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1.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392718

RESUMO

The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of proteins function as key effectors of RHO family GTPases in mammalian cells to regulate many pathways including Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and Wnt/ß-catenin, amongst others. Here we report an individual with a novel autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe regressive autism, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Exome sequencing of the proband and her parents revealed a de novo variant in the PAK1 gene ([NM_001128620] c.362C>T/p.Pro121Leu). Studies in patient cells showed a clear effect on PAK1 protein function, including altered phosphorylation of targets (JNK and ERK), decreased abundance of ß-catenin, and concomitant altered expression downstream of these key regulators. Our findings add PAK1 to the list of PAK proteins and kinases which when mutated cause rare genetic diseases.

2.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 6(3): 333-339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356216

RESUMO

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting both motor and sensory neurons. Exome sequencing has driven discovery of genes responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with more than 70 genes now associated with this neuromuscular disease. The MARS gene was recently reported as the cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2U, a slowly progressive axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy with adult-onset reported in six patients. We report here a patient with a progressive, early childhood-onset, motor-predominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Exome sequencing identified a novel MARS variant (c.1189G>A; p.Ala397Thr) that was not present in her unaffected mother; her unaffected father was unavailable. Further studies using structural modeling and a yeast humanization assay support pathogenicity of the variant. Our study expands the phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2U, while highlighting the utility of functional assays to evaluate variant pathogenicity.

3.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 225-240, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify disease-causing variants in autosomal recessive axonal polyneuropathy with optic atrophy and provide targeted replacement therapy. METHODS: We performed genome-wide sequencing, homozygosity mapping, and segregation analysis for novel disease-causing gene discovery. We used circular dichroism to show secondary structure changes and isothermal titration calorimetry to investigate the impact of variants on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding. Pathogenicity was further supported by enzymatic assays and mass spectroscopy on recombinant protein, patient-derived fibroblasts, plasma, and erythrocytes. Response to supplementation was measured with clinical validated rating scales, electrophysiology, and biochemical quantification. RESULTS: We identified biallelic mutations in PDXK in 5 individuals from 2 unrelated families with primary axonal polyneuropathy and optic atrophy. The natural history of this disorder suggests that untreated, affected individuals become wheelchair-bound and blind. We identified conformational rearrangement in the mutant enzyme around the ATP-binding pocket. Low PDXK ATP binding resulted in decreased erythrocyte PDXK activity and low pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentrations. We rescued the clinical and biochemical profile with PLP supplementation in 1 family, improvement in power, pain, and fatigue contributing to patients regaining their ability to walk independently during the first year of PLP normalization. INTERPRETATION: We show that mutations in PDXK cause autosomal recessive axonal peripheral polyneuropathy leading to disease via reduced PDXK enzymatic activity and low PLP. We show that the biochemical profile can be rescued with PLP supplementation associated with clinical improvement. As B6 is a cofactor in diverse essential biological pathways, our findings may have direct implications for neuropathies of unknown etiology characterized by reduced PLP levels. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:225-240.

4.
Nat Med ; 25(6): 911-919, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160820

RESUMO

It is estimated that 350 million individuals worldwide suffer from rare diseases, which are predominantly caused by mutation in a single gene1. The current molecular diagnostic rate is estimated at 50%, with whole-exome sequencing (WES) among the most successful approaches2-5. For patients in whom WES is uninformative, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has shown diagnostic utility in specific tissues and diseases6-8. This includes muscle biopsies from patients with undiagnosed rare muscle disorders6,9, and cultured fibroblasts from patients with mitochondrial disorders7. However, for many individuals, biopsies are not performed for clinical care, and tissues are difficult to access. We sought to assess the utility of RNA-seq from blood as a diagnostic tool for rare diseases of different pathophysiologies. We generated whole-blood RNA-seq from 94 individuals with undiagnosed rare diseases spanning 16 diverse disease categories. We developed a robust approach to compare data from these individuals with large sets of RNA-seq data for controls (n = 1,594 unrelated controls and n = 49 family members) and demonstrated the impacts of expression, splicing, gene and variant filtering strategies on disease gene identification. Across our cohort, we observed that RNA-seq yields a 7.5% diagnostic rate, and an additional 16.7% with improved candidate gene resolution.


