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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609510

RESUMO

Understanding the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process within the global range is important for revealing the budget of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts. We investigated the seasonal characteristics of NPF in the urban environment of Beijing. Aerosol size distributions down to ∼1 nm and H2SO4 concentration were measured during 2018-2019. The observed formation rate of 1.5 nm particles (J1.5) is significantly higher than those in the clean environment, e.g., Hyytiälä, whereas the growth rate is not significantly different. Both J1.5 and NPF frequency in urban Beijing show a clear seasonal variation with maxima in winter and minima in summer, while the observed growth rates are generally within the same range around the year. We show that ambient temperature is a governing factor driving the seasonal variation of J1.5. In contrast, the condensation sink and the daily maximum H2SO4 concentration show no significant seasonal variation during the NPF periods. In all four seasons, condensation of H2SO4 and (H2SO4)n(amine)n clusters contributes significantly to the growth rates in the sub-3 nm size range, whereas it is less important for the observed growth rates of particles above 3 nm. Therefore, other species are always needed for the growth of larger particles.

2.
Nat Protoc ; 15(3): 1013-1040, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051616

RESUMO

Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), which is observed in many environments globally, is an important source of boundary-layer aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei, which affect both the climate and human health. To better understand the mechanisms behind NPF, chamber experiments can be used to simulate this phenomenon under well-controlled conditions. Recent advancements in instrumentation have made it possible to directly detect the first steps of NPF of molecular clusters (~1-2 nm in diameter) and to calculate quantities such as the formation and growth rates of these clusters. Whereas previous studies reported particle formation rates as the flux of particles across a specified particle diameter or calculated them from measurements of larger particle sizes, this protocol outlines methods to directly quantify particle dynamics for cluster sizes. Here, we describe the instrumentation and analysis methods needed to quantify particle dynamics during NPF of sub-3-nm aerosol particles in chamber experiments. The methods described in this protocol can be used to make results from different chamber experiments comparable. The experimental setup, collection and post-processing of the data, and thus completion of this protocol, take from months up to years, depending on the chamber facility, experimental plan and level of expertise. Use of this protocol requires engineering capabilities and expertise in data analysis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Aerossóis , Tamanho da Partícula
3.
Environ Int ; 134: 105283, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743806

RESUMO

In the last decade, North China (NC) has been one of the most populated and polluted regions in the world. The regional air pollution has had a serious impact on people's health; thus, all levels of government have implemented various pollution prevention measures since 2013. Based on multi-city in situ environmental and meteorological data, as well as the meteorological reanalysis dataset from 2013 to 2017, regional pollution characteristics and meteorological formation mechanisms were analyzed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of PM2.5 in NC. The domain-averaged PM2.5 was 79 ±â€¯17 µg m-3 from 2013 to 2017, with a decreasing rate of 10 µg m-3 yr-1. Two automatic computer algorithms were established to identify 6 daily regional pollution types (DRPTs) and 48 persistent regional pollution events (PRPEs) over NC during 2014-2017. The average PM2.5 concentration for the Large-Region-Pollution type (including the Large-Moderate-Region-Pollution and Large-Severe-Region-Pollution types) was 113 ±â€¯40 µg m-3, and more than half of Large-Region-Pollution days and PRPEs occurred in winter. The PRPEs in NC mainly developed from the area south of Hebei. The number of Large-Region-Pollution days decreased notably from 2014 to 2017, the annual number of days varying between 194 and 97 days, whereas a slight decline was observed in winter. In addition, the averaged PM2.5 concentrations and the numbers and durations of the PRPEs decreased. Lamb-Jenkinson weather typing was used to reveal the impact of synoptic circulations on PM2.5 across NC. Generally, the contributions of the variations in circulation to the reduction in PM2.5 levels over NC between 2013 and 2017 were 64% and 45% in summer and winter, respectively. The three most highly polluted weather types were types C, S and E, with an average PM2.5 concentration of 137 ±â€¯40 µg m-3 in winter. Furthermore, three typical circulation dynamics were categorized in the peak stage of the PRPEs, namely, the southerly airflow pattern, the northerly airflow pattern and anticyclone pattern; the averaged relative humidity, recirculation index, wind speed and boundary layer height were 63%, 0.33, 2.0 m s-1 and 493 m, respectively. Our results imply that additional emission reduction measures should be implemented under unfavorable meteorological situations to attain ambient air quality standards in the future.

4.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaau5363, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547087

RESUMO

A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NO x suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.

