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1.
Lancet Digit Health ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histopathological assessment of transplant biopsies is currently the standard method to diagnose allograft rejection and can help guide patient management, but it is one of the most challenging areas of pathology, requiring considerable expertise, time, and effort. We aimed to analyse the utility of deep learning to preclassify histology of kidney allograft biopsies into three main broad categories (ie, normal, rejection, and other diseases) as a potential biopsy triage system focusing on transplant rejection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective, multicentre, proof-of-concept study using 5844 digital whole slide images of kidney allograft biopsies from 1948 patients. Kidney allograft biopsy samples were identified by a database search in the Departments of Pathology of the Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1130 patients) and the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands (717 patients). 101 consecutive kidney transplant biopsies were identified in the archive of the Institute of Pathology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were trained to classify allograft biopsies as normal, rejection, or other diseases. Three times cross-validation (1847 patients) and deployment on an external real-world cohort (101 patients) were used for validation. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used as the main performance metric (the primary endpoint to assess CNN performance). FINDINGS: Serial CNNs, first classifying kidney allograft biopsies as normal (AUROC 0·87 [ten times bootstrapped CI 0·85-0·88]) and disease (0·87 [0·86-0·88]), followed by a second CNN classifying biopsies classified as disease into rejection (0·75 [0·73-0·76]) and other diseases (0·75 [0·72-0·77]), showed similar AUROC in cross-validation and deployment on independent real-world data (first CNN normal AUROC 0·83 [0·80-0·85], disease 0·83 [0·73-0·91]; second CNN rejection 0·61 [0·51-0·70], other diseases 0·61 [0·50-0·74]). A single CNN classifying biopsies as normal, rejection, or other diseases showed similar performance in cross-validation (normal AUROC 0·80 [0·73-0·84], rejection 0·76 [0·66-0·80], other diseases 0·50 [0·36-0·57]) and generalised well for normal and rejection classes in the real-world data. Visualisation techniques highlighted rejection-relevant areas of biopsies in the tubulointerstitium. INTERPRETATION: This study showed that deep learning-based classification of transplant biopsies could support pathological diagnostics of kidney allograft rejection. FUNDING: European Research Council; German Research Foundation; German Federal Ministries of Education and Research, Health, and Economic Affairs and Energy; Dutch Kidney Foundation; Human(e) AI Research Priority Area of the University of Amsterdam; and Max-Eder Programme of German Cancer Aid.

2.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3478-3491, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505883

RESUMO

Trauma-induced organ failure is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its cleaving enzyme, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13) in the occurrence of endothelial permeability and organ failure in trauma. In an observational study in a level-1 trauma center, 169 adult trauma patients with clinical signs of shock and/or severe injuries were included. Trauma was associated with low ADAMTS13 and high VWF antigen levels, thus generating an imbalance of ADAMTS13 to VWF. Patients who developed organ failure (23%) had greater ADAMTS13-to-VWF imbalances, persistently lower platelet counts, and elevated levels of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers compared with those without organ failure, suggesting microthrombi formation. To investigate the effect of replenishing low ADAMTS13 levels on endothelial permeability and organ failure using either recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) or plasma transfusion, a rat model of trauma-induced shock and transfusion was used. Rats in traumatic hemorrhagic shock were randomized to receive crystalloids, crystalloids supplemented with rhADAMTS13, or plasma transfusion. A 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran was injected to determine endothelial leakage. Additionally, organs were histologically assessed. Both plasma transfusion and rhADAMTS13 were associated with a reduction in pulmonary endothelial permeability and organ injury when compared with resuscitation with crystalloids, but only rhADAMTS13 resulted in significant improvement of a trauma-induced decline in ADAMTS13 levels. We conclude that rhADAMTS13 and plasma transfusion can reduce organ failure following trauma. These findings implicate the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in the pathogenesis of organ failure.


Assuntos
Trombose , Fator de von Willebrand , Proteína ADAMTS13 , Animais , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Humanos , Plasma , Ratos
3.
Lab Invest ; 101(8): 970-982, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006891

