (SLC25A13) with a complex hepatopathic-neuropsychiatric phenotype. Ketogenic diets (KD) are high-fat/low-carbohydrate diets, which decrease glycolysis thus bypassing the mentioned defects. The same holds for mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) 1 deficiency, which also presents neurological deficits. We here describe 40 (18 previously unreported) subjects with MAS-/MPC1-defects (32 neurological phenotypes, eight citrin deficiency), describe and discuss their phenotypes and genotypes (presenting 12 novel variants), and the efficacy of KD. Of 13 MAS/MPC1-individuals with a neurological phenotype treated with KD, 11 experienced benefits-mainly a striking effect against seizures. Two individuals with citrin deficiency deceased before the correct diagnosis was established, presumably due to high-carbohydrate treatment. Six citrin-deficient individuals received a carbohydrate-restricted/fat-enriched diet and showed normalisation of laboratory values/hepatopathy as well as age-adequate thriving. We conclude that patients with MAS-/MPC1-defects are amenable to dietary intervention and that early (genetic) diagnosis is key for initiation of proper treatment and can even be lifesaving.


Assuntos
Citrulinemia , Dieta Cetogênica , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Humanos , Malatos , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(9): 1713-1723, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948005

RESUMO

The leucine-rich glioma-inactivated (LGI) family consists of four highly conserved paralogous genes, LGI1-4, that are highly expressed in mammalian central and/or peripheral nervous systems. LGI1 antibodies are detected in subjects with autoimmune limbic encephalitis and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes (PNHSs) such as Isaacs and Morvan syndromes. Pathogenic variations of LGI1 and LGI4 are associated with neurological disorders as disease traits including familial temporal lobe epilepsy and neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 1 with myelin defects, respectively. No human disease has been reported associated with either LGI2 or LGI3. We implemented exome sequencing and family-based genomics to identify individuals with deleterious variants in LGI3 and utilized GeneMatcher to connect practitioners and researchers worldwide to investigate the clinical and electrophysiological phenotype in affected subjects. We also generated Lgi3-null mice and performed peripheral nerve dissection and immunohistochemistry to examine the juxtaparanode LGI3 microarchitecture. As a result, we identified 16 individuals from eight unrelated families with loss-of-function (LoF) bi-allelic variants in LGI3. Deep phenotypic characterization showed LGI3 LoF causes a potentially clinically recognizable PNHS trait characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, distal deformities with diminished reflexes, visible facial myokymia, and distinctive electromyographic features suggestive of motor nerve instability. Lgi3-null mice showed reduced and mis-localized Kv1 channel complexes in myelinated peripheral axons. Our data demonstrate bi-allelic LoF variants in LGI3 cause a clinically distinguishable disease trait of PNHS, most likely caused by disturbed Kv1 channel distribution in the absence of LGI3.


Assuntos
Mioquimia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Animais , Autoanticorpos , Axônios , Genômica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Genética Reversa
10.
Genet Med ; 24(10): 2065-2078, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980381

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nonmuscle myosin II complexes are master regulators of actin dynamics that play essential roles during embryogenesis with vertebrates possessing 3 nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain genes, MYH9, MYH10, and MYH14. As opposed to MYH9 and MYH14, no recognizable disorder has been associated with MYH10. We sought to define the clinical characteristics and molecular mechanism of a novel autosomal dominant disorder related to MYH10. METHODS: An international collaboration identified the patient cohort. CAS9-mediated knockout cell models were used to explore the mechanism of disease pathogenesis. RESULTS: We identified a cohort of 16 individuals with heterozygous MYH10 variants presenting with a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders and variable congenital anomalies that affect most organ systems and were recapitulated in animal models of altered MYH10 activity. Variants were typically de novo missense changes with clustering observed in the motor domain. MYH10 knockout cells showed defects in primary ciliogenesis and reduced ciliary length with impaired Hedgehog signaling. MYH10 variant overexpression produced a dominant-negative effect on ciliary length. CONCLUSION: These data presented a novel genetic cause of isolated and syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders related to heterozygous variants in the MYH10 gene with implications for disrupted primary cilia length control and altered Hedgehog signaling in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Miosina não Muscular Tipo IIB , Actinas , Cílios/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Miosina não Muscular Tipo IIB/genética
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(9): 2627-2636, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789103

