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1.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 19322968211042656, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605694

RESUMO

This article is the work product of the Continuous Ketone Monitoring Consensus Panel, which was organized by Diabetes Technology Society and met virtually on April 20, 2021. The panel consisted of 20 US-based experts in the use of diabetes technology, representing adult endocrinology, pediatric endocrinology, advanced practice nursing, diabetes care and education, clinical chemistry, and bioengineering. The panelists were from universities, hospitals, freestanding research institutes, government, and private practice. Panelists reviewed the medical literature pertaining to ten topics: (1) physiology of ketone production, (2) measurement of ketones, (3) performance of the first continuous ketone monitor (CKM) reported to be used in human trials, (4) demographics and epidemiology of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), (5) atypical hyperketonemia, (6) prevention of DKA, (7) non-DKA states of fasting ketonemia and ketonuria, (8) potential integration of CKMs with pumps and automated insulin delivery systems to prevent DKA, (9) clinical trials of CKMs, and (10) the future of CKMs. The panelists summarized the medical literature for each of the ten topics in this report. They also developed 30 conclusions (amounting to three conclusions for each topic) about CKMs and voted unanimously to adopt the 30 conclusions. This report is intended to support the development of safe and effective continuous ketone monitoring and to apply this technology in ways that will benefit people with diabetes.

2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498889

RESUMO

Objective: We examined alcohol use and harms, and their interrelations among cisgender and transgender college students. Method: We conducted a secondary analysis using a U.S. sample of 4-year-college students (n = 242,624; Mage = 20.24, SD = 1.67; 12.31% Hispanic/Latinx and 62.11% non-Hispanic/Latinx White, 3.99% Black, 11.88% Asian or Pacific Islander,0.37% American Indian, Alaskan Native or Native Hawaiian, 9.35% Multiracial/ethnic/other). These outcomes were compared between cisgender women (68.53%) and cisgender men (29.27%), transgender men (0.91%), transgender women (0.23%), and nonbinary students (1.06%): level (number of drinks) of recent alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking (≥ 5 drinks) in the past 2 weeks, and occurrence and count of harms while drinking in the past year. Gender differences in the association between drinking level and consequences were also examined. Results: Cisgender women were the reference group for all of the comparisons. Cisgender men reported less occurrence of regret, sex without their consent, and unprotected sex when drinking, but the greater occurrence of injury and trouble with the police. Transgender women and nonbinary individuals reported lower odds of regret and unprotected sex when drinking. Transgender men and nonbinary individuals reported increased odds of sex without their consent when drinking. All transgender subgroups reported increased odds of suicidal ideation when drinking. Finally, associations between the level of recent drinking and odds of experiencing harms differed by gender identity. Conclusions: Patterns of alcohol use, consequences, and their interrelationship differed for cisgender men, transgender women and men, and nonbinary individuals relative to cisgender women. There is a need for gender-inclusive prevention for alcohol harms among students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 19322968211043498, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558330

