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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926053

RESUMO

Developmental and Epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) describe heterogeneous epilepsy syndromes, characterized by early-onset, refractory seizures and developmental delay (DD). Several DEE associated genes have been reported. With increased access to whole exome sequencing (WES), new candidate genes are being identified although there are fewer large cohort papers describing the clinical phenotype in such patients. We describe 6 unreported individuals and provide updated information on an additional previously reported individual with heterozygous de novo missense variants in YWHAG. We describe a syndromal phenotype, report 5 novel, and a recurrent p.Arg132Cys YWHAG variant and compare developmental trajectory and treatment strategies in this cohort. We provide further evidence of causality in YWHAG variants. WES was performed in five patients via Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study and the remaining two were identified via Genematcher and AnnEX databases. De novo variants identified from exome data were validated using Sanger sequencing. Seven out of seven patients in the cohort have de novo, heterozygous missense variants in YWHAG including 2/7 patients with a recurrent c.394C > T, p.Arg132Cys variant; 1/7 has a second, pathogenic variant in STAG1. Characteristic features included: early-onset seizures, predominantly generalized tonic-clonic and absence type (7/7) with good response to standard anti-epileptic medications; moderate DD; Intellectual Disability (ID) (5/7) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (3/7). De novo YWHAG missense variants cause EE, characterized by early-onset epilepsy, ID and DD, supporting the hypothesis that YWHAG loss-of-function causes a neurological phenotype. Although the exact mechanism of disease resulting from alterations in YWHAG is not fully known, it is possible that haploinsufficiency of YWHAG in developing cerebral cortex may lead to abnormal neuronal migration resulting in DEE.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928709

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in chromatin-modifying enzymes are a common cause of pediatric developmental disorders. These enzymes catalyze reactions that regulate epigenetic inheritance via histone post-translational modifications and DNA methylation. Cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine [5mC]) of DNA is the quintessential epigenetic mark, yet no human Mendelian disorder of DNA demethylation has yet been delineated. Here, we describe in detail a Mendelian disorder caused by the disruption of DNA demethylation. TET3 is a methylcytosine dioxygenase that initiates DNA demethylation during early zygote formation, embryogenesis, and neuronal differentiation and is intolerant to haploinsufficiency in mice and humans. We identify and characterize 11 cases of human TET3 deficiency in eight families with the common phenotypic features of intellectual disability and/or global developmental delay; hypotonia; autistic traits; movement disorders; growth abnormalities; and facial dysmorphism. Mono-allelic frameshift and nonsense variants in TET3 occur throughout the coding region. Mono-allelic and bi-allelic missense variants localize to conserved residues; all but one such variant occur within the catalytic domain, and most display hypomorphic function in an assay of catalytic activity. TET3 deficiency and other Mendelian disorders of the epigenetic machinery show substantial phenotypic overlap, including features of intellectual disability and abnormal growth, underscoring shared disease mechanisms.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1237-1253, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785787

RESUMO

We report an early-onset autosomal-recessive neurological disease with cerebellar atrophy and lysosomal dysfunction. We identified bi-allelic loss-of-function (LoF) variants in Oxidative Resistance 1 (OXR1) in five individuals from three families; these individuals presented with a history of severe global developmental delay, current intellectual disability, language delay, cerebellar atrophy, and seizures. While OXR1 is known to play a role in oxidative stress resistance, its molecular functions are not well established. OXR1 contains three conserved domains: LysM, GRAM, and TLDc. The gene encodes at least six transcripts, including some that only consist of the C-terminal TLDc domain. We utilized Drosophila to assess the phenotypes associated with loss of mustard (mtd), the fly homolog of OXR1. Strong LoF mutants exhibit late pupal lethality or pupal eclosion defects. Interestingly, although mtd encodes 26 transcripts, severe LoF and null mutations can be rescued by a single short human OXR1 cDNA that only contains the TLDc domain. Similar rescue is observed with the TLDc domain of NCOA7, another human homolog of mtd. Loss of mtd in neurons leads to massive cell loss, early death, and an accumulation of aberrant lysosomal structures, similar to what we observe in fibroblasts of affected individuals. Our data indicate that mtd and OXR1 are required for proper lysosomal function; this is consistent with observations that NCOA7 is required for lysosomal acidification.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824749

