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Health Econ Rev ; 11(1): 39, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623528


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, health care systems are under extreme pressure. This study analyzed health care resource use (HCRU) and costs in patients admitted to the hospital for COVID-19 and aimed to estimate the one-year direct medical cost of the disease in Turkey. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted between March and July 2020 in a tertiary hospital (n = 1056) in Istanbul. Patient demographics, clinical and treatment characteristics at admission, comorbidities, disease severity, and costs from a payer perspective were evaluated using the microcosting method. The results include LOS, hospital costs, and univariate and generalized linear models to investigate influencing factors. The data were extrapolated to provide a country-level estimate. RESULTS: The mean length of stay was 9.1 days (SD 6.9). The mean length of stay was 8.0 days (4.7) for patients hospitalized in wards versus 14.8 days (SD 12.0) for patients hospitalized in the ICU. In univariate analysis, several factors, including O2 therapy (+ 3.7 days), high CRP > 41.8 mg/L (+ 3.8 days), and elevated ferritin (+ 3.5), were found to be associated with a longer LOS (p < 0.05). The direct annual medical cost of COVID-19 was estimated at PPP$ 2.1 billion. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a direct medical burden that corresponds to 2.0% of the government health expenditures and 0.8 per thousand of Turkey's gross domestic product (GDP). CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the impact of this pandemic in terms of HCRU and costs to the health care system can help design strategies to manage the pandemic.

Adv Ther ; 38(9): 4935-4948, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379304


INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of remdesivir compared to other existing therapies (SoC) in Turkey to treat COVID-19 patients hospitalized with < 94% saturation and low-flow oxygen therapy (LFOT) requirement. METHODS: We compared remdesivir as the treatment for COVID-19 with the treatments in the Turkish treatment guidelines. Analyses were performed using data from 78 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with SpO2 < 94% who received LFOT in a tertiary healthcare facility. COVID-19 episode costs were calculated for 78 patients considering the cost of modeled remdesivir treatment in the same group from the payer's perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) was calculated for remdesivir versus the SoC for the population identified. For Turkey, a reimbursement threshold value between USD 8599 (1 × per capita gross domestic product-GDP) and USD 25.797 (3 × GDP) per QALY was used. RESULTS: In the remdesivir arm, the length of hospital stay (LOS) was 3 days shorter than the SOC. The low ventilator requirement in the remdesivir arm was one factor that decreased the QALY disutility value. In patients who were transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) from the ward, the mean LOS was 17.3 days (SD 13.6), and the mean cost of stay was USD 155.3/day (SD 168.0), while in patients who were admitted to ICU at baseline, the mean LOS was 13.1 days (SD 13.7), and the mean cost of stay was USD 207.9/day (SD 133.6). The mean cost of episode per patient was USD 3461.1 (SD 2259.8) in the remdesivir arm and USD 3538.9 (SD 3296.0) in the SOC arm. Incremental QALYs were estimated at 0.174. Remdesivir treatment was determined to be cost saving vs. SoC. CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir, which results in shorter LOS and lower rates of intubation requirements in ICU patients than existing therapies, is associated with higher QALYs and lower costs, dominating SoC in patients with SpO2 < 94% who require oxygen support.

COVID-19 , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Oxigênio , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(3): 342-356, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416801


Limited data exists to date on the predictors for the development of pneumonia in patients with mild and moderate coronavirus (COVID-19). In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics and clinical findings of mild and moderate COVID-19 and to determine the risk factors for the development of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients admitted to the pandemic outpatient clinic of a university hospital. A total of 414 patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 were included. Of these, 220 (53.1%) were male, the mean age was 38.3 ± 12.7. Median duration of hospital admission from the onset of symptoms was three days (0-11). Of the confirmed COVID-19 cases, 154 (37.2%) had a history of family contact and the most common symptoms were weakness (68.4%), myalgia (61.8%), headache (56.5%), loss of smell (45.2%), loss of taste (43.2%) and anorexia (42.8%). Among females, weakness (p= 0.016), headache (p= 0.008), sore throat (p= 0.032), nausea (p= 0.003), anorexia (p= 0.045), loss of taste (p= 0.005) and loss of smell (p<0.001) were more common. Loss of taste (47.6% vs. 25%, p<0.001) and loss of smell (50% vs. 26.3%, p<0.001) were more common in patients with under the age of 50 and cough (43.4% vs. 29.3%, p= 0.003) was more common in patients with above the age of 40. Among 46 (11.1%) patients with asymptomatic COVID-19, there was no significant difference (p= 0.500) between the genders. Pneumonia was detected in 150 (43.8%) of 339 patients who underwent thorax computed tomography. In the univariate analysis; advanced age (p<0.001, odds ratio (OR)= 1.44), obesity (p<0.001 OR= 2.5), not being actively smoking (p<0.001, OR= 6.19), fever at first admission (p= 0.002, OR= 2.02), cough (p<0.001, OR= 3.26), shortness of breath (p<0.001, OR= 23.37), weakness (p= 0.042, OR= 1.63), anorexia (p= 0.009, OR= 1.79) and elevation of D-dimer (p= 0.014, OR= 1.92) were associated with the development of pneumonia. In multivariate analysis, obesity (p= 0.005, OR= 2.69), not being actively smoking (p<0.001, OR= 5.43), cough at first admission p= 0.017, OR= 2.16) and shortness of breath (p= 0.008, OR= 16.22) was determined as an independent risk factor for the development of pneumonia. CRP (p<0.001), D-dimer (p<0.001), ferritin (p<0.001) values among 108 (26.1%) patients with a body-mass index(BMI) >30 were high, and 60.9% of the patients had pneumonia (p<0.001) . CRP (p<0.001), D-dimer (p= 0.010) values were low, lymphocyte count (p= 0.001) was high among 106 (25.6%) active smokers, and 15.6% of the patients had pneumonia (p<0.001). Of the patients reported with persistent symptoms, 25.9% had loss of smell, 25% had weakness, and 23.1% had loss of taste on the seventh day; 21.1% had loss of smell, 21.1% had myalgia, and 19.7% had loss of taste on the 14th day. During their follow-up, the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was studied in 286 patients for control purposes. The median time of being negative for COVID-19 PCR test was eight days (3-56). In conclusion, symptoms may last longer than 14 days in 20- 30% of patients presenting with mild-moderate clinical findings. In addition, obesity should be considered as an important risk factor for COVID-19 pneumonia.

COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2