RESUMO

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a strong risk factor for development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) in kidney transplants. Quantitative assessment of inflammatory infiltrates in kidney biopsies of DGF patients can reveal predictive markers for IFTA development. In this study, we combined multiplex tyramide signal amplification (mTSA) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to assess the inflammatory microenvironment in kidney biopsies of DGF patients (n = 22) taken at 6 weeks post-transplantation. Patients were stratified for IFTA development (<10% versus ≥10%) from 6 weeks to 6 months post-transplantation, based on histopathological assessment by three kidney pathologists. One mTSA panel was developed for visualization of capillaries, T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages and a second mTSA panel for T-helper cell and macrophage subsets. The slides were multi spectrally imaged and custom-made python scripts enabled conversion to artificial brightfield whole-slide images (WSI). We used an existing CNN for the detection of lymphocytes with cytoplasmatic staining patterns in immunohistochemistry and developed two new CNNs for the detection of macrophages and nuclear-stained lymphocytes. F1-scores were 0.77 (nuclear-stained lymphocytes), 0.81 (cytoplasmatic-stained lymphocytes), and 0.82 (macrophages) on a test set of artificial brightfield WSI. The CNNs were used to detect inflammatory cells, after which we assessed the peritubular capillary extent, cell density, cell ratios, and cell distance in the two patient groups. In this cohort, distance of macrophages to other immune cells and peritubular capillary extent did not vary significantly at 6 weeks post-transplantation between patient groups. CD163+ cell density was higher in patients with ≥10% IFTA development 6 months post-transplantation (p < 0.05). CD3+CD8-/CD3+CD8+ ratios were higher in patients with <10% IFTA development (p < 0.05). We observed a high correlation between CD163+ and CD4+GATA3+ cell density (R = 0.74, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that CNNs can be used to leverage reliable, quantitative results from mTSA-stained, multi spectrally imaged slides of kidney transplant biopsies.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Transplante de Rim , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Imunologia de Transplantes , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(3): 855-862, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777368

RESUMO

Background: In systemic amyloidosis, the kidney is frequently affected and renal involvement has a major impact on survival. Renal involvement is clinically characterized by decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria. The two most common renal amyloidosis types are light chain-related amyloidosis (AL) and serum amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. Standardized histopathological scoring of amyloid deposits is crucial to assess disease progression. Therefore, we aimed to validate the proposed scoring system from Rubinstein et al. (Novel pathologic scoring tools predict end-stage kidney disease in light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Amyloid 2017; 24: 205-211) in an independent patient cohort. Methods: We attempt to reproduce the scoring system, consisting of an amyloid score (AS) and a composite scarring injury score (CSIS), in a multicentre AL and AA case series. Additionally, we analysed all renal amyloidosis kidney biopsies performed in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2012. Results: Similar to the original study, AS and CSIS correlated to eGFR (r = -0.45, P = 0.0061 and r = -0.60, P < 0.0001, respectively) but not to proteinuria at diagnosis. Furthermore, AS, but not CSIS, was associated with renal outcome. The scoring system was not reproducible in AA patients. The median incidence rate for renal amyloidosis in the Netherlands was 2.3 per million population per year, and increased during the study period. Conclusions: In our AL case series and the original study, AS and CSIS were correlated to eGFR but not to proteinuria, and AS correlated with renal outcome. Overall, we regard this scoring system as competent for standardized histopathological assessment of amyloid deposits burden and thereby disease advancement in renal biopsies.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(5): 958-966, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced shock is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We examined whether the tyrosine kinase inhibitor bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced blood component resuscitation strategy reduces trauma-induced endothelial permeability, thereby improving shock reversal and limiting transfusion requirements and organ failure in a rat polytrauma transfusion model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13 per group) were traumatised and exsanguinated until a MAP of 40 mm Hg was reached, then randomised to two groups: red blood cells, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio with either bosutinib or vehicle. Controls were randomised to sham (median laparotomy, no trauma) with bosutinib or vehicle. Organs were harvested for histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. RESULTS: Traumatic injury resulted in shock, with higher lactate levels compared with controls. In trauma-induced shock, the resuscitation volume needed to obtain a MAP of 60 mm Hg was lower in bosutinib-treated animals (2.8 [2.7-3.2] ml kg-1) compared with vehicle (6.1 [5.1-7.2] ml kg-1, P<0.001). Lactate levels in the bosutinib group were 2.9 [1.7-4.8] mM compared with 6.2 [3.1-14.1] mM in the vehicle group (P=0.06). Bosutinib compared with vehicle reduced lung vascular leakage (W/D ratio of 5.1 [4.6-5.3] vs 5.7 [5.4-6.0] (P=0.046) and lung injury scores (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced transfusion strategy reduced resuscitation volume, improved shock reversal, and reduced vascular leak and organ injury in a rat polytrauma model.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Traumatismo Múltiplo/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque/etiologia
6.
Clin Kidney J ; 14(1): 358-365, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564439

