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1.
Genet Med ; 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Proline Rich 12 (PRR12) is a gene of unknown function with suspected DNA-binding activity, expressed in developing mice and human brains. Predicted loss-of-function variants in this gene are extremely rare, indicating high intolerance of haploinsufficiency. METHODS: Three individuals with intellectual disability and iris anomalies and truncating de novo PRR12 variants were described previously. We add 21 individuals with similar PRR12 variants identified via matchmaking platforms, bringing the total number to 24. RESULTS: We observed 12 frameshift, 6 nonsense, 1 splice-site, and 2 missense variants and one patient with a gross deletion involving PRR12. Three individuals had additional genetic findings, possibly confounding the phenotype. All patients had developmental impairment. Variable structural eye defects were observed in 12/24 individuals (50%) including anophthalmia, microphthalmia, colobomas, optic nerve and iris abnormalities. Additional common features included hypotonia (61%), heart defects (52%), growth failure (54%), and kidney anomalies (35%). PrediXcan analysis showed that phecodes most strongly associated with reduced predicted PRR12 expression were enriched for eye- (7/30) and kidney- (4/30) phenotypes, such as wet macular degeneration and chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSION: These findings support PRR12 haploinsufficiency as a cause for a novel disorder with a wide clinical spectrum marked chiefly by neurodevelopmental and eye abnormalities.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864376

RESUMO

The Polycomb group (PcG) gene RNF2 (RING2) encodes a catalytic subunit of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1), an evolutionarily conserved machinery that post-translationally modifies chromatin to maintain epigenetic transcriptional repressive states of target genes including Hox genes. Here, we describe two individuals, each with rare de novo missense variants in RNF2. Their phenotypes include intrauterine growth retardation, severe intellectual disabilities, behavioral problems, seizures, feeding difficulties and dysmorphic features. Population genomics data suggest that RNF2 is highly constrained for loss-of-function (LoF) and missense variants, and both p.R70H and p.S82R variants have not been reported to date. Structural analyses of the two alleles indicate that these changes likely impact the interaction between RNF2 and BMI1, another PRC1 subunit, or its substrate Histone H2A, respectively. Finally, we provide functional data in Drosophila that these two missense variants behave as LoF alleles in vivo. The evidence provide support for deleterious alleles in RNF2 being associated with a new and recognizable genetic disorder. This tentative gene-disease association in addition to the 12 previously identified disorders caused by PcG genes attests to the importance of these chromatin regulators in Mendelian disorders.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811134

RESUMO

De novo missense variants in KCNH1 encoding Kv10.1 are responsible for two clinically recognisable phenotypes: Temple-Baraitser syndrome (TBS) and Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS). The clinical overlap between these two syndromes suggests that they belong to a spectrum of KCNH1-related encephalopathies. Affected patients have severe intellectual disability (ID) with or without epilepsy, hypertrichosis and distinctive features such as gingival hyperplasia and nail hypoplasia/aplasia (present in 20/23 reported cases).We report a series of seven patients with ID and de novo pathogenic KCNH1 variants identified by whole-exome sequencing or an epilepsy gene panel in whom the diagnosis of TBS/ZLS had not been first considered. Four of these variants, p.(Thr294Met), p.(Ala492Asp), p.(Thr493Asn) and p.(Gly496Arg), were located in the transmembrane domains S3 and S6 of Kv10.1 and one, p.(Arg693Gln), in its C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain (CNBHD). Clinical reappraisal by the referring clinical geneticists confirmed the absence of the distinctive gingival and nail features of TBS/ZLS.Our study expands the phenotypical spectrum of KCNH1-related encephalopathies to individuals with an attenuated extraneurological phenotype preventing a clinical diagnosis of TBS or ZLS. This subtype may be related to recurrent substitutions of the Gly496, suggesting a genotype-phenotype correlation and, possibly, to variants in the CNBHD domain.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 739-748, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711248

RESUMO

Neurochondrin (NCDN) is a cytoplasmatic neural protein of importance for neural growth, glutamate receptor (mGluR) signaling, and synaptic plasticity. Conditional loss of Ncdn in mice neural tissue causes depressive-like behaviors, impaired spatial learning, and epileptic seizures. We report on NCDN missense variants in six affected individuals with variable degrees of developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), and seizures. Three siblings were found homozygous for a NCDN missense variant, whereas another three unrelated individuals carried different de novo missense variants in NCDN. We assayed the missense variants for their capability to rescue impaired neurite formation in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells depleted of NCDN. Overexpression of wild-type NCDN rescued the neurite-phenotype in contrast to expression of NCDN containing the variants of affected individuals. Two missense variants, associated with severe neurodevelopmental features and epilepsy, were unable to restore mGluR5-induced ERK phosphorylation. Electrophysiological analysis of SH-SY5Y cells depleted of NCDN exhibited altered membrane potential and impaired action potentials at repolarization, suggesting NCDN to be required for normal biophysical properties. Using available transcriptome data from human fetal cortex, we show that NCDN is highly expressed in maturing excitatory neurons. In combination, our data provide evidence that bi-allelic and de novo variants in NCDN cause a clinically variable form of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy, highlighting a critical role for NCDN in human brain development.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(4): 951-955, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675180