Assuntos
Doenças Raras/genética , Ceramidase Ácida/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Mutação , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Canais de Potássio/genética , RNA/sangue , RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Doenças Raras/sangue , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(5): 813-816, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838783

RESUMO

Neu-Laxova syndrome (NLS) is a lethal autosomal recessive microcephaly syndrome associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and multiple congenital anomalies. Clinical features include central nervous system malformations, joint contractures, ichthyosis, edema, and dysmorphic facial features. Biallelic pathogenic variants in either the PHGDH or PSAT1 genes have been shown to cause NLS. Using exome sequencing, we aimed to identify the underlying genetic diagnosis in three fetuses (from one family) with prenatal skin edema, severe IUGR, micrognathia, renal anomalies, and arthrogryposis and identified a homozygous c.1A>C (p.Met1?, NM_006623.3) variant in the PHGDH gene. Loss of the translation start codon is a novel genetic mechanism for the development of NLS. Prenatal diagnosis of NLS is challenging and few reports describe the fetal pathology. Fetal neuropathologic examination revealed: delayed brain development, congenital agenesis of the corticospinal tracts, and hypoplasia of the hippocampus, cerebellum and brainstem. Each pregnancy also showed increased nuchal translucency (NT) or cystic hygroma. While NLS is rare, it may be a cause of recurrent increased NT/cystic hygroma. This finding provides further support that cystic hygroma has many different genetic causes and that exome sequencing may shed light on the underlying genetic diagnoses in this group of prenatal patients.

6.
Clin Genet ; 95(5): 601-606, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790272

RESUMO

The GTPBP2 gene encodes a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein of unknown function. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in the GTPBP2 gene have been previously reported in association with a neuro-ectodermal clinical presentation in six individuals from four unrelated families. Here, we provide detailed descriptions of three additional individuals from two unrelated families in the context of the previous literature. Both families carry nonsense variants in GTPBP2: homozygous p.(Arg470*) and compound heterozygous p.(Arg432*)/p.(Arg131*). Key features of this clinically recognizable condition include prenatal onset microcephaly, tone abnormalities, and movement disorders, epilepsy, dysmorphic features, retinal dysfunction, ectodermal dysplasia, and brain iron accumulation. Our findings suggest that some aspects of the clinical presentation appear to be age-related; brain iron accumulation may appear only after childhood, and the ectodermal findings and peripheral neuropathy are most prominent in older individuals. In addition, we present prenatal and neonatal findings as well as the first Caucasian and black African families with GTPBP2 biallelic variants. The individuals described herein provide valuable additional phenotypic information about this rare, novel, and progressive neuroectodermal condition.

7.
Brain ; 142(3): 542-559, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668673

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in PLPBP (formerly called PROSC) have recently been shown to cause a novel form of vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy, the pathophysiological basis of which is poorly understood. When left untreated, the disease can progress to status epilepticus and death in infancy. Here we present 12 previously undescribed patients and six novel pathogenic variants in PLPBP. Suspected clinical diagnoses prior to identification of PLPBP variants included mitochondrial encephalopathy (two patients), folinic acid-responsive epilepsy (one patient) and a movement disorder compatible with AADC deficiency (one patient). The encoded protein, PLPHP is believed to be crucial for B6 homeostasis. We modelled the pathogenicity of the variants and developed a clinical severity scoring system. The most severe phenotypes were associated with variants leading to loss of function of PLPBP or significantly affecting protein stability/PLP-binding. To explore the pathophysiology of this disease further, we developed the first zebrafish model of PLPHP deficiency using CRISPR/Cas9. Our model recapitulates the disease, with plpbp-/- larvae showing behavioural, biochemical, and electrophysiological signs of seizure activity by 10 days post-fertilization and early death by 16 days post-fertilization. Treatment with pyridoxine significantly improved the epileptic phenotype and extended lifespan in plpbp-/- animals. Larvae had disruptions in amino acid metabolism as well as GABA and catecholamine biosynthesis, indicating impairment of PLP-dependent enzymatic activities. Using mass spectrometry, we observed significant B6 vitamer level changes in plpbp-/- zebrafish, patient fibroblasts and PLPHP-deficient HEK293 cells. Additional studies in human cells and yeast provide the first empirical evidence that PLPHP is localized in mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial metabolism. These models provide new insights into disease mechanisms and can serve as a platform for drug discovery.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 727-739, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388400