RESUMO

Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small cell-derived vesicles that can alter disease progression by microRNA (miRNA) transfer. Methods: In this study, we aimed to characterize the cellular origin and miRNA content of EVs in plasma samples of type 2 diabetes patients at various stages of DN. Type 2 diabetes patients were classified in three groups: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria. The concentration and cellular origin of plasma EVs were measured by flow cytometry. A total of 752 EV miRNAs were profiled in 18 subjects and differentially expressed miRNAs were validated. Results: Diabetic patients with microalbuminuria and/or macroalbuminuria showed elevated concentrations of total EVs and EVs from endothelial cells, platelets, leucocytes and erythrocytes compared with diabetic controls. miR-99a-5p was upregulated in macroalbuminuric patients compared with normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric patients. Transfection of miR-99a-5p in cultured human podocytes downregulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein expression and downregulated the podocyte injury marker vimentin. Conclusions: Type 2 diabetes patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria display differential EV profiles. miR-99a-5p expression is elevated in EVs from macroalbuminuria and mTOR is its validated mRNA target.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 21(9): 3055-3065, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565206

RESUMO

After renal transplantation, there is a need for immunosuppressive regimens which effectively prevent allograft rejection, while preserving renal function and minimizing side effects. From this perspective, mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy is of interest. In this randomized prospective, single-center, open-label trial, we compared MSCs infused 6 and 7 weeks after renal transplantation and early tacrolimus withdrawal with a control tacrolimus group. Primary end point was quantitative evaluation of interstitial fibrosis in protocol biopsies at 4 and 24 weeks posttransplant. Secondary end points included acute rejection, graft loss, death, renal function, adverse events, and immunological responses. Seventy patients were randomly assigned of which 57 patients were included in the final analysis (29 MSC; 28 controls). Quantitative progression of fibrosis failed to show benefit in the MSC group and GFR remained stable in both groups. One acute rejection was documented (MSC group), while subclinical rejection in week 24 protocol biopsies occurred in seven patients (four MSC; three controls). In the MSC group, regulatory T cell numbers were significantly higher compared to controls (p = .014, week 24). In conclusion, early tacrolimus withdrawal with MSC therapy was safe and feasible without increased rejection and with preserved renal function. MSC therapy is a potentially useful approach after renal transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Medula Óssea , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Tacrolimo
8.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At border sites, and in internal organs, tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) contribute to the immune barrier against pathogens like viruses, bacteria, fungi, and cancer. However, information on the presence and function of these cells in the human kidney is scant. In order to better understand the T cell-mediated immunological defense in this organ, we aimed to determine phenotypic and functional aspects of CD8 and CD4 T cells present in healthy and allograft kidney tissue. METHODS: Using multichannel flow cytometry, we assessed the phenotype and function of T cells in healthy renal tissue samples (n = 5) and kidney allograft tissue (n = 7) and compared these aspects to T cells in peripheral blood from healthy controls (n = 13). RESULTS: Kidney tissue samples contained substantial amounts of CD8 and CD4 T cells. In contrast to the circulating cells, kidney T cells frequently expressed CD69 and CD103, and were more often actively cycling. Furthermore, nearly all kidney T cells expressed CXCR3, and often expressed CXCR6 compared to T cells in the circulation. Markedly, kidney T cells produced greater quantities of IFNγ than circulating cells and were frequently polyfunctional. CONCLUSION: Functional T cells with the characteristic traits of TRM reside in human kidney tissues. These cells are more often actively cycling and frequently express CXCR3 and CXCR6.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Idoso , Humanos
9.
Lupus ; 30(3): 495-501, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407043

RESUMO

Introduction: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare subtype of gestational trophoblastic disease. Association of PSTT and nephrotic syndrome is exceedingly rare and has been described in 8 cases thus far. In all cases hysterectomy was performed within months after onset of symptoms, leading to immediate remission of nephrotic syndrome, except for one patient who died of complications of PSTT. Case: We describe the history of a woman in which PSTT was discovered years after onset of nephrotic syndrome. Kidney biopsy revealed lupus-like mesangiocapillary nephritis and over time the patient developed additional symptoms mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Discussion: We provide an overview of the literature on this clinical entity and elaborate on its pathophysiology. In addition, we reflect on the phenomenon of anchoring bias, that led physicians to assume the patient had SLE without questioning this diagnosis in the light of the unexplained finding of increased tumor markers.


