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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol intake with circadian rhythm disruption (CRD) increases colon cancer risk. We hypothesized that eating during or around physiologic rest time, a common habit in modern society, causes CRD and investigated the mechanisms by which it promotes alcohol-associated colon carcinogenesis. METHODS: The effect of feeding time on CRD was assessed using B6 PER2::LUC mice. TS4Cre × APClox468 mice were used to model colon polyposis and to assess the effects of feeding schedules, alcohol consumption, and prebiotic treatment on microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acid levels, colon inflammation, and cancer risk. The relationship between butyrate signaling and a proinflammatory profile was assessed by inactivating the butyrate receptor GPR109A. RESULTS: Eating at rest (wrong-time eating [WTE]) shifted the phase of the colon rhythm in PER2::LUC mice. In TS4Cre × APClox468 mice, a combination of WTE and alcohol exposure (WTE + alcohol) decreased the levels of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and of butyrate, reduced colonic densities of regulatory T cells, induced a proinflammatory profile characterized by hyperpermeability and an increased mucosal T-helper cell 17/regulatory T cell ratio, and promoted colorectal cancer. Prebiotic treatment improved the mucosal inflammatory profile and attenuated inflammation and cancer. WTE + alcohol-induced polyposis was associated with increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 expression. Decreased butyrate signaling activated the epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in vitro. The relationship between butyrate signaling and a proinflammatory profile was confirmed in human colorectal cancers using The Cancer Genome Atlas. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal timing of food intake caused CRD and interacts with alcohol consumption to promote colon carcinogenesis by inducing a protumorigenic inflammatory profile driven by changes in the colon microbiota and butyrate signaling. Accession number of repository for microbiota sequence data: raw FASTQ data were deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under project PRJNA523141.

2.
Science ; 365(6460): 1379-1380, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604257
3.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 145, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal samples are currently the most commonly studied proxy for gut microbiota. The gold standard of sample handling and storage for microbiota analysis is maintaining the cold chain during sample transfer and immediate storage at - 80 °C. Gut microbiota studies in large-scale, population-based cohorts require a feasible sample collection protocol. We compared the effect of three different storage methods and mock shipment: immediate freezing at - 80 °C, in 95% ethanol stored at room temperature (RT) for 48 h, and on blood collection card stored at RT for 48 h, on the measured composition of fecal microbiota of eight healthy, female volunteers by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on an Illumina MiSeq. RESULTS: Shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between different methods were 68 and 3% for OTUs > 0.01 and < 0.01% mean relative abundance within each group, respectively. α and ß-diversity measures were not significantly impacted by different storage methods. With the exception of Actinobacteria, fecal microbiota profiles at the phylum level were not significantly affected by the storage method. Actinobacteria was significantly higher in samples collected on card compared to immediate freezing (1.6 ± 1.1% vs. 0.4 ± 0.2%, p = 0.005) mainly driven by expansion of Actinobacteria relative abundance in fecal samples stored on card in two individuals. There was no statistically significant difference at lower taxonomic levels tested. CONCLUSION: Consistent results of the microbiota composition and structure for different storage methods were observed. Fecal collection on card could be a suitable alternative to immediate freezing for fecal microbiota analysis using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.

4.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(9): 1898-1908, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake increases the risk of developing colon cancer. Circadian disruption promotes alcohol's effect on colon carcinogenesis through unknown mechanisms. Alcohol's metabolites induce DNA damage, an early step in carcinogenesis. We assessed the effect of time of alcohol consumption on markers of tissue damage in the colonic epithelium. METHODS: Mice were treated by alcohol or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), at 4-hour intervals for 3 days, and their colons were analyzed for (i) proliferation (Ki67) and antiapoptosis (Bcl-2) markers, (ii) DNA damage (γ-H2AX), and (iii) the major acetaldehyde (AcH)-DNA adduct, N2 -ethylidene-dG. To model circadian disruption, mice were shifted once weekly for 12 h and then were sacrificed at 4-hour intervals. Samples of mice with a dysfunctional molecular clock were analyzed. The dynamics of DNA damage repair from AcH treatment as well as role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A (XPA) in their repair were studied in vitro. RESULTS: Proliferation and survival of colonic epithelium have daily rhythmicity. Alcohol induced colonic epithelium proliferation in a time-dependent manner, with a stronger effect during the light/rest period. Alcohol-associated DNA damage also occurred more when alcohol was given at light. Levels of DNA adduct did not vary by time, suggesting rather lower repair efficiency during the light versus dark. XPA gene expression, a key excision repair gene, was time-dependent, peaking at the beginning of the dark. XPA knockout colon epithelial cells were inefficient in repair of the DNA damage induced by alcohol's metabolite. CONCLUSIONS: Time of day of alcohol intake may be an important determinant of colon tissue damage and carcinogenicity.