RESUMO

The digital health revolution is transforming the landscape of medicine through innovations in sensor data, software, and wireless communication tools. As one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States, diabetes is particularly impactful as a model disease for which to apply innovation. As with any other newly developed technologies, there are three key questions to consider: 1) How can the technology benefit people with diabetes?, 2) What barriers must be overcome to further advance the technology?, and 3) How will the technology be applied in the future?. In this article, we highlight six areas of innovation that have the potential to reduce the burden of diabetes for individuals living with the condition and their families as well as provide measurable benefits for all stakeholders involved in diabetes care. The six technologies which have the potential to transform diabetes care are (i) telehealth, (ii) incorporation of diabetes digital data into the electronic health record, (iii) qualitative hypoglycemia alarms, (iv) artificial intelligence, (v) cybersecurity of diabetes devices, and (vi) diabetes registries. To be successful, a new digital health technology must be accessible and affordable. Furthermore, the people and communities that would most likely benefit from the technology must be willing to use the innovation in their management of diabetes.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 71: 103547, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor development is critically dependent on the supporting stroma consisting of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. This study intended to improve prognostic prediction for early colorectal cancer (CRC) by combined estimation of T-lymphocyte and stroma fractions with conventional markers. METHODS: In total 509 and 1041 stage II/ΙΙΙ CRC from the VICTOR and QUASAR 2 trials were included as a training set and a validation set, respectively. Intratumoral CD8+ T-lymphocytes and stroma were identified and quantified by machine-based learning on digital sections. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the prognostic value of the combined marker for time to recurrence (TTR). FINDINGS: For low-risk patients (n = 598; stage Ⅱ, and stage ΙΙΙ pT1-3 pN1 with neither lymphatic (L-) nor vascular (V-) invasion), low stroma fraction (n = 511) identified a good prognostic subgroup with 5-year TTR of 86% (95% CI 83-89), versus the high stroma subgroup TTR of 78% (HR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.05-2.92; P = 0.029). For high-risk patients (n = 394; stage ΙΙΙ pT3 pN1 L+/V+, pT4, or pN2), combined low CD8+ and high stroma fraction identified a poor prognostic subgroup (n = 34) with 5-year TTR of 29% (95% CI 17-50), versus the high CD8+ fraction and low stroma fraction subgroup (n = 138) of 64% (HR = 2.86, 95% CI 1.75-4.69; P < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Quantification of intratumoral CD8+ T-lymphocyte and stroma fractions can be combined with conventional prognostic markers to improve patient stratification.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103577, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563926
6.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 82(4): 470-475, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this brief report were to examine the extent to which early onset of cannabis use by parents and their children, and intergenerational continuity in early-onset cannabis use by parents and children, differ as a function of parent age at birth of first child. METHOD: A total of 795 parent-child dyads (57% male parents and 49% male children) were compiled from three intergenerational studies: Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (OYS-3GS), Rochester Youth Development Study and Rochester Intergenerational Study (RYDS-RIGS), and Seattle Social Development Project-The Intergenerational Project (SSDP-TIP). Parents and children identified as non-Hispanic White (29% and 22%, respectively), Black (55% and 47%), and Hispanic (8% and 11%). Early-onset cannabis use was defined as initiation at or before age 15. Time-varying effect models were fit to examine the research questions. RESULTS: Among parents, earlier initiation of cannabis use was associated with an earlier entry into parenthood. Moreover, parents' later age at first birth was predictive of a lower prevalence of early-onset cannabis use among their children. Last, regarding intergenerational continuity, parental early onset of cannabis use increased the likelihood of child early-onset use, but only among older parents (i.e., later age at first birth). CONCLUSIONS: We provide a nuanced examination of the associations between parental and child early-onset cannabis use as a function of parents' age at first birth and describe a novel approach to incorporating parent's age at first birth into models of intergenerational continuity.

7.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): e358-e368, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339656

RESUMO

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process during which cells lose their epithelial characteristics, for instance apical-basal cell polarity and cell-cell contact, and gain mesenchymal properties, such as increased motility. In colorectal cancer, EMT has an important role in tumour progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. There has been accumulating evidence from preclinical and early clinical studies that show that EMT markers might serve as outcome predictors and potential therapeutic targets in colorectal cancer. This Review describes the fundamentals of EMT, including biology, newly partial EMT, and associated changes. We also provide a comprehensive summary of therapeutic compounds capable of targeting EMT markers, including drugs in preclinical and clinical trials and those with repurpose potential. Lastly, we explore the obstacles of EMT bench-to-bedside drug development.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos
8.
Int J Cancer ; 149(9): 1713-1722, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270794

RESUMO

Chemotherapies administered at normal therapeutic dosages can cause significant side-effects and may result in early treatment discontinuation. Inter-individual variation in toxicity highlights the need for biomarkers to personalise treatment. We sought to identify such biomarkers by conducting 40 genome-wide association studies, together with gene and gene set analyses, for any toxicity and 10 individual toxicities in 1800 patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy ± cetuximab from the MRC COIN and COIN-B trials (385 patients received FOLFOX, 360 FOLFOX + cetuximab, 707 XELOX and 348 XELOX + cetuximab). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genes and gene sets that reached genome-wide or suggestive significance were validated in independent patient groups. We found that MROH5 was significantly associated with neutropenia in MAGMA gene analyses in patients treated with XELOX (P = 6.6 × 10-7 ) and was independently validated in those receiving XELOX + cetuximab; pooled P = 3.7 × 10-7 . rs13260246 at 8q21.13 was significantly associated with vomiting in patients treated with XELOX (odds ratio = 5.0, 95% confidence interval = 3.0-8.3, P = 9.8 × 10-10 ) but was not independently replicated. SNPs at 139 loci had suggestive associations for toxicities and lead SNPs at five of these were independently validated (rs6030266 with diarrhoea, rs1546161 with hand-foot syndrome, rs9601722 with neutropenia, rs13413764 with lethargy and rs4600090 with nausea; all with pooled P's < 5.0 × 10-6 ). In conclusion, the association of MROH5 with neutropenia and five other putative biomarkers warrant further investigation for their potential clinical utility. Despite our comprehensive genome-wide analyses of large, well-characterised, clinical trials, we found a lack of common variants with modest effect sizes associated with toxicities.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 851, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This Phase 2a dose expansion study was performed to assess the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of the maximum tolerated dose of the oral histone de-acetylase (HDAC) inhibitor CXD101 in patients with relapsed / refractory lymphoma or advanced solid organ cancers and to assess HR23B protein expression by immunohistochemistry as a biomarker of HDAC inhibitor sensitivity. METHODS: Patients with advanced solid-organ cancers with high HR23B expression or lymphomas received CXD101 at the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). Key exclusions: corrected QT > 450 ms, neutrophils < 1.5 × 109/L, platelets < 75 × 109/L, ECOG > 1. Baseline HR23B expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients enrolled between March 2014 and September 2019, 47 received CXD101 (19 solid-organ cancer, 28 lymphoma). Thirty-four patients received ≥80% RP2D. Baseline characteristics: median age 57.4 years, median prior lines 3, male sex 57%. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (32%), thrombocytopenia (17%), anaemia (13%), and fatigue (9%) with no deaths on CXD101. No responses were seen in solid-organ cancers, with disease stabilisation in 36% or patients; the overall response rate in lymphoma was 17% with disease stabilisation in 52% of patients. Median progression-free survival was 1.2 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.4) in solid-organ cancers and 2.6 months (95%CI 1.2-5.6) in lymphomas. HR23B status did not predict response. CONCLUSIONS: CXD101 showed acceptable tolerability with efficacy seen in Hodgkin lymphoma, T-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Further studies assessing combination approaches are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01977638 . Registered 07 November 2013.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/uso terapêutico , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma/genética , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Histopathology ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174109