RESUMO

The role of genetics in the causation of cerebral palsy has become the focus of many studies aiming to unravel the heterogeneous etiology behind this frequent neurodevelopmental disorder. A recent paper reported two unrelated children with a clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy, who carried the same de novo c.1000G > A (p.Asp334Asn) variant in FBXO31, encoding a widely studied tumor suppressor not previously implicated in monogenic disease. We now identified a third individual with the recurrent FBXO31 de novo missense variant, featuring a spastic-dystonic phenotype. Our data confirm a link between variant FBXO31 and an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by prominent motor dysfunction.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754465

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing (HTS) improved the molecular diagnosis in individuals with intellectual deficiency (ID) and helped to broaden the phenotype of previously known disease-causing genes. We report herein four unrelated patients with isolated ID, carriers of a likely pathogenic variant in KCNQ2, a gene usually implicated in benign familial neonatal seizures (BFNS) or early onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). Patients were diagnosed by targeted HTS or exome sequencing. Pathogenicity of the variants was assessed by multiple in silico tools. Patients' ID ranged from mild to severe with predominance of speech disturbance and autistic features. Three of the four variants disrupted the same amino acid. Compiling all the pathogenic variants previously reported, we observed a strong overlap between variants causing EOEE, isolated ID, and BFNS and an important intra-familial phenotypic variability, although missense variants in the voltage-sensing domain and the pore are significantly associated to EOEE (p < 0.01, Fisher test). Thus, pathogenic variants in KCNQ2 can be associated with isolated ID. We did not highlight strong related genotype-phenotype correlations in KCNQ2-related disorders. A second genetic hit, a burden of rare variants, or other extrinsic factors may explain such a phenotypic variability. However, it is of interest to study encephalopathy genes in non-epileptic ID patients.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600053

RESUMO

ARHGEF9 defects lead to an X-linked intellectual disability disorder related to inhibitory synaptic dysfunction. This condition is more frequent in males, with a few affected females reported. Up to now, sequence variants and gross deletions have been identified in males, while only chromosomal aberrations have been reported in affected females who showed a skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), suggesting an X-linked recessive (XLR) disorder. We report three novel loss-of-function (LoF) variants in ARHGEF9: A de novo synonymous variant affecting splicing (NM_015185.2: c.1056G>A, p.(Lys352=)) in one female; a nonsense variant in another female (c.865C>T, p.(Arg289*)), that is, also present as a somatically mosaic variant in her father, and a de novo nonsense variant in a boy (c.899G>A; p.(Trp300*)). Both females showed a random XCI. Thus, we suggest that missense variants are responsible for an XLR disorder affecting males and that LoF variants, mainly occurring de novo, may be responsible for an X-linked dominant disorder affecting males and females.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 42(4): 473-486, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600043

RESUMO

Hypomagnesemia, seizures, and intellectual disability (HSMR) syndrome is a rare disorder caused by mutations in the cyclin M2 (CNNM2) gene. Due to the limited number of cases, extensive phenotype analyses of these patients have not been performed, hindering early recognition of patients. In this study, we established the largest cohort of HSMR to date, aiming to improve recognition and diagnosis of this complex disorder. Eleven novel variants in CNNM2 were identified in nine single sporadic cases and in two families with suspected HSMR syndrome. 25 Mg2+ uptake assays demonstrated loss-of-function in seven out of nine variants in CNNM2. Interestingly, the pathogenic mutations resulted in decreased plasma membrane expression. The phenotype of those affected by pathogenic CNNM2 mutations was compared with five previously reported cases of HSMR. All patients suffered from hypomagnesemia (0.44-0.72 mmol/L), which could not be fully corrected by Mg2+ supplementation. The majority of patients (77%) experienced generalized seizures and exhibited mild to moderate intellectual disability and speech delay. Moreover, severe obesity was present in most patients (89%). Our data establish hypomagnesemia, seizures, intellectual disability, and obesity as hallmarks of HSMR syndrome. The assessment of these major features offers a straightforward tool for the clinical diagnosis of HSMR.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(5): 1366-1378, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522091