RESUMO

We present the phenotypes of seven previously unreported patients with Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome, all carrying the same recurrent heterozygous missense variant c.1003C>T (p.Arg335Trp) in PRKAR1B. Clinical features of this cohort include global developmental delay and reduced sensitivity to pain, as well as behavioral anomalies. Only one of the seven patients reported here was formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while ASD-like features were described in others, overall indicating a lower prevalence of ASD in Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome than previously assumed. The clinical spectrum of the current cohort is similar to that reported in the initial publication, delineating a complex developmental disorder with behavioral and neurologic features. PRKAR1B encodes the regulatory subunit R1ß of the protein kinase A complex (PKA), and is expressed in the adult and embryonal central nervous system in humans. PKA is crucial to a plethora of cellular signaling pathways, and its composition of different regulatory and catalytic subunits is cell-type specific. We discuss potential molecular disease mechanisms underlying the patients' phenotypes with respect to the different known functions of PKA in neurons, and the phenotypes of existing R1ß-deficient animal models.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Adulto , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome
12.
Clin Genet ; 102(5): 444-450, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35908151

RESUMO

HIDEA syndrome is caused by biallelic pathogenic variants in P4HTM. The phenotype is characterized by muscular and central hypotonia, hypoventilation including obstructive and central sleep apneas, intellectual disability, dysautonomia, epilepsy, eye abnormalities, and an increased tendency to develop respiratory distress during pneumonia. Here, we report six new patients with HIDEA syndrome caused by five different biallelic P4HTM variants, including three novel variants. We describe two Finnish enriched pathogenic P4HTM variants and demonstrate that these variants are embedded within founder haplotypes. We review the clinical data from all previously published patients with HIDEA and characterize all reported P4HTM pathogenic variants associated with HIDEA in silico. All known pathogenic variants in P4HTM result in either premature stop codons, an intragenic deletion, or amino acid changes that impact the active site or the overall stability of P4H-TM protein. In all cases, normal P4H-TM enzyme function is expected to be lost or severely decreased. This report expands knowledge of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of the disease.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Deficiência Intelectual , Prolil Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Aminoácidos , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome
14.
Genome Med ; 14(1): 62, 2022 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35698242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomics enables individualized diagnosis and treatment, but large challenges remain to functionally interpret rare variants. To date, only one causative variant has been described for KCNK9 imprinting syndrome (KIS). The genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of KIS has yet to be described and the precise mechanism of disease fully understood. METHODS: This study discovers mechanisms underlying KCNK9 imprinting syndrome (KIS) by describing 15 novel KCNK9 alterations from 47 KIS-affected individuals. We use clinical genetics and computer-assisted facial phenotyping to describe the phenotypic spectrum of KIS. We then interrogate the functional effects of the variants in the encoded TASK3 channel using sequence-based analysis, 3D molecular mechanic and dynamic protein modeling, and in vitro electrophysiological and functional methodologies. RESULTS: We describe the broader genetic and phenotypic variability for KIS in a cohort of individuals identifying an additional mutational hotspot at p.Arg131 and demonstrating the common features of this neurodevelopmental disorder to include motor and speech delay, intellectual disability, early feeding difficulties, muscular hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features. The computational protein modeling and in vitro electrophysiological studies discover variability of the impact of KCNK9 variants on TASK3 channel function identifying variants causing gain and others causing loss of conductance. The most consistent functional impact of KCNK9 genetic variants, however, was altered channel regulation. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends our understanding of KIS mechanisms demonstrating its complex etiology including gain and loss of channel function and consistent loss of channel regulation. These data are rapidly applicable to diagnostic strategies, as KIS is not identifiable from clinical features alone and thus should be molecularly diagnosed. Furthermore, our data suggests unique therapeutic strategies may be needed to address the specific functional consequences of KCNK9 variation on channel function and regulation.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem , Genótipo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular , Mutação , Fenótipo , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo
15.
Mov Disord ; 37(7): 1547-1554, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most reported patients carrying GNAO1 mutations showed a severe phenotype characterized by early-onset epileptic encephalopathy and/or chorea. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to characterize the clinical and genetic features of patients with mild GNAO1-related phenotype with prominent movement disorders. METHODS: We included patients diagnosed with GNAO1-related movement disorders of delayed onset (>2 years). Patients experiencing either severe or profound intellectual disability or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy were excluded. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients and 1 asymptomatic subject were included. All patients showed dystonia as prominent movement disorder. Dystonia was focal in 1, segmental in 6, multifocal in 4, and generalized in 13. Six patients showed adolescence or adulthood-onset dystonia. Seven patients presented with parkinsonism and 3 with myoclonus. Dysarthria was observed in 19 patients. Mild and moderate ID were present in 10 and 2 patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: We highlighted a mild GNAO1-related phenotype, including adolescent-onset dystonia, broadening the clinical spectrum of this condition. © 2022 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Distonia , Distúrbios Distônicos , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP , Transtornos dos Movimentos , Transtornos Parkinsonianos , Distonia/genética , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/genética , Fenótipo
16.
Brain ; 145(9): 3095-3107, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718349

