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1.
PLoS Genet ; 15(11): e1008480, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765389

RESUMO

Human population isolates provide a snapshot of the impact of historical demographic processes on population genetics. Such data facilitate studies of the functional impact of rare sequence variants on biomedical phenotypes, as strong genetic drift can result in higher frequencies of variants that are otherwise rare. We present the first whole genome sequencing (WGS) study of the VIKING cohort, a representative collection of samples from the isolated Shetland population in northern Scotland, and explore how its genetic characteristics compare to a mainland Scottish population. Our analyses reveal the strong contributions played by the founder effect and genetic drift in shaping genomic variation in the VIKING cohort. About one tenth of all high-quality variants discovered are unique to the VIKING cohort or are seen at frequencies at least ten fold higher than in more cosmopolitan control populations. Multiple lines of evidence also suggest relaxation of purifying selection during the evolutionary history of the Shetland isolate. We demonstrate enrichment of ultra-rare VIKING variants in exonic regions and for the first time we also show that ultra-rare variants are enriched within regulatory regions, particularly promoters, suggesting that gene expression patterns may diverge relatively rapidly in human isolates.


Assuntos
Demografia , Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Alelos , Cromatina/genética , Europa (Continente) , Éxons/genética , Efeito Fundador , Deriva Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Escócia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 19064-19070, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481615

RESUMO

Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these populations will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population structure analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and "Celtic" to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural cohorts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Irlanda , Ilhas , Escócia
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10964, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358886

RESUMO

The Viking Health Study Shetland is a population-based research cohort of 2,122 volunteer participants with ancestry from the Shetland Isles in northern Scotland. The high kinship and detailed phenotype data support a range of approaches for associating rare genetic variants, enriched in this isolate population, with quantitative traits and diseases. As an exemplar, the c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser variant within the coding sequence of the KCNH2 gene implicated in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), which occurred once in 500 whole genome sequences from this population, was investigated. Targeted sequencing of the KCNH2 gene in family members of the initial participant confirmed the presence of the sequence variant and identified two further members of the same family pedigree who shared the variant. Investigation of these three related participants for whom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array genotypes were available allowed a unique shared haplotype of 1.22 Mb to be defined around this locus. Searching across the full cohort for this haplotype uncovered two additional apparently unrelated individuals with no known genealogical connection to the original kindred. All five participants with the defined haplotype were shown to share the rare variant by targeted Sanger sequencing. If this result were verified in a healthcare setting, it would be considered clinically actionable, and has been actioned in relatives ascertained independently through clinical presentation. The General Practitioners of four study participants with the rare variant were alerted to the research findings by letters outlining the phenotype (prolonged electrocardiographic QTc interval). A lack of detectable haplotype sharing between c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser chromosomes from previously reported individuals from Finland and those in this study from Shetland suggests that this mutation has arisen more than once in human history. This study showcases the potential value of isolate population-based research resources for genomic medicine. It also illustrates some challenges around communication of actionable findings in research participants in this context.


Assuntos
Canal de Potássio ERG1/genética , Haplótipos , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Escócia
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2373, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147538

RESUMO

We aimed to develop an efficient, flexible and scalable approach to diagnostic genome-wide sequence analysis of genetically heterogeneous clinical presentations. Here we present G2P ( www.ebi.ac.uk/gene2phenotype ) as an online system to establish, curate and distribute datasets for diagnostic variant filtering via association of allelic requirement and mutational consequence at a defined locus with phenotypic terms, confidence level and evidence links. An extension to Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor (VEP), VEP-G2P was used to filter both disease-associated and control whole exome sequence (WES) with Developmental Disorders G2P (G2PDD; 2044 entries). VEP-G2PDD shows a sensitivity/precision of 97.3%/33% for de novo and 81.6%/22.7% for inherited pathogenic genotypes respectively. Many of the missing genotypes are likely false-positive pathogenic assignments. The expected number and discriminative features of background genotypes are defined using control WES. Using only human genetic data VEP-G2P performs well compared to other freely-available diagnostic systems and future phenotypic matching capabilities should further enhance performance.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Testes Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Alelos , Genótipo , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 44, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984878