RESUMO

Background: Genes involved in Tourette syndrome (TS) remain largely unknown. We aimed to identify genetic factors contributing to TS in a French cohort of 120 individuals using a combination of hypothesis-driven and exome-sequencing approaches. Methods: We first sequenced exons of SLITRK1-6 and HDC in the TS cohort and subsequently sequenced the exome of 12 individuals harboring rare variants in these genes to find additional rare variants contributing to the disorder under the hypothesis of oligogenic inheritance. We further screened three candidate genes (OPRK1, PCDH10, and NTSR2) preferentially expressed in the basal ganglia, and three additional genes involved in neurotensin and opioid signaling (OPRM1, NTS, and NTSR1), and compared variant frequencies in TS patients and 788 matched control individuals. We also investigated the impact of altering the expression of Oprk1 in zebrafish. Results: Thirteen ultrarare missense variants of SLITRK1-6 and HDC were identified in 12 patients. Exome sequencing in these patients revealed rare possibly deleterious variants in 3,041 genes, 54 of which were preferentially expressed in the basal ganglia. Comparison of variant frequencies altering selected candidate genes in TS and control individuals revealed an excess of potentially disrupting variants in OPRK1, encoding the opioid kappa receptor, in TS patients. Accordingly, we show that downregulation of the Oprk1 orthologue in zebrafish induces a hyperkinetic phenotype in early development. Discussion: These results support a heterogeneous and complex genetic etiology of TS, possibly involving rare variants altering the opioid pathway in some individuals, which could represent a novel therapeutic target in this disorder.

5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883306

RESUMO

The non-POU domain containing, octamer-binding gene, NONO, is located on chromosome Xq13.1 and encodes a member of a small family of RNA and DNA binding proteins that perform a variety of tasks involved in RNA synthesis, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Hemizygous loss-of-function variants in NONO have been shown to cause mental retardation, X-linked, syndromic 34 in males. Features of this disorder can include a range of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), congenital heart defects, and CNS anomalies. To date only eight cases have been described in the literature. Here we report two unrelated patients and a miscarried fetus with loss-of-function variants in NONO. Their phenotypes, and a review of previously reported cases, demonstrate that hemizygous loss-of-function variants in NONO cause a recognizable genetic syndrome. The cardinal features of this condition include developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, macrocephaly, structural abnormalities affecting the corpus callosum and/or cerebellum, LVNC, congenital heart defects, and gastrointestinal/feeding issues. This syndrome also carries an increased risk for strabismus and cryptorchidism and is associated with dysmorphic features that include an elongated face, up/down-slanted palpebral fissures, frontal bossing, and malar hypoplasia.

6.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845318

RESUMO

The guanine exchange factor subunit eEF1Bα encoded by the EEF1B2 gene belongs to the eukaryotic elongation translational machinery. Pathogen variants in genes of the translational machinery have been associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. However, only one family of three siblings with intellectual disability (ID) has been reported so far with a homozygous variant in EEF1B2. Here, we report a second family with a novel homozygous loss of function (LoF) variant p.(Ser128*), carried by two siblings with moderate ID and seizures. Our findings confirm the role of EEF1B2 variants in the pathogenesis of autosomal-recessive ID, expand the variant spectrum and precisely describe the clinical consequences of the LoF of EEF1B2.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(6): 1126-1147, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735293