RESUMO

The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are among the most genetically diverse of all Mendelian disorders. They comprise a large group of neurodegenerative diseases that may be divided into 'pure HSP' in forms of the disease primarily entailing progressive lower-limb weakness and spasticity, and 'complex HSP' when these features are accompanied by other neurological (or non-neurological) clinical signs. Here, we identified biallelic variants in the transmembrane protein 63C (TMEM63C) gene, encoding a predicted osmosensitive calcium-permeable cation channel, in individuals with hereditary spastic paraplegias associated with mild intellectual disability in some, but not all cases. Biochemical and microscopy analyses revealed that TMEM63C is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized protein, which is particularly enriched at mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum contact sites. Functional in cellula studies indicate a role for TMEM63C in regulating both endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial morphologies. Together, these findings identify autosomal recessive TMEM63C variants as a cause of pure and complex HSP and add to the growing evidence of a fundamental pathomolecular role of perturbed mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum dynamics in motor neurone degenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio , Mitocôndrias , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mutação , Paraplegia Espástica Hereditária/genética
17.
Genet Med ; 24(9): 1927-1940, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670808

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study we aimed to identify the molecular genetic cause of a progressive multisystem disease with prominent lipodystrophy. METHODS: In total, 5 affected individuals were investigated using exome sequencing. Dermal fibroblasts were characterized using RNA sequencing, proteomics, immunoblotting, immunostaining, and electron microscopy. Subcellular localization and rescue studies were performed. RESULTS: We identified a lipodystrophy phenotype with a typical facial appearance, corneal clouding, achalasia, progressive hearing loss, and variable severity. Although 3 individuals showed stunted growth, intellectual disability, and died within the first decade of life (A1, A2, and A3), 2 are adults with normal intellectual development (A4 and A5). All individuals harbored an identical homozygous nonsense variant affecting the retention and splicing complex component BUD13. The nucleotide substitution caused alternative splicing of BUD13 leading to a stable truncated protein whose expression positively correlated with disease expression and life expectancy. In dermal fibroblasts, we found elevated intron retention, a global reduction of spliceosomal proteins, and nuclei with multiple invaginations, which were more pronounced in A1, A2, and A3. Overexpression of both BUD13 isoforms normalized the nuclear morphology. CONCLUSION: Our results define a hitherto unknown syndrome and show that the alternative splice product converts a loss-of-function into a hypomorphic allele, thereby probably determining the severity of the disease and the survival of affected individuals.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Lipodistrofia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Íntrons , Lipodistrofia/genética , Splicing de RNA
18.
Genet Med ; 24(9): 1941-1951, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678782