5.
J Chem Phys ; 149(12): 124201, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278677

RESUMO

The Finnish Meteorological Institute-Aerosol Cloud Interaction Tube (FMI-ACIT) is a multi-purpose instrument for investigating atmospherically relevant interactions between aerosol particles and water vapor under defined laboratory conditions. This work introduces an experimental setup of FMI-ACIT for investigation of the aerosol activation and the droplet growth under supersaturated conditions. Several simulations and experimental tests were conducted to find out what the proper operational parameters are. To verify the ability of FMI-ACIT to perform as a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter, activation experiments were executed using size selected ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] particles in the size range of 10-300 nm. Supersaturations from 0.18% to 1.25% were tested by experiments with different temperature gradients. Those showed that FMI-ACIT can effectively measure CCN in this range. Measured droplet size distributions at supersaturations 0.18% and 1.25% are in good agreement with those determined by a droplet growth model.

6.
Science ; 361(6399): 278-281, 2018 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026225

RESUMO

Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important global phenomenon that is nevertheless sensitive to ambient conditions. According to both observation and theoretical arguments, NPF usually requires a relatively high sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentration to promote the formation of new particles and a low preexisting aerosol loading to minimize the sink of new particles. We investigated NPF in Shanghai and were able to observe both precursor vapors (H2SO4) and initial clusters at a molecular level in a megacity. High NPF rates were observed to coincide with several familiar markers suggestive of H2SO4-dimethylamine (DMA)-water (H2O) nucleation, including sulfuric acid dimers and H2SO4-DMA clusters. In a cluster kinetics simulation, the observed concentration of sulfuric acid was high enough to explain the particle growth to ~3 nanometers under the very high condensation sink, whereas the subsequent higher growth rate beyond this size is believed to result from the added contribution of condensing organic species. These findings will help in understanding urban NPF and its air quality and climate effects, as well as in formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in China.

7.
Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaar5218, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707638

RESUMO

A substantial fraction of aerosols, which affect air quality and climate, is formed from gaseous precursors. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) are essential to grow the newly formed particles and have been evidenced to initiate ion-induced nucleation in chamber experiments in the absence of sulfuric acid. We investigate this phenomenon in the real atmosphere using an extensive set of state-of-the-art ion and mass spectrometers deployed in a boreal forest environment. We show that within a few hours around sunset, HOMs resulting from the oxidation of monoterpenes are capable of forming and growing ion clusters even under low sulfuric acid levels. In these conditions, we hypothesize that the lack of photochemistry and essential vapors prevents the organic clusters from growing past 6 nm. However, this phenomenon might have been a major source of particles in the preindustrial atmosphere and might also contribute to particle formation in the future and consequently affect the climate.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/análise , Íons/análise , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar , Clima , Monoterpenos/análise , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45707, 2017 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28374761

RESUMO

Solar eclipses provide unique possibilities to investigate atmospheric processes, such as new particle formation (NPF), important to the global aerosol load and radiative balance. The temporary absence of solar radiation gives particular insight into different oxidation and clustering processes leading to NPF. This is crucial because our mechanistic understanding on how NPF is related to photochemistry is still rather limited. During a partial solar eclipse over Finland in 2015, we found that this phenomenon had prominent effects on atmospheric on-going NPF. During the eclipse, the sources of aerosol precursor gases, such as sulphuric acid and nitrogen- containing highly oxidised organic compounds, decreased considerably, which was followed by a reduced formation of small clusters and nanoparticles and thus termination of NPF. After the eclipse, aerosol precursor molecule concentrations recovered and re-initiated NPF. Our results provide direct evidence on the key role of the photochemical production of sulphuric acid and highly oxidized organic compounds in maintaining atmospheric NPF. Our results also explain the rare occurrence of this phenomenon under dark conditions, as well as its seemingly weak connection with atmospheric ions.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 584-585: 426-447, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28126285

RESUMO

China is one of the regions with highest PM2.5 concentration in the world. In this study, we review the spatio-temporal distribution of PM2.5 mass concentration and components in China and the effect of control measures on PM2.5 concentrations. Annual averaged PM2.5 concentrations in Central-Eastern China reached over 100µgm-3, in some regions even over 150µgm-3. In 2013, only 4.1% of the cities attained the annual average standard of 35µgm-3. Aitken mode particles tend to dominate the total particle number concentration. Depending on the location and time of the year, new particle formation (NPF) has been observed to take place between about 10 and 60% of the days. In most locations, NPF was less frequent at high PM mass loadings. The secondary inorganic particles (i.e., sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) ranked the highest fraction among the PM2.5 species, followed by organic matters (OM), crustal species and element carbon (EC), which accounted for 6-50%, 15-51%, 5-41% and 2-12% of PM2.5, respectively. In response to serious particulate matter pollution, China has taken aggressive steps to improve air quality in the last decade. As a result, the national emissions of primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOX) have been decreasing since 2005, 2006, and 2011, respectively. The emission control policies implemented in the last decade could result in noticeable reduction in PM2.5 concentrations, contributing to the decreasing PM2.5 trends observed in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. However, the control policies issued before 2010 are insufficient to improve PM2.5 air quality notably in future. An optimal mix of energy-saving and end-of-pipe control measures should be implemented, more ambitious control policies for NMVOC and NH3 should be enforced, and special control measures in winter should be applied. 40-70% emissions should be cut off to attain PM2.5 standard.