5.
J Nutr ; 149(5): 856-869, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A critical role for host-microbe interactions and establishment of vaccine responses has been postulated. Human milk oligosaccharides, of which 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL) is the most prevalent, are known to alter host-associated microbial communities and play a critical role in the immunologic development of breastfed infants. OBJECTIVES: Dietary supplementation with a combination of 2'FL and prebiotic short-chain (sc) galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and long-chain (lc) fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was employed to examine human milk oligosaccharide effects on immune responsiveness, within a murine influenza vaccination model. METHODS: Female mice (6 wk old, C57Bl/6JOlaHsd) were fed either control diet (CON) or scGOS/lcFOS/2'FL-containing diet (GF2F) for 45 d. After starting dietary intervention (day 14), mice received a primary influenza vaccination (day 0) followed by a booster vaccination (day 21), after which ear challenges were conducted to measure vaccine-specific delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, fecal and cecal microbial community structure, short-chain fatty acids, host intestinal gene expression and cellular responses in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were also measured. RESULTS: Relative to CON, mice fed the GF2F diet had increased influenza vaccine-specific DTH responses (79.3%; P < 0.01), higher levels of both IgG1 (3.2-fold; P < 0.05) and IgG2a (1.2-fold; P < 0.05) in serum, and greater percentages of activated B cells (0.3%; P < 0.05), regulatory T cells (1.64%; P < 0.05), and T-helper 1 cells (2.2%; P < 0.05) in their MLNs. GF2F-fed mice had elevated cecal butyric (P < 0.05) and propionic (P < 0.05) acid levels relative to CON, which correlated to DTH responses (R2 = 0.22; P = 0.05 and R2 = 0.39; P < 0.01, respectively). Specific fecal microbial taxa altered in GF2F diet fed mice relative to CON were significantly correlated with the DTH response and IgG2a level increases. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary GF2F improved influenza vaccine-specific T-helper 1 responses and B cell activation in MLNs and enhanced systemic IgG1 and IgG2a concentrations in mice. These immunologic changes are correlated with microbial community structure and metabolites.

6.
Science ; 364(6436)2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975860

RESUMO

To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intima-media thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Astronautas , Voo Espacial , Imunidade Adaptativa , Peso Corporal , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Dano ao DNA , Metilação de DNA , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Instabilidade Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Homeostase do Telômero , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
7.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(7): 1376-1383, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A mouse with hepatocyte-specific deiodinase type II inactivation (Alb-D2KO) is resistant to diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hypertriglyceridemia due to perinatal epigenetic modifications in the liver. This phenotype is linked to low levels of Zfp125, a hepatic transcriptional repressor that promotes liver steatosis by inhibiting genes involved in packaging and secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein. METHODS: Here, we used chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) in mice to cause liver steatosis. RESULTS: The EtOH treatment causes a 2.3-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride content; Zfp125 levels were approximately 50% higher in these animals. In contrast, Alb-D2KO mice did not develop EtOH-induced liver steatosis. They also failed to elevate Zfp125 to the same levels, despite being on the EtOH-containing diet for the same period of time. Their phenotype was associated with 1.3- to 2.9-fold up-regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid transport and export that are normally repressed by Zfp125, that is, Mttp, Abca1, Ldlr, Apoc1, Apoc3, Apoe, Apoh, and Azgp1. Furthermore, genes involved in the EtOH metabolic pathway, that is, Aldh2 and Acss2, were also 1.6- to 3.1-fold up-regulated in Alb-D2KO EtOH mice compared with control animals kept on EtOH. CONCLUSIONS: EtOH consumption elevates expression of Zfp125. Alb-D2KO animals, which have lower levels of Zfp125, are much less susceptible to EtOH-induced liver steatosis.