RESUMO

AIMS: After local excision of early rectal cancer, definitive lymph node status is not available. An alternative means for accurate assessment of recurrence risk is required to determine the most appropriate subsequent management. Currently used measures are suboptimal. We assess three measures of tumour stromal content to determine their predictive value after local excision in a well-characterised cohort of rectal cancer patients without prior radiotherapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 143 patients were included. Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections were scanned for (i) deep neural network (DNN, a machine-learning algorithm) tumour segmentation into compartments including desmoplastic stroma and inflamed stroma; and (ii) digital assessment of tumour stromal fraction (TSR) and optical DNA ploidy analysis. 3' mRNA sequencing was performed to obtain gene expression data from which stromal and immune scores were calculated using the ESTIMATE method. Full results were available for 139 samples and compared with disease-free survival. All three methods were prognostic. Most strongly predictive was a DNN-determined ratio of desmoplastic to inflamed stroma >5.41 (P < 0.0001). A ratio of ESTIMATE stromal to immune score <1.19 was also predictive of disease-free survival (P = 0.00051), as was stromal fraction >36.5% (P = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: The DNN-determined ratio of desmoplastic to inflamed ratio is a novel and powerful predictor of disease recurrence in locally excised early rectal cancer. It can be assessed on a single H&E section, so could be applied in routine clinical practice to improve the prognostic information available to patients and clinicians to inform the decision concerning further management.

12.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-10, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: College students' prescription stimulant and opioid misuse (PSM and POM) share psychosocial risks with other substance use. We sought to extend a prior study of these issues. Methods: National College Health Assessment (2015-2016) participants ages 18-24 years (n = 79,336) reporting 12-month PSM (defined as use of a drug not prescribed to them), 30-day other illicit drug use (non-cannabis), both, or neither, were compared on other substance use, psychopathology, academic adjustment, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and chronic pain. Models were repeated for POM. Results: Relative to those who only misused the prescription drug, those who used other illicit drugs had lower odds of chronic pain and academic problems, but higher odds on nearly every other outcome especially if they also misused the prescription drug. Conclusions: Findings suggest PSM and POM are on a continuum of risk shared with illicit drug use, but also are linked to outcomes specific to these drugs' perceived medical purposes.