RESUMO

The redox state of the neural progenitors regulates physiological processes such as neuronal differentiation and dendritic and axonal growth. The relevance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated oxidoreductases in these processes is largely unexplored. We describe a severe neurological disorder caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in thioredoxin (TRX)-related transmembrane-2 (TMX2); these variants were detected by exome sequencing in 14 affected individuals from ten unrelated families presenting with congenital microcephaly, cortical polymicrogyria, and other migration disorders. TMX2 encodes one of the five TMX proteins of the protein disulfide isomerase family, hitherto not linked to human developmental brain disease. Our mechanistic studies on protein function show that TMX2 localizes to the ER mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), is involved in posttranslational modification and protein folding, and undergoes physical interaction with the MAM-associated and ER folding chaperone calnexin and ER calcium pump SERCA2. These interactions are functionally relevant because TMX2-deficient fibroblasts show decreased mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity and compensatory increased glycolytic activity. Intriguingly, under basal conditions TMX2 occurs in both reduced and oxidized monomeric form, while it forms a stable dimer under treatment with hydrogen peroxide, recently recognized as a signaling molecule in neural morphogenesis and axonal pathfinding. Exogenous expression of the pathogenic TMX2 variants or of variants with an in vitro mutagenized TRX domain induces a constitutive TMX2 polymerization, mimicking an increased oxidative state. Altogether these data uncover TMX2 as a sensor in the MAM-regulated redox signaling pathway and identify it as a key adaptive regulator of neuronal proliferation, migration, and organization in the developing brain.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

10.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lamb-Shaffer syndrome (LAMSHF) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in just over two dozen patients with heterozygous genetic alterations involving SOX5, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating cell fate and differentiation in neurogenesis and other discrete developmental processes. The genetic alterations described so far are mainly microdeletions. The present study was aimed at increasing our understanding of LAMSHF, its clinical and genetic spectrum, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: Clinical and genetic data were collected through GeneMatcher and clinical or genetic networks for 41 novel patients harboring various types ofSOX5 alterations. Functional consequences of selected substitutions were investigated. RESULTS: Microdeletions and truncating variants occurred throughout SOX5. In contrast, most missense variants clustered in the pivotal SOX-specific high-mobility-group domain. The latter variants prevented SOX5 from binding DNA and promoting transactivation in vitro, whereas missense variants located outside the high-mobility-group domain did not. Clinical manifestations and severity varied among patients. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were found, except that missense variants outside the high-mobility-group domain were generally better tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends the clinical and genetic spectrum associated with LAMSHF and consolidates evidence that SOX5 haploinsufficiency leads to variable degrees of intellectual disability, language delay, and other clinical features.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.

12.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 103777, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580924

RESUMO

Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked syndromic intellectual disability condition caused by variants in the spermine synthase gene (SMS). The syndrome is characterized by facial dysmorphism, thin body build, kyphoscoliosis, osteoporosis, hypotonia, developmental delay and associated neurological features (seizures, unsteady gait, abnormal speech). Until now, only missense variants with a functionally characterized partial loss of function (LoF) have been described. Here we describe the first complete LoF variant, Met303Lysfs*, in a male patient with a severe form of Snyder-Robinson syndrome. He presented with multiple malformations and severly delayed development, and died at 4 months of age. Functional in vitro assays showed a complete absence of functional SMS protein. Taken together, our findings and those of previously reported patients confirm that pathogenic variants of SMS are indeed LoF and that there might exist a genotype-phenotype correlation between the type of variant and the severity of the syndrome.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4920, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664034

RESUMO

Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy (FAME) is characterised by cortical myoclonic tremor usually from the second decade of life and overt myoclonic or generalised tonic-clonic seizures. Four independent loci have been implicated in FAME on chromosomes (chr) 2, 3, 5 and 8. Using whole genome sequencing and repeat primed PCR, we provide evidence that chr2-linked FAME (FAME2) is caused by an expansion of an ATTTC pentamer within the first intron of STARD7. The ATTTC expansions segregate in 158/158 individuals typically affected by FAME from 22 pedigrees including 16 previously reported families recruited worldwide. RNA sequencing from patient derived fibroblasts shows no accumulation of the AUUUU or AUUUC repeat sequences and STARD7 gene expression is not affected. These data, in combination with other genes bearing similar mutations that have been implicated in FAME, suggest ATTTC expansions may cause this disorder, irrespective of the genomic locus involved.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4919, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664039