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal limb anomalies (NEDDFL), defined primarily by developmental delay/intellectual disability, speech delay, postnatal microcephaly, and dysmorphic features, is a syndrome resulting from heterozygous variants in the dosage-sensitive bromodomain PHD finger chromatin remodeler transcription factor BPTF gene. To date, only 11 individuals with NEDDFL due to de novo BPTF variants have been described. To expand the NEDDFL phenotypic spectrum, we describe the clinical features in 25 novel individuals with 20 distinct, clinically relevant variants in BPTF, including four individuals with inherited changes in BPTF. In addition to the previously described features, individuals in this cohort exhibited mild brain abnormalities, seizures, scoliosis, and a variety of ophthalmologic complications. These results further support the broad and multi-faceted complications due to haploinsufficiency of BPTF.

13.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing, combined with international pooling of cases, has impressively enhanced the discovery of genes responsible for Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in individuals affected by clinically undiagnosed diseases. To date, biallelic missense variants in ZNF526 gene, encoding a Krüppel-type zinc-finger protein, have been reported in three families with non-syndromic intellectual disability. METHODS: Here, we describe five individuals from four unrelated families with an undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in which we performed exome sequencing, on a combination of trio-based (4 subjects) or single probands (1 subject). RESULTS: We identified five patients from four unrelated families with homozygous ZNF526 variants by whole exome sequencing. Four had variants resulting in truncation of ZNF526; they were affected by severe prenatal and postnatal microcephaly (ranging from -4 SD to -8 SD), profound psychomotor delay, hypertonic-dystonic movements, epilepsy and simplified gyral pattern on MRI. All of them also displayed bilateral progressive cataracts. A fifth patient had a homozygous missense variant and a slightly less severe disorder, with postnatal microcephaly (-2 SD), progressive bilateral cataracts, severe intellectual disability and unremarkable brain MRI.Mutant znf526 zebrafish larvae had notable malformations of the eye and central nervous system, resembling findings seen in the human holoprosencephaly spectrum. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the role of ZNF526 biallelic variants in a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting brain and eyes, resulting in severe microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern, epileptic encephalopathy and bilateral cataracts.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(4): 625-636, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437032

RESUMO

Witteveen-Kolk syndrome (OMIM 613406) is a recently defined neurodevelopmental syndrome caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in SIN3A. We define the clinical and neurodevelopmental phenotypes related to SIN3A-haploinsufficiency in 28 unreported patients. Patients with SIN3A variants adversely affecting protein function have mild intellectual disability, growth and feeding difficulties. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team including a geneticist, paediatrician and neurologist should be considered in managing these patients. Patients described here were identified through a combination of clinical evaluation and gene matching strategies (GeneMatcher and Decipher). All patients consented to participate in this study. Mean age of this cohort was 8.2 years (17 males, 11 females). Out of 16 patients ≥ 8 years old assessed, eight (50%) had mild intellectual disability (ID), four had moderate ID (22%), and one had severe ID (6%). Four (25%) did not have any cognitive impairment. Other neurological symptoms such as seizures (4/28) and hypotonia (12/28) were common. Behaviour problems were reported in a minority. In patients ≥2 years, three were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and four with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We report 27 novel variants and one previously reported variant. 24 were truncating variants; three were missense variants and one large in-frame gain including exons 10-12.

15.
Neurology ; 96(11): e1539-e1550, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotypic spectrum of RHOBTB2-related disorders and specifically to determine whether patients fulfill criteria for alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), we report the clinical features of 11 affected individuals. METHODS: Individuals with RHOBTB2-related disorders were identified through a movement disorder clinic at a specialist pediatric center, with additional cases identified through collaboration with other centers internationally. Clinical data were acquired through retrospective case-note review. RESULTS: Eleven affected patients were identified. All had heterozygous missense variants involving exon 9 of RHOBTB2, confirmed as de novo in 9 cases. All had a complex motor phenotype, including at least 2 different kinds of movement disorder, e.g., ataxia and dystonia. Many patients demonstrated several features fulfilling the criteria for AHC: 10 patients had a movement disorder including paroxysmal elements, and 8 experienced hemiplegic episodes. In contrast to classic AHC, commonly caused by mutations in ATP1A3, these events were reported later only in RHOBTB2 mutation-positive patients from 20 months of age. Seven patients had epilepsy, but of these, 4 patients achieved seizure freedom. All patients had intellectual disability, usually moderate to severe. Other features include episodes of marked skin color change and gastrointestinal symptoms, each in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: Although heterozygous RHOBTB2 mutations were originally described in early infantile epileptic encephalopathy type 64, our study confirms that they account for a more expansive clinical phenotype, including a complex polymorphic movement disorder with paroxysmal elements resembling AHC. RHOBTB2 testing should therefore be considered in patients with an AHC-like phenotype, particularly those negative for ATPA1A3 mutations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Hemiplegia/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Invest ; 131(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497358