11.
Nature ; 537(7621): 532-534, 2016 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580030

RESUMO

Homogeneous nucleation and subsequent cluster growth leads to the formation of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The nucleation of sulfuric acid and organic vapours is thought to be responsible for the formation of new particles over continents, whereas iodine oxide vapours have been implicated in particle formation over coastal regions. The molecular clustering pathways that are involved in atmospheric particle formation have been elucidated in controlled laboratory studies of chemically simple systems, but direct molecular-level observations of nucleation in atmospheric field conditions that involve sulfuric acid, organic or iodine oxide vapours have yet to be reported. Here we present field data from Mace Head, Ireland, and supporting data from northern Greenland and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, that enable us to identify the molecular steps involved in new particle formation in an iodine-rich, coastal atmospheric environment. We find that the formation and initial growth process is almost exclusively driven by iodine oxoacids and iodine oxide vapours, with average oxygen-to-iodine ratios of 2.4 found in the clusters. On the basis of this high ratio, together with the high concentrations of iodic acid (HIO3) observed, we suggest that cluster formation primarily proceeds by sequential addition of HIO3, followed by intracluster restructuring to I2O5 and recycling of water either in the atmosphere or on dehydration. Our study provides ambient atmospheric molecular-level observations of nucleation, supporting the previously suggested role of iodine-containing species in the formation of new aerosol particles, and identifies the key nucleating compound.

12.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11594, 2016 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27197574

RESUMO

The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a coherent framework and discuss their significance in the atmosphere.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(23): 7123-8, 2015 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26015574

RESUMO

Oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have a major influence on the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden and the production of atmospheric nanoparticles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigate the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) from O3 and OH radical oxidation of several monoterpenes and isoprene in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that ELVOC from all precursors are formed within the first minute after the initial attack of an oxidant. We demonstrate that under atmospherically relevant concentrations, species with an endocyclic double bond efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis, whereas the yields from OH radical-initiated reactions are smaller. If the double bond is exocyclic or the compound itself is acyclic, ozonolysis produces less ELVOC and the role of the OH radical-initiated ELVOC formation is increased. Isoprene oxidation produces marginal quantities of ELVOC regardless of the oxidant. Implementing our laboratory findings into a global modeling framework shows that biogenic SOA formation in general, and ELVOC in particular, play crucial roles in atmospheric CCN production. Monoterpene oxidation products enhance atmospheric new particle formation and growth in most continental regions, thereby increasing CCN concentrations, especially at high values of cloud supersaturation. Isoprene-derived SOA tends to suppress atmospheric new particle formation, yet it assists the growth of sub-CCN-size primary particles to CCN. Taking into account compound specific monoterpene emissions has a moderate effect on the modeled global CCN budget.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Atmosfera , Modelos Teóricos , Ozônio/química
15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(52): 14596-600, 2014 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354339

RESUMO

Gas-phase oxidation routes of biogenic emissions, mainly isoprene and monoterpenes, in the atmosphere are still the subject of intensive research with special attention being paid to the formation of aerosol constituents. This laboratory study shows that the most abundant monoterpenes (limonene and α-pinene) form highly oxidized RO2 radicals with up to 12 O atoms, along with related closed-shell products, within a few seconds after the initial attack of ozone or OH radicals. The overall process, an intramolecular ROO→QOOH reaction and subsequent O2 addition generating a next R'OO radical, is similar to the well-known autoxidation processes in the liquid phase (QOOH stands for a hydroperoxyalkyl radical). Field measurements show the relevance of this process to atmospheric chemistry. Thus, the well-known reaction principle of autoxidation is also applicable to the atmospheric gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons leading to extremely low-volatility products which contribute to organic aerosol mass and hence influence the aerosol-cloud-climate system.