13.
Fam Cancer ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948826

RESUMO

Pathogenic germline exonuclease domain (ED) variants of POLE and POLD1 cause the Mendelian dominant condition polymerase proof-reading associated polyposis (PPAP). We aimed to describe the clinical features of all PPAP patients with probably pathogenic variants. We identified patients with a variants mapping to the EDs of POLE or POLD1 from cancer genetics clinics, a colorectal cancer (CRC) clinical trial, and systematic review of the literature. We used multiple evidence sources to separate ED variants into those with strong evidence of pathogenicity and those of uncertain importance. We performed quantitative analysis of the risk of CRC, colorectal adenomas, endometrial cancer or any cancer in the former group. 132 individuals carried a probably pathogenic ED variant (105 POLE, 27 POLD1). The earliest malignancy was colorectal cancer at 14. The most common tumour types were colorectal, followed by endometrial in POLD1 heterozygotes and duodenal in POLE heterozygotes. POLD1-mutant cases were at a significantly higher risk of endometrial cancer than POLE heterozygotes. Five individuals with a POLE pathogenic variant, but none with a POLD1 pathogenic variant, developed ovarian cancer. Nine patients with POLE pathogenic variants and one with a POLD1 pathogenic variant developed brain tumours. Our data provide important evidence for PPAP management. Colonoscopic surveillance is recommended from age 14 and upper-gastrointestinal surveillance from age 25. The management of other tumour risks remains uncertain, but surveillance should be considered. In the absence of strong genotype-phenotype associations, these recommendations should apply to all PPAP patients.

14.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 19322968211015241, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980049

RESUMO

Digital health and telehealth connectivity have become important aspects of clinical care. Connected devices, including continuous glucose monitors and automated insulin delivery systems for diabetes, are being used increasingly to support personalized clinical decisions based on automatically collected data. Furthermore, the development, demand, and coverage for telehealth have all recently expanded, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical care, and especially diabetes care, are therefore becoming more digital through the use of both connected digital health devices and telehealth communication. It has therefore become necessary to integrate digital data into the electronic health record and maintain personal data confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Connected digital monitoring combined with telehealth communication is known as virtual health. For this virtual care paradigm to be successful, patients must have proper skills, training, and equipment. We propose that along with the five current vital signs of blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, temperature, and pain, at this time, digital connectivity should be considered as the sixth vital sign. In this article, we present a scale to assess digital connectivity.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805100

RESUMO

Efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is limited by significant toxicity. Tests based upon variants in the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) guidelines with high level evidence of a link to dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) phenotype and 5-FU toxicity are available to identify patients at high risk of severe adverse events (AEs). We previously reported associations between rs1213215, rs2612091, and NM_000110.3:c.1906-14763G>A (rs12022243) and capecitabine induced toxicity in clinical trial QUASAR 2. We also identified patients with DPD deficiency alleles NM_000110.3: c.1905+1G>A, NM_000110.3: c.2846C>T, NM_000110.3:c.1679T>G and NM_000110.3:c.1651G>A. We have now assessed the frequency of thirteen additional DPYD deficiency variants in 888 patients from the QUASAR 2 clinical trial. We also compared the area under the curve (AUC)-a measure of diagnostic accuracy-of the high-level evidence variants from the CPIC guidelines plus and minus additional DPYD deficiency variants and or common variants associated with 5-FU toxicity. Including additional DPYD deficiency variants retained good diagnostic accuracy for serious adverse events (AEs) and improved sensitivity for predicting grade 4 haematological toxicities (sensitivity 0.75, specificity 0.94) but the improvement in AUC for this toxicity was not significant. Larger datasets will be required to determine the benefit of including additional DPYD deficiency variants not observed here. Genotyping two common alleles statistically significantly improves AUC for prediction of risk of HFS and may be clinically useful (AUC difference 0.177, sensitivity 0.84, specificity 0.31).

17.
Mol Oncol ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33773029

RESUMO

Aberrant protein acetylation is strongly linked to tumorigenesis, and modulating acetylation through targeting histone deacetylase (HDAC) with small-molecule inhibitors has been the focus of clinical trials. However, clinical success on solid tumours, such as colorectal cancer (CRC), has been limited, in part because the cancer-relevant mechanisms through which HDAC inhibitors act remain largely unknown. Here, we have explored, at the genome-wide expression level, the effects of a novel HDAC inhibitor CXD101. In human CRC cell lines, a diverse set of differentially expressed genes were up- and downregulated upon CXD101 treatment. Functional profiling of the expression data highlighted immune-relevant concepts related to antigen processing and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Similar profiles were apparent when gene expression was investigated in murine colon26 CRC cells treated with CXD101. Significantly, these changes were also apparent in syngeneic colon26 tumours growing in vivo. The ability of CXD101 to affect immune-relevant gene expression coincided with changes in the tumour microenvironment (TME), especially in the subgroups of CD4 and CD8 tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes. The altered TME reflected enhanced antitumour activity when CXD101 was combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), such as anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4. The ability of CXD101 to reinstate immune-relevant gene expression in the TME and act together with ICIs provides a powerful rationale for exploring the combination therapy in human cancers.