8.
J Hepatol ; 70(6): 1054-1056, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826121
9.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(5): 411-424, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Circadian rhythms regulate much of gastrointestinal physiology including cell proliferation, motility, digestion, absorption, and electrolyte balance. Disruption of circadian rhythms can have adverse consequences including the promotion of and/or exacerbation of a wide variety of gastrointestinal disorders and diseases. Areas covered: In this review, we evaluate some of the many gastrointestinal functions that are regulated by circadian rhythms and how dysregulation of these functions may contribute to disease. This review also discusses some common gastrointestinal disorders that are known to be influenced by circadian rhythms as well as speculation about the mechanisms by which circadian rhythm disruption promotes dysfunction and disease pathogenesis. We discuss how knowledge of circadian rhythms and the advent of chrono-nutrition, chrono-pharmacology, and chrono-therapeutics might influence clinical practice. Expert opinion: As our knowledge of circadian biology increases, it may be possible to incorporate strategies that take advantage of circadian rhythms and chronotherapy to prevent and/or treat disease.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 310, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659181

RESUMO

Human gut microbiota senses its environment and responds by releasing metabolites, some of which are key regulators of human health and disease. In this study, we characterize gut-associated bacteria in their ability to decarboxylate levodopa to dopamine via tyrosine decarboxylases. Bacterial tyrosine decarboxylases efficiently convert levodopa to dopamine, even in the presence of tyrosine, a competitive substrate, or inhibitors of human decarboxylase. In situ levels of levodopa are compromised by high abundance of gut bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase in patients with Parkinson's disease. Finally, the higher relative abundance of bacterial tyrosine decarboxylases at the site of levodopa absorption, proximal small intestine, had a significant impact on levels of levodopa in the plasma of rats. Our results highlight the role of microbial metabolism in drug availability, and specifically, that abundance of bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase in the proximal small intestine can explain the increased dosage regimen of levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease patients.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/enzimologia , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Tirosina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antiparkinsonianos/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Levodopa/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/microbiologia , Ratos
11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(7): e1801012, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659764

RESUMO

SCOPE: Resistant starch (RS) is utilized by Gram-negative Bacteroidetes through a starch utilization system (Sus), which requires physical attachment of the bacteria to the substrate. Gram-positive Firmicutes, which include butyrate producers, utilize RS by other mechanisms, such as amylosomes and secreted amylases/glucoamylases. It has been previously shown that fabricated RS [alginate-based starch-entrapped microspheres (SM)] increases butyrate in in vitro human fecal fermentation and was slow fermenting. It has been hypothesized that in vivo SM would disfavor Bacteroidetes and promote Firmicutes, leading to an increase in butyrate production. METHODS AND RESULTS: A C57BL/6J mouse model is used to test type 2 RS (RS2, raw potato) and SM for SCFAs and fecal microbial community structure. Feeding SM for 2 weeks results in 2.4 times higher mol% butyrate in the mouse distal gut than RS2. SM reduces relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and increases Firmicutes in fecal samples at the end of the 2-week feeding. This phylum-level taxonomic shift is not observed in animals fed RS2. CONCLUSION: Through an approach to understand bacterial requirements related to starch utilization, a designed fiber type favors butyrogenic Firmicutes bacteria and provides higher mol% butyrate in the distal gut with potential benefit as an anti-inflammatory agent and to improve gut barrier function.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Firmicutes/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Amido/farmacocinética , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Solanum tuberosum , Amido/química
13.
Gut ; 68(5): 829-843, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggesting an important role of gut-derived inflammation in brain disorders has opened up new directions to explore the possible role of the gut-brain axis in neurodegenerative diseases. Given the prominence of dysbiosis and colonic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we propose that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal dysfunction could contribute to intestinal and central inflammation in PD-related neurodegeneration. DESIGN: To test this hypothesis we performed studies in both human tissue and a murine model of PD. Inflammation, immune activation and microbiota composition were measured in colonic samples from subjects with PD and healthy controls subjects and rotenone or vehicle-treated mice. To further assess the role of the TLR4 signalling in PD-induced neuroinflammation, we used TLR4-knockout (KO) mice in conjunction with oral rotenone administration to model PD. RESULTS: Patients with PD have intestinal barrier disruption, enhanced markers of microbial translocation and higher pro-inflammatory gene profiles in the colonic biopsy samples compared with controls. In this regard, we found increased expression of the bacterial endotoxin-specific ligand TLR4, CD3+ T cells, cytokine expression in colonic biopsies, dysbiosis characterised by a decrease abundance of SCFA-producing colonic bacteria in subjects with PD. Rotenone treatment in TLR4-KO mice revealed less intestinal inflammation, intestinal and motor dysfunction, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, relative to rotenone-treated wild-type animals despite the presence of dysbiotic microbiota in TLR4-KO mice. CONCLUSION: Taken together, these studies suggest that TLR4-mediated inflammation plays an important role in intestinal and/or brain inflammation, which may be one of the key factors leading to neurodegeneration in PD.