Assuntos
Tumor Trofoblástico de Localização Placentária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Erros de Diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia , Nefrite Lúpica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Tumor Trofoblástico de Localização Placentária/patologia , Tumor Trofoblástico de Localização Placentária/cirurgia
10.
Kidney Int ; 99(1): 17-19, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390226

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI), and particularly deep learning (DL), are showing great potential in improving pathology diagnostics in many aspects, 1 of which is the segmentation of histology into (diagnostically) relevant compartments. Although most current studies focus on AI and DL in oncologic pathology, an increasing number of studies explore their application to nephropathology, including the study published in this issue of Kidney International by Jayapandian et al.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado Profundo , Corantes , Rim , Córtex Renal
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 368-382, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibrotic disorder that has been linked to CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD4+CTLs). The effector phenotype of CD4+CTLs and the relevance of both CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+CTLs) and apoptotic cell death remain undefined in IgG4-RD. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define CD4+CTL heterogeneity, characterize the CD8+CTL response in the blood and in lesions, and determine whether enhanced apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. METHODS: Blood analyses were undertaken using flow cytometry, cell sorting, transcriptomic analyses at the population and single-cell levels, and next-generation sequencing for the TCR repertoire. Tissues were interrogated using multicolor immunofluorescence. Results were correlated with clinical data. RESULTS: We establish that among circulating CD4+CTLs in IgG4-RD, CD27loCD28loCD57hi cells are the dominant effector subset, exhibit marked clonal expansion, and differentially express genes relevant to cytotoxicity, activation, and enhanced metabolism. We also observed prominent infiltration of granzyme A-expressing CD8+CTLs in disease tissues and clonal expansion in the blood of effector/memory CD8+ T cells with an activated and cytotoxic phenotype. Tissue studies revealed an abundance of cells undergoing apoptotic cell death disproportionately involving nonimmune, nonendothelial cells of mesenchymal origin. Apoptotic cells showed significant upregulation of HLA-DR. CONCLUSIONS: CD4+CTLs and CD8+CTLs may induce apoptotic cell death in tissues of patients with IgG4-RD with preferential targeting of nonendothelial, nonimmune cells of mesenchymal origin.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/imunologia , Apoptose/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Doença Relacionada a Imunoglobulina G4/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia
12.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036366

RESUMO

The PRO-C6 assay, a reflection of collagen type VI synthesis, has been proposed as a non-invasive early biomarker of kidney fibrosis. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between plasma and urine PRO-C6 and proven histological changes after kidney transplantation. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of 94 participants of the MECANO trial, a 24-month prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed at comparing everolimus-based vs. cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. PRO-C6 was measured in plasma and urine samples collected 6 and 24 months post-transplantation. Fibrosis was evaluated in biopsies collected at the same time points by Banff interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) scoring and collagen staining (Picro Sirius Red; PSR); inflammation was evaluated by the tubulo-interstitial inflammation score (ti-score). Linear regression analyses were performed. Six-month plasma PRO-C6 was cross-sectionally associated with IF/TA score (Std. ß = 0.34), and prospectively with 24-month IF/TA score and ti-score (Std. ß = 0.24 and 0.23, respectively) (p < 0.05 for all). No significant associations were found between urine PRO-C6 and any of the biopsy findings. Fibrotic changes and urine PRO-C6 behaved differentially over time according to immunosuppressive therapy. These results are a first step towards non-invasive fibrosis detection after kidney transplantation by means of collagen VI synthesis measurement, and further research is required.

13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733450

RESUMO

Renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), a common event after renal transplantation, causes acute kidney injury (AKI), increases the risk of delayed graft function (DGF), primes the donor kidney for rejection, and contributes to the long-term risk of graft loss. In the last decade, epidemiological studies have linked even mild episodes of AKI to chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, and innate immunity seems to play a crucial role. The ischemic insult triggers an acute inflammatory reaction that is elicited by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), expressed on both infiltrating immune cells as well as tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Among the PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), their synergistic receptors, Nod-like receptors (NLRs), and the inflammasomes, play a pivotal role in shaping inflammation and TEC repair, in response to renal IRI. These receptors represent promising targets to modulate the extent of inflammation, but also function as gatekeepers of tissue repair, protecting against AKI-to-CKD progression. Despite the important considerations on timely use of therapeutics, in the context of IRI, treatment options are limited by a lack of understanding of the intra- and intercellular mechanisms associated with the activation of innate immune receptors and their impact on adaptive tubular repair. Accumulating evidence suggests that TEC-associated innate immunity shapes the tubular response to stress through the regulation of immunometabolism. Engagement of innate immune receptors provides TECs with the metabolic flexibility necessary for their plasticity during injury and repair. This could significantly affect pathogenic processes within TECs, such as cell death, mitochondrial damage, senescence, and pro-fibrotic cytokine secretion, well-known to exacerbate inflammation and fibrosis. This article provides an overview of the past 5 years of research on the role of innate immunity in experimental and human IRI, with a focus on the cascade of events activated by hypoxic damage in TECs: from programmed cell death (PCD) and mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated metabolic rewiring of TECs to maladaptive repair and progression to fibrosis. Finally, we will discuss the important crosstalk between metabolism and innate immunity observed in TECs and their therapeutic potential in both experimental and clinical research.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Imunidade Inata , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Senescência Celular , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Túbulos Renais/imunologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Ligantes , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Cicatrização
14.
Eur J Immunol ; 50(11): 1783-1797, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652598