18.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 410-415, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760639

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly disrupted cancer care in Africa, further exposing major health disparities. This paper compares and contrasts the experiences of 15 clinicians in six different African cancer centers to highlight the positive aspects (silver linings) in an otherwise negative situation. METHODS: Data are from personal experience of the clinicians working at the six cancer centers blended with what is available in the literature. RESULTS: The impact of COVID-19 on cancer care appeared to vary not only across the continent but also over cancer centers. Different factors such as clinic location, services offered, available resources, and level of restrictions imposed because of COVID-19 were associated with these variations. Collectively, delays in treatment and limited access to cancer care were commonly reported in the different regions. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of data on cancer patients with COVID-19 and online COVID-19 and cancer registries for Africa. Analysis of the available data, however, suggests a higher mortality rate for cancer patients with COVID-19 compared with those without cancer. Positive or silver linings coming out of the pandemic include the adoption of hypofractionated radiation therapy and teleoncology to enhance access to care while protecting patients and staff members. Increasing collaborations using online technology with oncology health professionals across the world are also being seen as a silver lining, with valuable sharing of experiences and expertise to improve care, enhance learning, and reduce disparities. Advanced information and communication technologies are seen as vital for such collaborations and could avail efforts in dealing with the ongoing pandemic and potential future crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Institutos de Câncer , Neoplasias , África/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Institutos de Câncer/organização & administração , Institutos de Câncer/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Neoplasias/virologia
19.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; 15(2): 478-514, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476193

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has rapidly involved the entire world and exposed the pressing need for collaboration between public health and other stakeholders from the clinical, scientific, regulatory, pharmaceutical, and medical device and technology communities. To discuss how to best protect people with diabetes from serious outcomes from COVID-19, Diabetes Technology Society, in collaboration with Sansum Diabetes Research Institute, hosted the "International COVID-19 and Diabetes Virtual Summit" on August 26-27, 2020. This unique, unprecedented real-time conference brought together physicians, scientists, government officials, regulatory experts, industry representatives, and people with diabetes from six continents to review and analyze relationships between COVID-19 and diabetes. Over 800 attendees logged in. The summit consisted of five sessions: (I) Keynotes, (II) Preparedness, (III) Response, (IV) Recovery, and (V) Surveillance; eight parts: (A) Background, (B) Resilience, (C) Outpatient Care, (D) Inpatient Care, (E) Resources, (F) High-Risk Groups, (G) Regulation, and (H) The Future; and 24 sections: (1) Historic Pandemics and Impact on Society, (2) Pathophysiology/Risk Factors for COVID-19, (3) Social Determinants of COVID-19, (4) Preparing for the Future, (5) Medications and Vaccines, (6) Psychology of Patients and Caregivers, (7) Outpatient Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Pharmacologic Intervention, (8) Technology and Telehealth for Diabetes Outpatients, (9) Technology for Inpatients, (10) Management of Diabetes Inpatients with COVID-19, (11) Ethics, (12) Accuracy of Diagnostic Tests, (13) Children, (14) Pregnancy, (15) Economics of Care for COVID-19, (16) Role of Industry, (17) Protection of Healthcare Workers, (18) People with Diabetes, (19) International Responses to COVID-19, (20) Government Policy, (21) Regulation of Tests and Treatments, (22) Digital Health Technology, (23) Big Data Statistics, and 24) Patient Surveillance and Privacy. The two keynote speeches were entitled (1) COVID-19 and Diabetes-Meeting the Challenge and (2) Knowledge Gaps and Research Opportunities for Diabetes and COVID-19. While there was an emphasis on diabetes and its interactions with COVID-19, the panelists also discussed the COVID-19 pandemic in general. The meeting generated many novel ideas for collaboration between experts in medicine, science, government, and industry to develop new technologies and disease treatment paradigms to fight this global pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Geografia , Saúde Global , História do Século XX , Humanos , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Sociedades Médicas , Telemedicina/tendências
20.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 21(3): 199-211, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514930

RESUMO

The number of publications on deep learning for cancer diagnostics is rapidly increasing, and systems are frequently claimed to perform comparable with or better than clinicians. However, few systems have yet demonstrated real-world medical utility. In this Perspective, we discuss reasons for the moderate progress and describe remedies designed to facilitate transition to the clinic. Recent, presumably influential, deep learning studies in cancer diagnostics, of which the vast majority used images as input to the system, are evaluated to reveal the status of the field. By manipulating real data, we then exemplify that much and varied training data facilitate the generalizability of neural networks and thus the ability to use them clinically. To reduce the risk of biased performance estimation of deep learning systems, we advocate evaluation in external cohorts and strongly advise that the planned analyses, including a predefined primary analysis, are described in a protocol preferentially stored in an online repository. Recommended protocol items should be established for the field, and we present our suggestions.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Humanos
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