Assuntos
Colo/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Animais , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Disbiose/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/patologia
14.
Neurobiol Dis ; : 104352, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579705

RESUMO

Recent evidence provides support for involvement of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. We propose that a pro-inflammatory intestinal milieu, due to intestinal hyper-permeability and/or microbial dysbiosis, initiates or exacerbates PD pathogenesis. One factor that can cause intestinal hyper-permeability and dysbiosis is chronic stress which has been shown to accelerate neuronal degeneration and motor deficits in Parkinsonism rodent models. We hypothesized that stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial dysbiosis lead to a pro-inflammatory milieu that exacerbates the PD phenotype in the low-dose oral rotenone PD mice model. To test this hypothesis, mice received unpredictable restraint stress (RS) for 12 weeks, and during the last six weeks mice also received a daily administration of low-dose rotenone (10 mg/kg/day) orally. The initial six weeks of RS caused significantly higher urinary cortisol, intestinal hyperpermeability, and decreased abundance of putative "anti-inflammatory" bacteria (Lactobacillus) compared to non-stressed mice. Rotenone alone (i.e., without RS) disrupted the colonic expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1, increased oxidative stress (N-tyrosine), increased myenteric plexus enteric glial cell GFAP expression and increased α-synuclein (α-syn) protein levels in the colon compared to controls. Restraint stress exacerbated these rotenone-induced changes. Specifically, RS potentiated rotenone-induced effects in the colon including: 1) intestinal hyper-permeability, 2) disruption of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin1), 3) oxidative stress (N-tyrosine), 4) inflammation in glial cells (GFAP + enteric glia cells), 5) α-syn, 6) increased relative abundance of fecal Akkermansia (mucin-degrading Gram-negative bacteria), and 7) endotoxemia. In addition, RS promoted a number of rotenone-induced effects in the brain including: 1) reduced number of resting microglia and a higher number of dystrophic/phagocytic microglia as well as (FJ-C+) dying cells in the substantia nigra (SN), 2) increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reactivity in the SN, and 3) reduced dopamine (DA) and DA metabolites (DOPAC, HVA) in the striatum compared to control mice. Our findings support a model in which chronic stress-induced, gut-derived, pro-inflammatory milieu exacerbates the PD phenotype via a dysfunctional microbiota-gut-brain axis.

15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2138, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30294327

RESUMO

Mast cells (MC) accumulate in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the relationship between MC density and cancer progression has been well recognized. MC can be either pro-tumor or anti-tumor players, depending on the local factors present in the tumor microenvironment. Upon malignant transformation, cancer cells express high levels of sialic acids on cell membrane or by secretion. Siglecs are a family of immunoglobulin-like receptors that bind sialic acids and each subtype has a distinct pattern of expression on immune cells. Among them, Siglec-6 is expressed predominately by MC. However, the function of Siglec-6 in MC is largely unexplored and whether it is expressed by CRC-associated MC remains unknown. In this study, we explored the function of Siglec-6 in CD34+ derived human MC. MC activation was initiated by IgE crosslinking with or without preincubation of anti-Siglec-6 Ab. Siglec-6 engagement significantly attenuated IgE-dependent MC degranulation as measured by ß-hexosaminidase release and CD63 expression. Interestingly, the production of GM-CSF was also shown reduced upon Siglec-6 engagement. To mimic the milieu of CRC, we cultured primary human MC with colon cancer cells or under hypoxia and Siglec-6 was then measured on these conditioned MC. Coculture with colon cancer cells (HT29 and Caco2) induced upregulation of Siglec-6 on MC. In comparison, normal colon cells (CCD841) had no effect. Also, a time-dependent increase of Siglec-6 by MC was observed under 1% O2. Immunohistochemistry of CRC tissue showed expression of Siglec-6 by MC in submucosa. Lectin immunochemistry revealed the presence of actual ligands for Siglec-6 in human CRC tissues. Together, our findings illustrate that Siglec-6 is a functionally inhibitory receptor on MC and suggest that Siglec-6 expression may be relevant for MC activity in the tumor microenvironment of CRC.