RESUMO

Background: DNA methylation reflects health-related environmental exposures and genetic risk, providing insights into aetiological mechanisms and potentially predicting disease onset, progression and treatment response. An increasingly recognised need for large-scale, longitudinally-profiled samples collected world-wide has made the development of efficient and straightforward sample collection and storage procedures a pressing issue. An alternative to the low-temperature storage of EDTA tubes of venous blood samples, which are frequently the source of the DNA used in such studies, is to collect and store at room temperature blood samples using purpose built filter paper, such as Whatman FTA® cards. Our goal was to determine whether DNA stored in this manner can be used to generate DNA methylation profiles comparable to those generated using blood samples frozen in EDTA tubes. Methods: DNA methylation profiles were obtained from matched EDTA tube and Whatman FTA® card whole-blood samples from 62 Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study participants using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Multiple quality control procedures were implemented, the relationship between the two sample types assessed, and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) performed for smoking status, age and the interaction between these variables and sample storage method. Results: Dried blood spot (DBS) DNA methylation profiles were of good quality and DNA methylation profiles from matched DBS and EDTA tube samples were highly correlated (mean r = 0.991) and could distinguish between participants. EWASs replicated established associations for smoking and age, with no evidence for moderation by storage method. Conclusions: Our results support the use of Whatman FTA® cards for collecting and storing blood samples for DNA methylation profiling. This approach is likely to be particularly beneficial for large-scale studies and those carried out in areas where freezer access is limited. Furthermore, our results will inform consideration of the use of newborn heel prick DBSs for research use.

7.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
8.
BMC Med Ethics ; 18(1): 80, 2017 12 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Issues of balancing data accessibility with ethical considerations and governance of a genomics research biobank, Generation Scotland, are explored within the evolving policy landscape of the past ten years. During this time data sharing and open data access have become increasingly important topics in biomedical research. Decisions around data access are influenced by local arrangements for governance and practices such as linkage to health records, and the global through policies for biobanking and the sharing of data with large-scale biomedical research data resources and consortia. METHODS: We use a literature review of policy relevant documents which apply to the conduct of biobanks in two areas: support for open access and the protection of data subjects and researchers managing a bioresource. We present examples of decision making within a biobank based upon observations of the Generation Scotland Access Committee. We reflect upon how the drive towards open access raises ethical dilemmas for established biorepositories containing data and samples from human subjects. RESULTS: Despite much discussion in science policy literature about standardisation, the contextual aspects of biobanking are often overlooked. Using our engagement with GS we demonstrate the importance of local arrangements in the creation of a responsive ethical approach to biorepository governance. We argue that governance decisions regarding access to the biobank are intertwined with considerations about maintenance and viability at the local level. We show that in addition to the focus upon ever more universal and standardised practices, the local expertise gained in the management of such repositories must be supported. CONCLUSIONS: A commitment to open access in genomics research has found almost universal backing in science and health policy circles, but repositories of data and samples from human subjects may have to operate under managed access, to protect privacy, align with participant consent and ensure that the resource can be managed in a sustainable way. Data access committees need to be reflexive and flexible, to cope with changing technology and opportunities and threats from the wider data sharing environment. To understand these interactions also involves nurturing what is particular about the biobank in its local context.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Genômica/ética , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Responsabilidade Social
9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 2: 85, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062915

