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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
AIDS Care ; 31(5): 616-620, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311507

RESUMO

People living with HIV (PLWH) are frequently affected by comorbid medical conditions. Despite the importance of diagnosing and treating these conditions, testing rates for common comorbidities often fall short of primary care recommendations for PLWH. Clinical care data were obtained from the 2012 New York City (NYC) Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a multi-site surveillance project that includes demographically representative cohorts of PLWH receiving medical care. Medical record abstraction data were analyzed to determine testing frequencies for potential comorbid conditions, including tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C, diabetes, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and to assess demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with testing. Among the NYC MMP cohort (N = 439), testing frequencies ranged from 18% for hepatitis B to 66% for diabetes in a 12-month period. In multivariate analyses, having three or more medical visits with a CD4 or HIV viral load test over 12 months was significantly associated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) and hepatitis C testing. Compared with Black PLWH, Latino/Hispanics were more likely to be tested for hepatitis C and Whites were less likely to be tested for diabetes. Self-reported sexual risk behaviors were not associated with testing for STI, and history of injection drug use was not associated with testing for hepatitis C. These results indicate a need for improved risk assessment, adherence to clinical guidelines, and integration of primary care services with HIV care.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual
3.
AIDS Care ; 31(7): 864-874, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477307

RESUMO

Scant research has explored place-based correlates of achieving and maintaining HIV viral load suppression among heterosexuals living with HIV. We conducted multilevel analyses to examine associations between United Hospital Fund (UHF)-level characteristics and individual-level viral suppression and durable viral suppression among individuals with newly diagnosed HIV in New York City (NYC) who have heterosexual HIV transmission risk. Individual-level independent and dependent variables came from NYC's HIV surveillance registry for individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2009-2013 (N = 3,159; 57% virally suppressed; 36% durably virally suppressed). UHF-level covariates included measures of food distress, demographic composition, neighborhood disadvantage and affluence, healthcare access, alcohol outlet density, residential vacancy, and police stop and frisk rates. We found that living in neighborhoods where a larger percent of residents were food distressed was associated with not maintaining viral suppression. If future research should confirm this is a causal association, community-level interventions targeting food distress may improve the health of people living with HIV and reduce the risk of forward transmission.

4.
AIDS Behav ; 21(10): 2987-2999, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28646370

RESUMO

We explore relationships between place characteristics and HIV viral suppression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City (NYC). We conducted multilevel analyses to examine associations of United Hospital Fund (UHF)-level characteristics to individual-level suppression and durable suppression among MSM. Individual-level independent and dependent variables came from MSM in NYC's HIV surveillance registry who had been diagnosed in 2009-2013 (N = 7159). UHF-level covariates captured demographic composition, economic disadvantage, healthcare access, social disorder, and police stop and frisk rates. 56.89% of MSM achieved suppression; 35.49% achieved durable suppression. MSM in UHFs where 5-29% of residents were Black had a greater likelihood of suppression (reference: ≥30% Black; adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 1.07, p = 0.04). MSM in UHFs with <30 MSM-headed households/10,000 households had a lower likelihood of achieving durable suppression (reference: ≥60 MSM-headed households/10,000; ARR = 0.82; p = 0.05). Place characteristics may influence viral suppression. Longitudinal research should confirm these associations.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Polícia/psicologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 65(3): 469-476, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444155