RESUMO

Primary defects in motile cilia result in dysfunction of the apparatus responsible for generating fluid flows. Defects in these mechanisms underlie disorders characterized by poor mucus clearance, resulting in susceptibility to chronic recurrent respiratory infections, often associated with infertility; laterality defects occur in about 50% of such individuals. Here we report biallelic variants in LRRC56 (known as oda8 in Chlamydomonas) identified in three unrelated families. The phenotype comprises laterality defects and chronic pulmonary infections. High-speed video microscopy of cultured epithelial cells from an affected individual showed severely dyskinetic cilia but no obvious ultra-structural abnormalities on routine transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further investigation revealed that LRRC56 interacts with the intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein IFT88. The link with IFT was interrogated in Trypanosoma brucei. In this protist, LRRC56 is recruited to the cilium during axoneme construction, where it co-localizes with IFT trains and is required for the addition of dynein arms to the distal end of the flagellum. In T. brucei carrying LRRC56-null mutations, or a variant resulting in the p.Leu259Pro substitution corresponding to the p.Leu140Pro variant seen in one of the affected families, we observed abnormal ciliary beat patterns and an absence of outer dynein arms restricted to the distal portion of the axoneme. Together, our findings confirm that deleterious variants in LRRC56 result in a human disease and suggest that this protein has a likely role in dynein transport during cilia assembly that is evolutionarily important for cilia motility.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 474-483, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30220433

RESUMO

Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing have revolutionized the discovery of variants in the human genome; however, interpreting the phenotypic effects of those variants is still a challenge. While several computational approaches to predict variant impact are available, their accuracy is limited and further improvement is needed. Here, we introduce ClinPred, an efficient tool for identifying disease-relevant nonsynonymous variants. Our predictor incorporates two machine learning algorithms that use existing pathogenicity scores and, notably, benefits from inclusion of normal population allele frequency from the gnomAD database as an input feature. Another major strength of our approach is the use of ClinVar-a rapidly growing database that allows selection of confidently annotated disease-causing variants-as a training set. Compared to other methods, ClinPred showed superior accuracy for predicting pathogenicity, achieving the highest area under the curve (AUC) score and increasing both the specificity and sensitivity in different test datasets. It also obtained the best performance according to various other metrics. Moreover, ClinPred performance remained robust with respect to disease type (cancer or rare disease) and mechanism (gain or loss of function). Importantly, we observed that adding allele frequency as a predictive feature-as opposed to setting fixed allele frequency cutoffs-boosts the performance of prediction. We provide pre-computed ClinPred scores for all possible human missense variants in the exome to facilitate its use by the community.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 144-153, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961568

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has been invaluable in the elucidation of the genetic etiology of many subtypes of intellectual disability in recent years. Here, using exome sequencing and whole-genome sequencing, we identified three de novo truncating mutations in WAS protein family member 1 (WASF1) in five unrelated individuals with moderate to profound intellectual disability with autistic features and seizures. WASF1, also known as WAVE1, is part of the WAVE complex and acts as a mediator between Rac-GTPase and actin to induce actin polymerization. The three mutations connected by Matchmaker Exchange were c.1516C>T (p.Arg506Ter), which occurs in three unrelated individuals, c.1558C>T (p.Gln520Ter), and c.1482delinsGCCAGG (p.Ile494MetfsTer23). All three variants are predicted to partially or fully disrupt the C-terminal actin-binding WCA domain. Functional studies using fibroblast cells from two affected individuals with the c.1516C>T mutation showed a truncated WASF1 and a defect in actin remodeling. This study provides evidence that de novo heterozygous mutations in WASF1 cause a rare form of intellectual disability.

12.
J Hum Genet ; 63(10): 1093-1096, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968795

RESUMO

Biallelic mutations in NALCN are responsible for infantile hypotonia with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1). Common features of this condition include severe neonatal-onset hypotonia and profound global developmental delay. Given the rarity of this condition, long-term natural history studies are limited. Here, we present a 9-year-old male with a homozygous nonsense mutation in NALCN (c.3910C>T, p.Arg1304X) leading to profound intellectual disability, seizures, feeding difficulties, and significant periodic breathing. Breathing irregularity was also reported in three previous patients; similar to our patient, those children demonstrated periodic breathing that was characterized by alternating apneic periods with deep, rapid breathing. As the phenotype associated with NALCN mutations continues to be delineated, attention should be given to abnormal respiratory patterns, which may be an important distinguishing feature of this condition.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 156-174, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304373