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T-cells that recognize bacterial riboflavin metabolites. They are present in human blood but are abundant at barrier sites, including the liver, lungs, and kidneys, where they possess a CD69+ /CD103+/- tissue-resident phenotype. In renal tissue, MAIT cells likely defend against the ascending uropathogens responsible for urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are common, especially among renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Nevertheless, the functional role for MAIT cells in renal tissue and the influence of renal transplantation on MAIT cells remains unclear. Using multiparameter flow cytometry and the MR1-tetramer, we characterized MAIT cell phenotype and function in healthy renal tissue (n = 6), renal transplants explanted after allograft failure (n = 14) and in blood from healthy controls (n = 20) and RTRs before and 1-year after transplantation (n = 21). MAIT cells in renal tissue constitute a distinct CD69+ CD103+/- population that displays typical phenotypic features of tissue-resident T-cells and is skewed toward IL-2, GM-CSF, and IL-17A production upon stimulation. The circulating MAIT cell population was not decreased in number in RTRs pre- or post-transplantation. Tissue-resident MAIT cells in the kidney represent a functionally distinct population. This shows how MAIT cells in the kidney may be involved in the protection against microorganisms.


Assuntos
Rim/imunologia , Células T Invariantes Associadas à Mucosa/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Humanos , Cadeias alfa de Integrinas/imunologia , Transplante de Rim , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 2079-2089, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryopreserved platelet products can be stored for years and are mainly used in military settings. Following thawing, cryopreserved platelets are activated, resulting in faster clot formation but reduced aggregation in vitro, rendering their efficacy in bleeding unknown. Also, concerns remain on the safety of these products. The aim was to investigate the efficacy and safety of cryopreserved platelets in a rat model of traumatic hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: After 1 hour of shock, rats (n = 13/group) were randomized to receive a balanced transfusion pack (1:1:1 red blood cell:plasma:platelet) made from syngeneic rat blood, containing either liquid stored platelets or cryopreserved platelets. Primary outcome was the transfusion volume required to obtain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 mmHg. Secondary outcomes were coagulation as assessed by thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and organ failure as assessed by biochemistry and histopathology. RESULTS: The transfusion volume to obtain a MAP of 60 mmHg was lower in animals receiving cryopreserved platelets (5.4 [4.1-7.1] mL/kg) compared to those receiving liquid stored platelets (7.5 [6.4-8.5] mL/kg, p < 0.05). ROTEM® clotting times were shorter (45 [41-48] vs. 49 [45-53]sec, p < 0.05), while maximum clot firmness was slightly lower (68 [67-68] vs. 69 [69-71]mm, p < 0.01). Organ failure was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Use of cryopreserved platelets required less transfusion volume to reach a targeted MAP compared to liquid stored platelets, while organ injury was similar. These results provide a rationale for clinical trials with cryopreserved platelets in (traumatic) bleeding.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Preservação de Sangue , Criopreservação , Hemorragia , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Ferimentos e Lesões , Animais , Plaquetas/citologia , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Masculino , Ratos , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(9): 2392-2399, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185875

RESUMO

The Banff Digital Pathology Working Group (DPWG) was formed in the time leading up to and during the joint American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics/Banff Meeting, September 23-27, 2019, held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. At the meeting, the 14th Banff Conference, presentations directly and peripherally related to the topic of "digital pathology" were presented; and discussions before, during, and after the meeting have resulted in a list of issues to address for the DPWG. Included are practice standardization, integrative approaches for study classification, scoring of histologic parameters (eg, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and inflammation), algorithm classification, and precision diagnosis (eg, molecular pathways and therapeutics). Since the meeting, a survey with international participation of mostly pathologists (81%) was conducted, showing that whole slide imaging is available at the majority of centers (71%) but that artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning was only used in ≈12% of centers, with a wide variety of programs/algorithms employed. Digitalization is not just an end in itself. It also is a necessary precondition for AI and other approaches. Discussions at the meeting and the survey highlight the unmet need for a Banff DPWG and point the way toward future contributions that can be made.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Transplante de Rim , Inteligência Artificial , Biópsia , Rejeição de Enxerto , Humanos , Pennsylvania
17.
J Clin Invest ; 130(5): 2451-2464, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990684