RESUMO

PURPOSE: WNK3 kinase (PRKWNK3) has been implicated in the development and function of the brain via its regulation of the cation-chloride cotransporters, but the role of WNK3 in human development is unknown. METHOD: We ascertained exome or genome sequences of individuals with rare familial or sporadic forms of intellectual disability (ID). RESULTS: We identified a total of 6 different maternally-inherited, hemizygous, 3 loss-of-function or 3 pathogenic missense variants (p.Pro204Arg, p.Leu300Ser, p.Glu607Val) in WNK3 in 14 male individuals from 6 unrelated families. Affected individuals had ID with variable presence of epilepsy and structural brain defects. WNK3 variants cosegregated with the disease in 3 different families with multiple affected individuals. This included 1 large family previously diagnosed with X-linked Prieto syndrome. WNK3 pathogenic missense variants localize to the catalytic domain and impede the inhibitory phosphorylation of the neuronal-specific chloride cotransporter KCC2 at threonine 1007, a site critically regulated during the development of synaptic inhibition. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic WNK3 variants cause a rare form of human X-linked ID with variable epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities and implicate impaired phospho-regulation of KCC2 as a pathogenic mechanism.


Assuntos
Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Simportadores , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Hemizigoto , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fosforilação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/química , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
19.
Genet Med ; 24(7): 1583-1591, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: CTR9 is a subunit of the PAF1 complex (PAF1C) that plays a crucial role in transcription regulation by binding CTR9 to RNA polymerase II. It is involved in transcription-coupled histone modification through promoting H3K4 and H3K36 methylation. We describe the clinical and molecular studies in 13 probands, harboring likely pathogenic CTR9 missense variants, collected through GeneMatcher. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed in all individuals. CTR9 variants were assessed through 3-dimensional modeling of the activated human transcription complex Pol II-DSIF-PAF-SPT6 and the PAF1/CTR9 complex. H3K4/H3K36 methylation analysis, mitophagy assessment based on tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester perchlorate immunofluorescence, and RNA-sequencing in skin fibroblasts from 4 patients was performed. RESULTS: Common clinical findings were variable degrees of intellectual disability, hypotonia, joint hyperlaxity, speech delay, coordination problems, tremor, and autism spectrum disorder. Mild dysmorphism and cardiac anomalies were less frequent. For 11 CTR9 variants, de novo occurrence was shown. Three-dimensional modeling predicted a likely disruptive effect of the variants on local CTR9 structure and protein interaction. Additional studies in fibroblasts did not unveil the downstream functional consequences of the identified variants. CONCLUSION: We describe a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by (mainly) de novo variants in CTR9, likely affecting PAF1C function.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Fosfoproteínas , Fatores de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(19): 3325-3340, 2022 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35604360

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental disorder frequently caused by monogenic defects. In this study, we collected 14 SEMA6B heterozygous variants in 16 unrelated patients referred for ID to different centers. Whereas, until now, SEMA6B variants have mainly been reported in patients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy, our study indicates that the clinical spectrum is wider and also includes non-syndromic ID without epilepsy or myoclonus. To assess the pathogenicity of these variants, selected mutated forms of Sema6b were overexpressed in Human Embryonic Kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and in primary neuronal cultures. shRNAs targeting Sema6b were also used in neuronal cultures to measure the impact of the decreased Sema6b expression on morphogenesis and synaptogenesis. The overexpression of some variants leads to a subcellular mislocalization of SEMA6B protein in HEK293T cells and to a reduced spine density owing to loss of mature spines in neuronal cultures. Sema6b knockdown also impairs spine density and spine maturation. In addition, we conducted in vivo rescue experiments in chicken embryos with the selected mutated forms of Sema6b expressed in commissural neurons after knockdown of endogenous SEMA6B. We observed that expression of these variants in commissural neurons fails to rescue the normal axon pathway. In conclusion, identification of SEMA6B variants in patients presenting with an overlapping phenotype with ID and functional studies highlight the important role of SEMA6B in neuronal development, notably in spine formation and maturation and in axon guidance. This study adds SEMA6B to the list of ID-related genes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Deficiência Intelectual , Semaforinas , Animais , Orientação de Axônios , Embrião de Galinha , Espinhas Dendríticas , Epilepsia/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Semaforinas/genética
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