RESUMO

Background: Hospitalizations are an important indicator of healthcare quality and access for people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study assesses hospitalization rates among people with HIV/AIDS in New York City. Methods: We performed a deterministic match between people in the New York City HIV surveillance registry alive as of 1 January 2013 and diagnosed with HIV as of 31 December 2013 and patient-level inpatient hospitalization records during 2013. Event-level data were analyzed to determine characteristics of and reasons for hospitalizations. Primary diagnoses were classified using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. We estimated hospitalization rates as the number of hospitalizations per 100 person-years for all causes, AIDS-defining illnesses, and non-AIDS-defining infections. Results: Nearly one-fifth of hospitalizations were attributed to non-AIDS-defining infections, whereas AIDS-defining illness diagnoses were infrequent (3.6% of hospitalizations). Other common causes were cardiovascular (10.9%) and substance use (9.8%). The estimated all-cause hospitalization rate was 36.7 per 100 person-years. Higher all-cause hospitalization rates were observed among females (46.8 per 100 person-years), Black and Latino/Hispanic people (41.8 and 39.5 per 100 person-years, respectively), people living in high-poverty neighborhoods (47.4 per 100 person-years), and people with a history of injection drug use (74.9 per 100 person-years). The estimated AIDS-defining illness and non-AIDS-defining infection hospitalization rates were 1.3 and 7.2 per 100 person-years, respectively. Conclusions: People with HIV in New York City were frequently hospitalized. While AIDS-defining illnesses were relatively rare, non-AIDS-defining infection hospitalizations were more common. Disparities in hospitalization rates indicate a need for targeted improved primary care and comorbid disease management.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 16(a): 341, 2016 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intersection of HIV-related health outcomes and problem substance use has been well documented. New York City continues to be a focal point of the U.S. HIV epidemic. In 2011, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) issued a recommendation that all HIV infected individuals should be offered antiretroviral therapy (ART) regardless of CD4 cell count or other indicators of disease progression. This policy is based in the concept of "treatment as prevention," in which providing ART to people living with HIV (PLWH) greatly reduces the likelihood of HIV transmission, while also improving individual health. The "ART for ALL" (AFA) study was designed to inform modifications to and identify gaps in the implementation of universal ART, and specifically to help guide allocation of resources to obtain local policy goals for increasing viral suppression among PLWH who have problem substance use. METHODS/DESIGN: The AFA Study is informed by two complementary frameworks: Glasgow and colleagues' RE-AIM model, a multi-level framework developed to guide the evaluation of implementation of new policies, and Bronfrenbrenner's ecological systems model, which conceptualizes the bi-directional interplay between people and their environment. Using multi-level data and mixed methods, the primary aims of the AFA Study are to assess rates of viral load suppression, using the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry, within 12 months of HIV diagnosis with (a) yearly cohorts of high-risk-to-transmit, difficult-to-treat, substance using patients recruited from NYC Sexually Transmitted Disease clinics and a large detoxification unit and (b) yearly cohorts of all newly HIV diagnosed people in NYC. Further goals include (c) recruiting cross-sectional samples of HIV/AIDS service providers to assess ART initiation with problem substance users and d) examining geographic factors that influence rates of viral load suppression. An Implementation Collaborative Board meets regularly to guide study procedures and interpret results. DISCUSSION: The AFA Study has the unique strength of accessing and analyzing data at multiple levels using mixed methodology, taking advantage of NYC DOHMH biomedical surveillance data. If successful, others may benefit from lessons learned to inform local and state policies to improve the health of PLWH and further reduce HIV transmission.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Política de Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health Rep ; 131(2): 290-302, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26957664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association of neighborhood poverty with HIV diagnosis rates for males and females in New York City. METHODS: We calculated annual HIV diagnosis rates by ZIP Code, sex, and neighborhood poverty level using 2010-2011 New York City (NYC) HIV surveillance data and data from the U.S. Census 2010 and American Community Survey 2007-2011. Neighborhood poverty levels were percentage of residents in a ZIP Code with incomes below the federal poverty threshold, categorized as 0%-<10% (low poverty), 10%-<20% (medium poverty), 20%-<30% (high poverty), and 30%-100% (very high poverty). We used sex-stratified negative binomial regression models to measure the association between neighborhood-level poverty and HIV diagnosis rates, controlling for neighborhood-level education, race/ethnicity, age, and percentage of men who have sex with men. RESULTS: In 2010-2011, 6,184 people were newly diagnosed with HIV. Median diagnosis rates per 100,000 population increased by neighborhood poverty level overall (13.7, 34.3, 50.6, and 75.6 for low-, medium-, high-, and very high-poverty ZIP Codes, respectively), for males, and for females. In regression models, higher neighborhood poverty remained associated with higher diagnosis rates among males (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34, 1.97) and females (ARR=2.14, 95% CI 1.46, 3.14) for very high- vs. low-poverty ZIP Codes. CONCLUSION: Living in very high- vs. low-poverty urban neighborhoods was associated with increased HIV diagnosis rates. After controlling for other factors, the association between poverty and diagnosis rates was stronger among females than among males. Alleviating poverty may help decrease HIV-related disparities.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/economia , Áreas de Pobreza , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Censos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Vigilância da População/métodos , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos
8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 25(4): 226-30, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25727312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses the last viral load to estimate the proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with a suppressed viral load. Several recent studies report that it may overestimate viral suppression in the population and have suggested using sustained viral suppression. The objective of this analysis is to compare these indicators. METHODS: Using New York City HIV surveillance data, two indicators were compared with a new one, weighted viral suppression, which accounts for both the status and duration of viral suppression. RESULTS: Among 72,315 HIV-infected persons with at least one viral load measurement in New York City in 2013, 62,829 had at least one suppressed viral load, 58,041 had a suppressed last viral load, and 47,948 had sustained viral suppression. Compared with the weighted proportion (77.5%), the proportion based on last viral load suppression (80.3%) was slightly higher, and the proportion based on sustained viral suppression (66.3%) was substantially lower. CONCLUSIONS: The indicator based on last viral load suppression is the most straightforward to calculate and understand and also approximates the weighted indicator, which measures viral suppression for the entire analysis period. Therefore, we support using the indicator based on last viral load suppression to monitor the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , Carga Viral/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 68(3): 351-8, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25501613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this analysis is to compare 2 newly developed methods (a "likelihood" method and a "weighting" method) with the widely used method (the "include-all" method) to estimate the proportions of HIV-infected persons retained in care and virally suppressed in New York City (NYC). METHODS: The NYC HIV registry data were used for the analysis. The include-all method included all patients in the denominator who were diagnosed and/or receiving care in NYC and not known to be dead by December 31, 2012. The likelihood method included patients in the denominator who were likely to reside in NYC in 2012 based on their length of absence from HIV care. The weighting method included patients in the denominator who were residing in NYC in 2012 by weighting each in-care patient based on their probability of receiving HIV care. RESULTS: The include-all method estimated that 114,926 persons were diagnosed and living with HIV in NYC, 63.7% were retained in care (≥1 care visit in 2012), and 48.9% were virally suppressed (≤200 copies/mL). The likelihood method and the weighting method produced equivalent estimates with 80,074 and 80,509 persons diagnosed and living with HIV in NYC, 91.5% and 91.0% retained in care, and 70.2% and 71.7% virally suppressed, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using 2 newly developed methods, we were able to report more accurate estimates of the proportions of patients retained in care and virally suppressed. Other local health jurisdictions should consider using these new methods to measure care outcomes and monitor the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente , Carga Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
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