RESUMO

Pediatric developmental syndromes present with systemic, complex, and often overlapping clinical features that are not infrequently a consequence of Mendelian inheritance of mutations in genes involved in DNA methylation, establishment of histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling (the "epigenetic machinery"). The mechanistic cross-talk between histone modification and DNA methylation suggests that these syndromes might be expected to display specific DNA methylation signatures that are a reflection of those primary errors associated with chromatin dysregulation. Given the interrelated functions of these chromatin regulatory proteins, we sought to identify DNA methylation epi-signatures that could provide syndrome-specific biomarkers to complement standard clinical diagnostics. In the present study, we examined peripheral blood samples from a large cohort of individuals encompassing 14 Mendelian disorders displaying mutations in the genes encoding proteins of the epigenetic machinery. We demonstrated that specific but partially overlapping DNA methylation signatures are associated with many of these conditions. The degree of overlap among these epi-signatures is minimal, further suggesting that, consistent with the initial event, the downstream changes are unique to every syndrome. In addition, by combining these epi-signatures, we have demonstrated that a machine learning tool can be built to concurrently screen for multiple syndromes with high sensitivity and specificity, and we highlight the utility of this tool in solving ambiguous case subjects presenting with variants of unknown significance, along with its ability to generate accurate predictions for subjects presenting with the overlapping clinical and molecular features associated with the disruption of the epigenetic machinery.

14.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(2): 89-93, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066376

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) affects 1-2% of the general population and up to 50% of those with ID are estimated to have an underlying genetic cause. Next-generation sequencing provides an efficient means to identify the molecular causes of monogenic forms of ID. Here we present an 18 year old male with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, ataxia, dysmorphic facial features, and a refractory, early-onset seizure disorder. Exome sequencing revealed a rare de novo mutation in the X-linked gene RPL10 (c.232A > G, p.K78E). Previous reports of inherited mutations in RPL10 have suggested a role for the gene in neurodevelopment and the individual reported shows marked similarities to three members of a family with the same mutation reported in the literature. The p.K78E substitution appears to be associated with severe microcephaly, seizures, hearing loss, growth retardation, cardiac defects, and dysmorphic facial features. This is the first instance that a de novo mutation in RPL10 has been reported.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Adolescente , Epilepsia/patologia , Exoma , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Síndrome
15.
Hum Mutat ; 39(2): 197-201, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193559

RESUMO

A significant challenge facing clinical translation of exome sequencing is meaningful and efficient variant interpretation. Each exome contains ∼500 rare coding variants; laboratories must systematically and efficiently identify which variant(s) contribute to the patient's phenotype. In silico filtering is an approach that reduces analysis time while decreasing the chances of incidental findings. We retrospectively assessed 55 solved exomes using available datasets as in silico filters: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Orphanet, Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), and Radboudumc University Medical Center curated panels. We found that personalized panels produced using HPO terms for each patient had the highest success rate (100%), while producing considerably less variants to assess. HPO panels also captured multiple diagnoses in the same individual. We conclude that custom HPO-derived panels are an efficient and effective way to identify clinically relevant exome variants.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(9): 1049-1054, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28635952

RESUMO

Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising skeletal anomalies, dysmorphism, global developmental delay and intracytoplasmic vacuolation in brain and other tissues. All hitherto-reported pathogenic variants affect FIG4, a lipid phosphatase involved in phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,5)P2] metabolism. FIG4 interacts with PIKfyve, a lipid kinase, via the adapter protein VAC14; all subunits of the resulting complex are essential for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis in the endolysosomal membrane compartment. Here, we present the case of a female neonate with clinical features of YVS and normal FIG4 sequencing; exome sequencing identified biallelic rare coding variants in VAC14. Cultured patient fibroblasts exhibited a YVS-like vacuolation phenotype ameliorated in a dose-dependent fashion by ML-SA1, a pharmacological activator of the lysosomal PtdIns(3,5)P2 effector TRPML1. The patient developed a diffuse leukoencephalopathy with loss of the normal N-acetylaspartate spectrographic peak and presence of a large abnormal peak consistent with myoinositol. We report that VAC14 is a second gene for Yunis-Varón syndrome.