16.
Sci Rep ; 4: 6634, 2014 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25319109

RESUMO

Understanding new particle formation and their subsequent growth in the troposphere has a critical impact on our ability to predict atmospheric composition and global climate change. High pre-existing particle loadings have been thought to suppress the formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles due to high condensation and coagulation sinks. Here, based on field measurements at a mountain site in South China, we report, for the first time, in situ observational evidence on new particle formation and growth in remote ambient atmosphere during heavy dust episodes mixed with anthropogenic pollution. Both the formation and growth rates of particles in the diameter range 15-50 nm were enhanced during the dust episodes, indicating the influence of photo-induced, dust surface-mediated reactions and resulting condensable vapor production. This study provides unique in situ observations of heterogeneous photochemical processes inducing new particle formation and growth in the real atmosphere, and suggests an unexpected impact of mineral dust on climate and atmospheric chemistry.

17.
Nature ; 506(7489): 476-9, 2014 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24572423

RESUMO

Forests emit large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. Their condensable oxidation products can form secondary organic aerosol, a significant and ubiquitous component of atmospheric aerosol, which is known to affect the Earth's radiation balance by scattering solar radiation and by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. The quantitative assessment of such climate effects remains hampered by a number of factors, including an incomplete understanding of how biogenic VOCs contribute to the formation of atmospheric secondary organic aerosol. The growth of newly formed particles from sizes of less than three nanometres up to the sizes of cloud condensation nuclei (about one hundred nanometres) in many continental ecosystems requires abundant, essentially non-volatile organic vapours, but the sources and compositions of such vapours remain unknown. Here we investigate the oxidation of VOCs, in particular the terpene α-pinene, under atmospherically relevant conditions in chamber experiments. We find that a direct pathway leads from several biogenic VOCs, such as monoterpenes, to the formation of large amounts of extremely low-volatility vapours. These vapours form at significant mass yield in the gas phase and condense irreversibly onto aerosol surfaces to produce secondary organic aerosol, helping to explain the discrepancy between the observed atmospheric burden of secondary organic aerosol and that reported by many model studies. We further demonstrate how these low-volatility vapours can enhance, or even dominate, the formation and growth of aerosol particles over forested regions, providing a missing link between biogenic VOCs and their conversion to aerosol particles. Our findings could help to improve assessments of biosphere-aerosol-climate feedback mechanisms, and the air quality and climate effects of biogenic emissions generally.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Modelos Químicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aerossóis/análise , Aerossóis/metabolismo , Atmosfera/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Clima , Ecossistema , Finlândia , Gases/análise , Gases/química , Monoterpenos/química , Oxirredução , Ozônio/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Árvores/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Volatilização
18.
Science ; 339(6122): 943-6, 2013 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23430652

RESUMO

Atmospheric nucleation is the dominant source of aerosol particles in the global atmosphere and an important player in aerosol climatic effects. The key steps of this process occur in the sub-2-nanometer (nm) size range, in which direct size-segregated observations have not been possible until very recently. Here, we present detailed observations of atmospheric nanoparticles and clusters down to 1-nm mobility diameter. We identified three separate size regimes below 2-nm diameter that build up a physically, chemically, and dynamically consistent framework on atmospheric nucleation--more specifically, aerosol formation via neutral pathways. Our findings emphasize the important role of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosol formation, subsequent aerosol growth, radiative forcing and associated feedbacks between biogenic emissions, clouds, and climate.

19.
Nat Protoc ; 7(9): 1651-67, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22899333

RESUMO

The formation of new atmospheric aerosol particles and their subsequent growth have been observed frequently at various locations all over the world. The atmospheric nucleation rate (or formation rate) and growth rate (GR) are key parameters to characterize the phenomenon. Recent progress in measurement techniques enables us to measure atmospheric nucleation at the size (mobility diameter) of 1.5 (±0.4) nm. The detection limit has decreased from 3 to 1 nm within the past 10 years. In this protocol, we describe the procedures for identifying new-particle-formation (NPF) events, and for determining the nucleation, formation and growth rates during such events under atmospheric conditions. We describe the present instrumentation, best practices and other tools used to investigate atmospheric nucleation and NPF at a certain mobility diameter (1.5, 2.0 or 3.0 nm). The key instruments comprise devices capable of measuring the number concentration of the formed nanoparticles and their size, such as a suite of modern condensation particle counters (CPCs) and air ion spectrometers, and devices for characterizing the pre-existing particle number concentration distribution, such as a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS). We also discuss the reliability of the methods used and requirements for proper measurements and data analysis. The time scale for realizing this procedure is 1 year.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Técnicas de Química Analítica/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Tamanho da Partícula
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