RESUMO

Familial Adult Myoclonic Epilepsy (FAME) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by cortical tremor and seizures. Intronic TTTTA/TTTCA repeat expansions in SAMD12 (FAME1) are the main cause of FAME in Asia. Using genome sequencing and repeat-primed PCR, we identify another site of this repeat expansion, in MARCH6 (FAME3) in four European families. Analysis of single DNA molecules with nanopore sequencing and molecular combing show that expansions range from 3.3 to 14 kb on average. However, we observe considerable variability in expansion length and structure, supporting the existence of multiple expansion configurations in blood cells and fibroblasts of the same individual. Moreover, the largest expansions are associated with micro-rearrangements occurring near the expansion in 20% of cells. This study provides further evidence that FAME is caused by intronic TTTTA/TTTCA expansions in distinct genes and reveals that expansions exhibit an unexpectedly high somatic instability that can ultimately result in genomic rearrangements.

15.
Epilepsia ; 60(11): e121-e127, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631344

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in GNB5 cause an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with neonatal sinus bradycardia. Seizures or epilepsy occurred in 10 of 22 previously reported cases, including 6 children from one family. We delineate the epileptology of GNB5 encephalopathy. Our nine patients, including five new patients, were from seven families. Epileptic spasms were the most frequent seizure type, occurring in eight of nine patients, and began at a median age of 3 months (2 months to 3 years). Focal seizures preceded spasms in three children, with onset at 7 days, 11 days, and 4 months. One child presented with convulsive status epilepticus at 6 months. Three children had burst suppression on electroencephalography (EEG), three had hypsarrhythmia, and one evolved from burst suppression to hypsarrhythmia. Background slowing was present in all after age 3 years. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral atrophy in one child and cerebellar atrophy in another. All nine had abnormal development prior to seizure onset and ultimately had profound impairment without regression. Hypotonia was present in all, with contractures developing in two older patients. All individuals had biallelic pathogenic variants in GNB5, predicted by in silico tools to result in protein truncation and loss-of-function. GNB5 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy is characterized by epileptic spasms, focal seizures, and profound impairment.

16.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 181(4): 509-518, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31643139

RESUMO

The common genes responsible for overgrowth syndromes play key roles in regulating transcription through histone modification and chromatin modeling. The SETD2 gene encoding a H3K36 trimethyltransferase is implicated in Sotos-like syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by postnatal overgrowth, macrocephaly, obesity, speech delay, and advanced carpal ossification. We report four new patients with constitutional SETD2 mutations and review nine earlier reported patients. Almost all patients presented with macrocephaly associated with advanced stature and obesity in half of the cases. In addition to these principal manifestations, neurodevelopmental disorders are common such as intellectual disability (83%), autism spectrum disorders (89%), and behavioral difficulties (100%) with aggressive outbursts (83%). A variety of features such as joint hypermobility (29%), hirsutism (33%), and naevi (50%) were also reported. Constitutional SETD2 mutations are intragenic loss-of-function variants with truncating (69%) and missense (31%) mutations. Functional studies are necessary to improve understanding of the pathogenicity of some missense SETD2 mutations.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413903

RESUMO

Background: KIF1C (Kinesin Family Member 1C) variants have been associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia and spastic ataxia. Case report: We report fraternal twins presenting with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. Their brain MRI showed a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous KIF1C variant in both patients. Discussion: KIF1C variants can manifest as a complex movement disorder with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. KIF1C variants may also cause a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy.

19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

20.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

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