RESUMO

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is the most frequent developmental anomaly of the enteric nervous system, with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is less frequent and classified as neurogenic or myogenic. Isolated HSCR has an oligogenic inheritance with RET as the major disease-causing gene, while CIPO is genetically heterogeneous, caused by mutations in smooth muscle-specific genes. Here, we describe a series of patients with developmental disorders including gastrointestinal dysmotility, and investigate the underlying molecular bases. Trio-exome sequencing led to the identification of biallelic variants in ERBB3 and ERBB2 in 8 individuals variably associating HSCR, CIPO, peripheral neuropathy, and arthrogryposis. Thorough gut histology revealed aganglionosis, hypoganglionosis, and intestinal smooth muscle abnormalities. The cell type-specific ErbB3 and ErbB2 function was further analyzed in mouse single-cell RNA sequencing data and in a conditional ErbB3-deficient mouse model, revealing a primary role for ERBB3 in enteric progenitors. The consequences of the identified variants were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) on patient-derived fibroblasts or immunoblot assays on Neuro-2a cells overexpressing WT or mutant proteins, revealing either decreased expression or altered phosphorylation of the mutant receptors. Our results demonstrate that dysregulation of ERBB3 or ERBB2 leads to a broad spectrum of developmental anomalies, including intestinal dysmotility.

18.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5(1): 53, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298948

RESUMO

USP9X is an X-chromosome gene that escapes X-inactivation. Loss or compromised function of USP9X leads to neurodevelopmental disorders in males and females. While males are impacted primarily by hemizygous partial loss-of-function missense variants, in females de novo heterozygous complete loss-of-function mutations predominate, and give rise to the clinically recognisable USP9X-female syndrome. Here we provide evidence of the contribution of USP9X missense and small in-frame deletion variants in USP9X-female syndrome also. We scrutinise the pathogenicity of eleven such variants, ten of which were novel. Combined application of variant prediction algorithms, protein structure modelling, and assessment under clinically relevant guidelines universally support their pathogenicity. The core phenotype of this cohort overlapped with previous descriptions of USP9X-female syndrome, but exposed heightened variability. Aggregate phenotypic information of 35 currently known females with predicted pathogenic variation in USP9X reaffirms the clinically recognisable USP9X-female syndrome, and highlights major differences when compared to USP9X-male associated neurodevelopmental disorders.

19.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299146

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimsed to provide a comprehensive description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of SNAP25 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SNAP25-DEE) by reviewing newly identified and previously reported individuals. METHODS: Individuals harboring heterozygous missense or loss-of-function variants in SNAP25 were assembled through collaboration with international colleagues, matchmaking platforms, and literature review. For each individual, detailed phenotyping, classification, and structural modeling of the identified variant were performed. RESULTS: The cohort comprises 23 individuals with pathogenic or likely pathogenic de novo variants in SNAP25. Intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy were identified as the core symptoms of SNAP25-DEE, with recurrent findings of movement disorders, cerebral visual impairment, and brain atrophy. Structural modeling for all variants predicted possible functional defects concerning SNAP25 or impaired interaction with other components of the SNARE complex. CONCLUSION: We provide a comprehensive description of SNAP25-DEE with intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy mostly occurring before the age of two years. These core symptoms and additional recurrent phenotypes show an overlap to genes encoding other components or associated proteins of the SNARE complex such as STX1B, STXBP1, or VAMP2. Thus, these findings advance the concept of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that may be termed "SNAREopathies."

20.
Sci Adv ; 6(49)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268356

RESUMO

Although somatic mutations in Histone 3.3 (H3.3) are well-studied drivers of oncogenesis, the role of germline mutations remains unreported. We analyze 46 patients bearing de novo germline mutations in histone 3 family 3A (H3F3A) or H3F3B with progressive neurologic dysfunction and congenital anomalies without malignancies. Molecular modeling of all 37 variants demonstrated clear disruptions in interactions with DNA, other histones, and histone chaperone proteins. Patient histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) analysis revealed notably aberrant local PTM patterns distinct from the somatic lysine mutations that cause global PTM dysregulation. RNA sequencing on patient cells demonstrated up-regulated gene expression related to mitosis and cell division, and cellular assays confirmed an increased proliferative capacity. A zebrafish model showed craniofacial anomalies and a defect in Foxd3-derived glia. These data suggest that the mechanism of germline mutations are distinct from cancer-associated somatic histone mutations but may converge on control of cell proliferation.

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