Assuntos
Displasia Cleidocraniana/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Micrognatismo/genética , Mutação , Alelos , Células Cultivadas , Displasia Cleidocraniana/diagnóstico , Displasia Ectodérmica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inositol/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Micrognatismo/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Vacúolos/metabolismo
17.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 64(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28509377

RESUMO

We describe a patient who presented with a congenital soft tissue lesion initially diagnosed as infantile fibromatosis at 15 days of age. Unusually, the mass demonstrated malignant progression leading to death at 20 months of age. Biological progression to malignancy is not known to occur in fibromatosis, and fibrosarcoma is not known to progress from a benign lesion. Whole-exome sequencing of the tumor identified a driver mutation in histone H3.1 at lysine (K)36. Our findings support the link between oncohistones and infantile soft tissue tumors and provide additional evidence for the oncogenic effects of p.K36M in H3 variants.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Fibroma/genética , Histonas/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/congênito , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Sequência de Bases , Fibroma/congênito , Fibroma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Patologia Molecular , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
18.
Hum Mutat ; 38(6): 611-614, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28251733

RESUMO

At least 15% of the disease-causing mutations affect mRNA splicing. Many splicing mutations are missed in a clinical setting due to limitations of in silico prediction algorithms or their location in noncoding regions. Whole-transcriptome sequencing is a promising new tool to identify these mutations; however, it will be a challenge to obtain disease-relevant tissue for RNA. Here, we describe an individual with a sporadic atypical spinal muscular atrophy, in whom clinical DNA sequencing reported one pathogenic ASAH1 mutation (c.458A>G;p.Tyr153Cys). Transcriptome sequencing on patient leukocytes identified a highly significant and atypical ASAH1 isoform not explained by c.458A>G(p<10-16 ). Subsequent Sanger-sequencing identified the splice mutation responsible for the isoform (c.504A>C;p.Lys168Asn) and provided a molecular diagnosis of autosomal-recessive spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Our findings demonstrate the utility of RNA sequencing from blood to identify splice-impacting disease mutations for nonhematological conditions, providing a diagnosis for these otherwise unsolved patients.


Assuntos
Ceramidase Ácida/genética , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/sangue , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/sangue , Processamento de RNA/genética , Ceramidase Ácida/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/complicações , Atrofia Muscular Espinal/genética , Mutação , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas Progressivas/genética , Patologia Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transcriptoma/genética
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(9): 1706-1715, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334793

RESUMO

There are over 150 known human proteins which are tethered to the cell surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. These proteins play a variety of important roles in development, and particularly in neurogenesis. Not surprisingly, mutations in the GPI anchor biosynthesis and remodeling pathway cause a number of developmental disorders. This group of conditions has been termed inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs), a subgroup of congenital disorders of glycosylation; they present with variable phenotypes, often including seizures, hypotonia and intellectual disability. Here, we report two siblings with compound heterozygous variants in the gene phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class P (PIGP) (NM_153681.2: c.74T > C;p.Met25Thr and c.456delA;p.Glu153AsnFs*34). PIGP encodes a subunit of the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis. Both children presented with early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profound global developmental delay, reminiscent of other IGD phenotypes. Functional studies with patient cells showed reduced PIGP mRNA levels, and an associated reduction of GPI-anchored cell surface proteins, which was rescued by exogenous expression of wild-type PIGP. This work associates mutations in the PIGP gene with a novel autosomal recessive IGD, and expands our knowledge of the role of PIG genes in human development.


Assuntos
Hexosiltransferases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/deficiência , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/genética , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Hemoglobinúria Paroxística/genética , Hexosiltransferases/metabolismo , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Linhagem , Convulsões/genética , Espasmos Infantis/metabolismo
20.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 10: 10, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X) is caused by a mutation at the chromatin regulator gene ATRX. The mechanisms involved in the ATR-X pathology are not completely understood, but may involve epigenetic modifications. ATRX has been linked to the regulation of histone H3 and DNA methylation, while mutations in the ATRX gene may lead to the downstream epigenetic and transcriptional effects. Elucidating the underlying epigenetic mechanisms altered in ATR-X will provide a better understanding about the pathobiology of this disease, as well as provide novel diagnostic biomarkers. RESULTS: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation assessment of the peripheral blood samples from 18 patients with ATR-X and compared it to 210 controls. We demonstrated the evidence of a unique and highly specific DNA methylation "epi-signature" in the peripheral blood of ATRX patients, which was corroborated by targeted bisulfite sequencing experiments. Although genomically represented, differentially methylated regions showed evidence of preferential clustering in pericentromeric and telometric chromosomal regions, areas where ATRX has multiple functions related to maintenance of heterochromatin and genomic integrity. CONCLUSION: Most significant methylation changes in the 14 genomic loci provide a unique epigenetic signature for this syndrome that may be used as a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarker to support the diagnosis of ATR-X, particularly in patients with phenotypic complexity and in patients with ATRX gene sequence variants of unknown significance.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia alfa/patologia
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