16.
Sleep Med ; 52: 188-195, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243610

RESUMO

The preference of the sleep/wake cycle can be grouped into categories or chronotypes. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been linked to poor sleep quality which correlates with disease severity. Social jet lag (SJL) is the difference between sleep timing on work and free days and is a marker for circadian misalignment which has been linked to increased inflammation. We investigated whether chronotype, SJL, sleep debt (SD), and food timing were associated with an IBD specific complications and a lower quality of life. Overall, 191 subjects (115 IBD subjects and 76 healthy controls (HC)) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ), and a structured Food Timing Questionnaire. Later chronotype (by MEQ) was associated with a worse SIBDQ (r = -0.209; P < 0.05). SJL was increased in IBD at 1.32 h ± 1.03 vs. 1.05 h ± 0.97 in HC, P < 0.05, when adjusted for age. SJL (>2 h) was present in 40% of severe/complicated Crohn's patients (fistulizing or structuring Crohn's or history of Crohn's related surgery) compared to only 16% of uncomplicated Crohn's patients (P < 0.05). Sleep debt was increased in IBD subjects compared to HC at 21.90 m ± 25.37 vs. 11.49 m ± 13.58, P < 0.05. IBD subjects with inconsistent breakfast or dinner times had lower SIBDQ scores (4.78 ± 1.28 vs. 5.49 ± 1.02, P < 0.05; 4.95 ± 0.31 vs. 5.42 ± 0.32, P < 0.05 respectively). In summary, later chronotype, and markers of circadian misalignment (social jet lag, sleep debt, and inconsistent meal timing) were associated with IBD disease specific complications and/or lower quality of life.

17.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 2018 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101565

RESUMO

Over the last two decades, it has become increasingly apparent that Wnt signaling plays a critical role in development and adult tissue homeostasis in multiple organs and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In particular, a crucial role for Wnt signaling in bone development and bone tissue homeostasis has been well recognized. Numerous genome-wide association studies confirmed the importance of Wnt signaling in controlling bone mass. Moreover, ample evidence suggests that Wnt signaling is essential for kidney, intestine, and adipose tissue development and homeostasis. Recent emerging evidence demonstrates that Wnt signaling may play a fundamental role in the aging process of those organs. New discoveries show that bone is not only the major reservoir for calcium and phosphate storage, but also the largest organ with multiple functions, including mineral and energy metabolism. The interactions among bone, kidney, intestine, and adipose tissue are controlled and regulated by several endocrine signals, including FGF23, klotho, sclerostin, osteocalcin, vitamin D, and leptin. Since the aging process is characterized by structural and functional decline in almost all tissues and organs, understanding the Wnt signaling-related interactions among bone, kidney, intestine, and adipose tissue in aging may shed light on the pathogenesis of age-related diseases.

19.
Int J Behav Med ; 25(5): 517-525, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), given its chronicity and its associated disruptive and often distressing symptoms, is increasingly focusing on maximizing patient quality of life. Poorer quality of life has been found among patients with poor sleep quality, which is much more common in patients with UC than in the general population and may be associated with inflammation and psychological distress. METHOD: Forty-seven patients with UC (n = 11 flaring) completed measures of sleep quality, depression, state anxiety, gastrointestinal-related anxiety, perceived stress, and quality of life. Measures of inflammation were also obtained. RESULTS: Patients endorsed high rates of poor sleep quality, which was highly correlated with depression and poorer inflammatory bowel disease-related quality of life, but was generally not related to other areas of psychological functioning or inflammation. Sleep quality was significantly independently associated with depression and female gender. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality is prevalent in patients with UC and is strongly related to depression, suggesting that sleep and mood are important areas to assess in patients with UC in order to inform tailored treatment to improve quality of life.

20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 833: 396-402, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29935172

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers in the world. Even though screening, surgery and oncology have greatly advanced, CRC is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths, with 700,000 annual mortalities in both men and women. Environmental and lifestyle factors brought up by industrialization, such as an altered diet, lack of physical activity, increase in alcohol consumption, and circadian disruption, have greatly affected the burden of CRC. These factors increase the CRC risk, at least partly, by pathologically altering the colonic environment, including composition of the gut microbiota, referred to as dysbiosis. Colonic dysbiosis can promote pro-carcinogenic immune signaling cascades, leading to pro-tumorigenic inflammation, carcinogen production, and altered cellular responses in susceptible host resulting to development and/or progression of CRC. Nutraceuticals such as prebiotic molecules and probiotic bacterial species can help maintain intestinal microbial homeostasis and thus mitigate this pathological processes. Therefore, prebiotics and probiotics can hinder the effects of dysbiosis by encouraging anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory immunity, the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier, pro-apoptotic mechanisms, and carcinogen inactivation. In addition to its implications in preventing CRC, because of the mechanisms affected, nutraceuticals are being discovered as potential adjuncts to immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of CRC. In this review, we provide an overview of the potential implications of prebiotics and probiotics in the prevention and treatment of CRC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Disbiose/terapia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Receptores Coestimuladores e Inibidores de Linfócitos T/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Coestimuladores e Inibidores de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Incidência , Resultado do Tratamento
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