RESUMO

This article provides the first detailed demonstration of the research value of the Electronic Health Record (EHR) linked to research data in Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) participants, together with how to access this data. The structured, coded variables in the routine biochemistry, prescribing and morbidity records, in particular, represent highly valuable phenotypic data for a genomics research resource. Access to a wealth of other specialized datasets, including cancer, mental health and maternity inpatient information, is also possible through the same straightforward and transparent application process. The EHR linked dataset is a key component of GS:SFHS, a biobank conceived in 1999 for the purpose of studying the genetics of health areas of current and projected public health importance. Over 24,000 adults were recruited from 2006 to 2011, with broad and enduring written informed consent for biomedical research. Consent was obtained from 23,603 participants for GS:SFHS study data to be linked to their Scottish National Health Service (NHS) records, using their Community Health Index number. This identifying number is used for NHS Scotland procedures (registrations, attendances, samples, prescribing and investigations) and allows healthcare records for individuals to be linked across time and location. Here, we describe the NHS EHR dataset on the sub-cohort of 20,032 GS:SFHS participants with consent and mechanism for record linkage plus extensive genetic data. Together with existing study phenotypes, including family history and environmental exposures, such as smoking, the EHR is a rich resource of real world data that can be used in research to characterise the health trajectory of participants, available at low cost and a high degree of timeliness, matched to DNA, urine and serum samples and genome-wide genetic information.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(8)2017 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of preclinical cardiac dysfunction and prognosis of left ventricular heart failure (HF) would allow targeted intervention, and appears to be the most promising approach in its management. Novel biomarker panels may support this approach and provide new insights into the pathophysiology. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective comparison of urinary proteomic profiles generated by mass spectrometric analysis from 49 HF patients, 36 patients who progressed to HF within 2.6±1.6 years, and 192 sex- and age-matched controls who did not progress to HF enabled identification of 96 potentially HF-specific peptide biomarkers. Based on these 96 peptides, the classifier called Heart Failure Predictor (HFP) was established by support vector machine modeling. The incremental prognostic value of HFP was subsequently evaluated in urine samples from 175 individuals with asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction from an independent population cohort. Within 4.8 years, 17 of these individuals progressed to overt HF. The area under receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56-0.82); P=0.0047 for HFP and 0.57 (0.42-0.72; P=0.62) for N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide. Hazard ratios were 1.63 (CI, 1.04-2.55; P=0.032) per 1-SD increment in HFP and 0.70 (CI, 0.35-1.41; P=0.32) for a doubling of the logarithmically transformed N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: HFP is a novel biomarker derived from the urinary proteome and might serve as a sensitive tool to improve risk stratification, patient management, and understanding of the pathophysiology of HF.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/urina , Peptídeos/urina , Proteômica/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/urina , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/urina , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Fatores de Tempo , Urinálise , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
11.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 23, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28270201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a family-based population cohort with DNA, biological samples, socio-demographic, psychological and clinical data from approximately 24,000 adult volunteers across Scotland. Although data collection was cross-sectional, GS:SFHS became a prospective cohort due to of the ability to link to routine Electronic Health Record (EHR) data. Over 20,000 participants were selected for genotyping using a large genome-wide array. METHODS: GS:SFHS was analysed using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test the effects of a large spectrum of variants, imputed using the Haplotype Research Consortium (HRC) dataset, on medically relevant traits measured directly or obtained from EHRs. The HRC dataset is the largest available haplotype reference panel for imputation of variants in populations of European ancestry and allows investigation of variants with low minor allele frequencies within the entire GS:SFHS genotyped cohort. RESULTS: Genome-wide associations were run on 20,032 individuals using both genotyped and HRC imputed data. We present results for a range of well-studied quantitative traits obtained from clinic visits and for serum urate measures obtained from data linkage to EHRs collected by the Scottish National Health Service. Results replicated known associations and additionally reveal novel findings, mainly with rare variants, validating the use of the HRC imputation panel. For example, we identified two new associations with fasting glucose at variants near to Y_RNA and WDR4 and four new associations with heart rate at SNPs within CSMD1 and ASPH, upstream of HTR1F and between PROKR2 and GPCPD1. All were driven by rare variants (minor allele frequencies in the range of 0.08-1%). Proof of principle for use of EHRs was verification of the highly significant association of urate levels with the well-established urate transporter SLC2A9. CONCLUSIONS: GS:SFHS provides genetic data on over 20,000 participants alongside a range of phenotypes as well as linkage to National Health Service laboratory and clinical records. We have shown that the combination of deeper genotype imputation and extended phenotype availability make GS:SFHS an attractive resource to carry out association studies to gain insight into the genetic architecture of complex traits.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Glicemia/genética , Estudos Transversais , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Jejum , Feminino , Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Escócia , Ácido Úrico/sangue
12.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 416-425, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166213

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by reduced lung function and is the third leading cause of death globally. Through genome-wide association discovery in 48,943 individuals, selected from extremes of the lung function distribution in UK Biobank, and follow-up in 95,375 individuals, we increased the yield of independent signals for lung function from 54 to 97. A genetic risk score was associated with COPD susceptibility (odds ratio per 1 s.d. of the risk score (∼6 alleles) (95% confidence interval) = 1.24 (1.20-1.27), P = 5.05 × 10-49), and we observed a 3.7-fold difference in COPD risk between individuals in the highest and lowest genetic risk score deciles in UK Biobank. The 97 signals show enrichment in genes for development, elastic fibers and epigenetic regulation pathways. We highlight targets for drugs and compounds in development for COPD and asthma (genes in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and CHRM3) and describe targets for potential drug repositioning from other clinical indications.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nature ; 536(7617): 419-24, 2016 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459054

RESUMO

We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000 and 1,400 bc, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a 'Basal Eurasian' lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages before their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to greatly reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those of Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Genômica , Migração Humana/história , Filogenia , África Oriental , Animais , Armênia , Ásia , DNA/análise , Europa (Continente) , História Antiga , Humanos , Hibridização Genética/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Israel , Jordânia , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Filogeografia , Turquia
14.
Intelligence ; 44(100): 26-32, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24944428