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune fibrotic disease whose pathogenesis is poorly understood and lacks effective therapies. We undertook quantitative analyses of T cell infiltrates in the skin of 35 untreated patients with early diffuse SSc and here show that CD4+ cytotoxic T cells and CD8+ T cells contribute prominently to these infiltrates. We also observed an accumulation of apoptotic cells in SSc tissues, suggesting that recurring cell death may contribute to tissue damage and remodeling in this fibrotic disease. HLA-DR-expressing endothelial cells were frequent targets of apoptosis in SSc, consistent with the prominent vasculopathy seen in patients with this disease. A circulating effector population of cytotoxic CD4+ T cells, which exhibited signatures of enhanced metabolic activity, was clonally expanded in patients with systemic sclerosis. These data suggest that cytotoxic T cells may induce the apoptotic death of endothelial and other cells in systemic sclerosis. Cell loss driven by immune cells may be followed by overly exuberant tissue repair processes that lead to fibrosis and tissue dysfunction.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223264, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613876

RESUMO

Recently it was discovered that tissue-resident macrophages derive from embryonic precursors, not only from peripheral blood monocytes, and maintain themselves by self-renewal. Most in-vitro studies on macrophage biology make use of in-vitro cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages. Phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles by tissue-resident macrophages takes place via interaction with IgG receptors, the Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs). We investigated the FcγR expression on macrophages both in-vivo and ex-vivo from different human tissues. Upon isolation of primary human macrophages from bone marrow, spleen, liver and lung, we observed that macrophages from all studied tissues expressed high levels of FcγRIII, which was in direct contrast with the low expression on blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Expression levels of FcγRI were highly variable, with bone marrow macrophages showing the lowest and alveolar macrophages the highest expression. Kupffer cells in the liver were the only tissue-resident macrophages that expressed the inhibitory IgG receptor, FcγRIIB. This inhibitory receptor was also found to be expressed by sinusoidal endothelial cells in the liver. In sum, our immunofluorescence data combined with ex-vivo stainings of isolated macrophages indicated that tissue-resident macrophages are remarkably unique and different from monocyte-derived macrophages in their phenotypic expression of IgG receptors. Tissue macrophages show distinct tissue-specific FcγR expression patterns.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Receptores de IgG/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Humanos , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Pulmão/citologia , Baço/citologia
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(10): 1968-1979, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of deep neural networks is facilitating more advanced digital analysis of histopathologic images. We trained a convolutional neural network for multiclass segmentation of digitized kidney tissue sections stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). METHODS: We trained the network using multiclass annotations from 40 whole-slide images of stained kidney transplant biopsies and applied it to four independent data sets. We assessed multiclass segmentation performance by calculating Dice coefficients for ten tissue classes on ten transplant biopsies from the Radboud University Medical Center in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and on ten transplant biopsies from an external center for validation. We also fully segmented 15 nephrectomy samples and calculated the network's glomerular detection rates and compared network-based measures with visually scored histologic components (Banff classification) in 82 kidney transplant biopsies. RESULTS: The weighted mean Dice coefficients of all classes were 0.80 and 0.84 in ten kidney transplant biopsies from the Radboud center and the external center, respectively. The best segmented class was "glomeruli" in both data sets (Dice coefficients, 0.95 and 0.94, respectively), followed by "tubuli combined" and "interstitium." The network detected 92.7% of all glomeruli in nephrectomy samples, with 10.4% false positives. In whole transplant biopsies, the mean intraclass correlation coefficient for glomerular counting performed by pathologists versus the network was 0.94. We found significant correlations between visually scored histologic components and network-based measures. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the first convolutional neural network for multiclass segmentation of PAS-stained nephrectomy samples and transplant biopsies. Our network may have utility for quantitative studies involving kidney histopathology across centers and provide opportunities for deep learning applications in routine diagnostics.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Transplante de Rim , Rim/patologia , Rim/cirurgia , Biópsia , Humanos , Nefrectomia
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