RESUMO

Education, socioeconomic status, and intelligence are commonly used as predictors of health outcomes, social environment, and mortality. Education and socioeconomic status are typically viewed as environmental variables although both correlate with intelligence, which has a substantial genetic basis. Using data from 6815 unrelated subjects from the Generation Scotland study, we examined the genetic contributions to these variables and their genetic correlations. Subjects underwent genome-wide testing for common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA-derived heritability estimates and genetic correlations were calculated using the 'Genome-wide Complex Trait Analyses' (GCTA) procedures. 21% of the variation in education, 18% of the variation in socioeconomic status, and 29% of the variation in general cognitive ability was explained by variation in common SNPs (SEs ~ 5%). The SNP-based genetic correlations of education and socioeconomic status with general intelligence were 0.95 (SE 0.13) and 0.26 (0.16), respectively. There are genetic contributions to intelligence and education with near-complete overlap between common additive SNP effects on these traits (genetic correlation ~ 1). Genetic influences on socioeconomic status are also associated with the genetic foundations of intelligence. The results are also compatible with substantial environmental contributions to socioeconomic status.

15.
BMC Med Genet ; 15: 70, 2014 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24956927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common Mendelian condition which, untreated, results in premature coronary heart disease. An estimated 88% of FH cases are undiagnosed in the UK. We previously validated a method for FH mutation detection in a lipid clinic population using next generation sequencing (NGS), but this did not address the challenge of identifying index cases in primary care where most undiagnosed patients receive healthcare. Here, we evaluate the targeted use of NGS as a potential route to diagnosis of FH in a primary care population subset selected for hypercholesterolaemia. METHODS: We used microfluidics-based PCR amplification coupled with NGS and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to detect mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 in three phenotypic groups within the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study including 193 individuals with high total cholesterol, 232 with moderately high total cholesterol despite cholesterol-lowering therapy, and 192 normocholesterolaemic controls. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were found in 2.1% of hypercholesterolaemic individuals, in 2.2% of subjects on cholesterol-lowering therapy and in 42% of their available first-degree relatives. In addition, variants of uncertain clinical significance (VUCS) were detected in 1.4% of the hypercholesterolaemic and cholesterol-lowering therapy groups. No pathogenic variants or VUCS were detected in controls. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that population-based genetic testing using these protocols is able to deliver definitive molecular diagnoses of FH in individuals with high cholesterol or on cholesterol-lowering therapy. The lower cost and labour associated with NGS-based testing may increase the attractiveness of a population-based approach to FH detection compared to genetic testing with conventional sequencing. This could provide one route to increasing the present low percentage of FH cases with a genetic diagnosis.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9 , Pró-Proteína Convertases/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Escócia/epidemiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
16.
Behav Genet ; 44(2): 91-6, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24554214

RESUMO

Greater height and higher intelligence test scores are predictors of better health outcomes. Here, we used molecular (single-nucleotide polymorphism) data to estimate the genetic correlation between height and general intelligence (g) in 6,815 unrelated subjects (median age 57, IQR 49-63) from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study cohort. The phenotypic correlation between height and g was 0.16 (SE 0.01). The genetic correlation between height and g was 0.28 (SE 0.09) with a bivariate heritability estimate of 0.71. Understanding the molecular basis of the correlation between height and intelligence may help explain any shared role in determining health outcomes. This study identified a modest genetic correlation between height and intelligence with the majority of the phenotypic correlation being explained by shared genetic influences.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Variação Genética , Inteligência/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Fenótipo , Escócia
17.
BMC Med Genet ; 14: 38, 2013 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23521772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) is a family-based biobank of 24,000 participants with rich phenotype and DNA available for genetic research. This paper describes the laboratory results from genotyping 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on DNA from over 10,000 participants who attended GS:SFHS research clinics. The analysis described here was undertaken to test the quality of genetic information available to researchers. The success rate of each marker genotyped (call rate), minor allele frequency and adherence to Mendelian inheritance are presented. The few deviations in marker transmission in the 925 parent-child trios analysed were assessed as to whether they were likely to be miscalled genotypes, data or sample handling errors, or pedigree inaccuracies including non-paternity. METHODS: The first 10,450 GS:SFHS clinic participants who had spirometry and smoking data available and DNA extracted were selected. 32 SNPs were assayed, chosen as part of a replication experiment from a Genome-Wide Association Study meta-analysis of lung function. RESULTS: In total 325,336 genotypes were returned. The overall project pass rate (32 SNPs on 10,450 samples) was 97.29%. A total of 925 parent-child trios were assessed for transmission of the SNP markers, with 16 trios indicating evidence of inconsistency in the recorded pedigrees. CONCLUSIONS: The Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study used well-validated study methods and can produce good quality genetic data, with a low error rate. The GS:SFHS DNA samples are of high quality and the family groups were recorded and processed with accuracy during collection of the cohort.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Saúde da Família , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Família , Características da Família , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra , Escócia/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 42(3): 689-700, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786799

RESUMO

GS:SFHS is a family-based genetic epidemiology study with DNA and socio-demographic and clinical data from about 24 000 volunteers across Scotland aged 18-98 years, from February 2006 to March 2011. Biological samples and anonymized data form a resource for research on the genetics of health, disease and quantitative traits of current and projected public health importance. Specific and important features of GS:SFHS include the family-based recruitment, with the intent of obtaining family groups; the breadth and depth of phenotype information, including detailed data on cognitive function, personality traits and mental health; consent and mechanisms for linkage of all data to comprehensive routine health-care records; and 'broad' consent from participants to use their data and samples for a wide range of medical research, including commercial research, and for re-contact for the potential collection of other data or samples, or for participation in related studies and the design and review of the protocol in parallel with in-depth sociological research on (potential) participants and users of the research outcomes. These features were designed to maximize the power of the resource to identify, replicate or control for genetic factors associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses and risk factors, both now and in the future.


Assuntos
DNA/análise , Saúde da Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Linhagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Pesquisa em Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 184(7): 786-95, 2011 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21965014

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Genomic loci are associated with FEV1 or the ratio of FEV1 to FVC in population samples, but their association with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not yet been proven, nor have their combined effects on lung function and COPD been studied. OBJECTIVES: To test association with COPD of variants at five loci (TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4) and to evaluate joint effects on lung function and COPD of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and variants at the previously reported locus near HHIP. METHODS: By sampling from 12 population-based studies (n = 31,422), we obtained genotype data on 3,284 COPD case subjects and 17,538 control subjects for sentinel SNPs in TNS1, GSTCD, HTR4, AGER, and THSD4. In 24,648 individuals (including 2,890 COPD case subjects and 13,862 control subjects), we additionally obtained genotypes for rs12504628 near HHIP. Each allele associated with lung function decline at these six SNPs contributed to a risk score. We studied the association of the risk score to lung function and COPD. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Association with COPD was significant for three loci (TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4) and the previously reported HHIP locus, and suggestive and directionally consistent for AGER and TSHD4. Compared with the baseline group (7 risk alleles), carrying 10-12 risk alleles was associated with a reduction in FEV1 (ß = -72.21 ml, P = 3.90 × 10(-4)) and FEV1/FVC (ß = -1.53%, P = 6.35 × 10(-6)), and with COPD (odds ratio = 1.63, P = 1.46 × 10(-5)). CONCLUSIONS: Variants in TNS1, GSTCD, and HTR4 are associated with COPD. Our highest risk score category was associated with a 1.6-fold higher COPD risk than the population average score.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Variação Genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Capacidade Vital/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores 5-HT4 de Serotonina/genética , Tensinas , Trombospondina 1/genética
20.
BMC Med Genet ; 11: 166, 2010 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21092308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many medical disorders of public health importance are complex diseases caused by multiple genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Recent technological advances have made it possible to analyse the genetic variants that predispose to complex diseases. Reliable detection of these variants requires genome-wide association studies in sufficiently large numbers of cases and controls. This approach is often hampered by difficulties in collecting appropriate control samples. The Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank (GS:3D) aims to help solve this problem by providing a resource of control DNA and plasma samples accessible for research. METHODS: GS:3D participants were recruited from volunteer blood donors attending Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) clinics across Scotland. All participants gave full written consent for GS:3D to take spare blood from their normal donation. Participants also supplied demographic data by completing a short questionnaire. RESULTS: Over five thousand complete sets of samples, data and consent forms were collected. DNA and plasma were extracted and stored. The data and samples were unlinked from their original SNBTS identifier number. The plasma, DNA and demographic data are available for research. New data obtained from analysis of the resource will be fed back to GS:3D and will be made available to other researchers as appropriate. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment of blood donors is an efficient and cost-effective way of collecting thousands of control samples. Because the collection is large, subsets of controls can be selected, based on age range, gender, and ethnic or geographic origin. The GS:3D resource should reduce time and expense for investigators who would otherwise have had to recruit their own controls.


Assuntos
Grupos Controle , DNA/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Doadores de Sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Escócia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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