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1.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 276, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Local hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) of the resection cavity is emerging as the standard of care in the treatment of patients with a limited number of brain metastases as it warrants less neurological impairment compared to whole brain radiotherapy. In periventricular metastases surgical resection can lead to an opening of the ventricles and subsequently carries a potential risk of cerebrospinal tumour cell dissemination. The aim of this study was to assess whether local radiotherapy of the resection cavity is viable in these cases. METHODS: From our institutional database we analyzed the data of 125 consecutive patients with resected brain metastases treated in our institution with HFSRT between 2009 and 2017. The incidence of LMD, overall survival (OS), local recurrence (LC) and distant recurrence were evaluated depending on ventricular opening (VO) during surgery. RESULTS: From all 125 patients, the ventricles were opened during surgery in 14 cases (11.2%). None of the patients with VO and 7 patients without VO during surgery developed LMD (p = 0.371). OS (p = 0.817), LC (p = 0.524) and distant recurrence (p = 0.488) did not differ in relation to VO during surgical resection. However, the incidence of distant intraventricular recurrence was slightly increased in patients with VO (14.3% vs. 2.7%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: VO during neurosurgical resection did not affect the outcome after HFSRT of the resection cavity in patients with brain metastases. Particularly, the incidence of LMD was not increased in patients receiving local HFSRT after VO. HFSRT can therefore be offered independently of VO as a local treatment of tumor bed after resection of brain metastases.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The concept of dysphagia/aspiration-related structures (DARS) was developed against the background of severe late side effects of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). DARS can be delineated on CT scans, but with a better morphological discrimination on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Swallowing function was analyzed by use of patient charts and prospective investigations and questionnaires. METHOD: Seventeen HNC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) ± chemotherapy between 5/2012 - 8/2015 were included. Planning CT (computed tomography) scans and MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging) prior, during 40 Gray (Gy) radiotherapy and posttreatment were available and co-registered to delineate DARS. The RT dose of each DARS was calculated. Five patients were investigated posttreatment for swallowing function and assessed by means of various questionnaires for quality of life (QoL), swallowing, and voice function. RESULTS: By retrospective comparison of DARS volume, a significant change in four of eight DARS was detected over time. Three increased and one diminished. The risk of posttreatment dysphagia rose by every 1Gy above the mean dose (D mean) of RT to DARS. 7.5 was the risk factor for dysphagia in the first 6 months, reducing to 4.7 for months 6-12 posttreatment. For all five patients of the prospective part of swallowing investigations, a function disturbance was detected. These results were in contrast to the self-assessment of patients by questionnaires. There was neither a dose dependency of D mean DARS volume changes over time nor of dysphonia and no correlation between volume changes, dysphagia or dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Delineation of DARS on MRI co-registered to planning CT gave the opportunity to differentiate morphology better than by CT alone. Due to the small number of patients with complete MRI scans over time, we failed to detect a dose dependency of DARS and swallowing and voice disorder posttreatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Deglutição/radioterapia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Sucção , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Voz , Adulto Jovem
3.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(12): 1103-1115, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiotherapy (RT) is persistently gaining significance in the treatment of pediatric tumors. However, individual features of a growing body and multifocal stages complicate this approach. Tomotherapy offers advantages in the treatment of anatomically complex tumors with low risks of side effects. Here we report on toxicity incidence and outcome of tomotherapy with a focus on multitarget RT (mtRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2008 to 2017, 38 children diagnosed with sarcoma were treated with tomotherapy. The median age was 15 years (6-19 years). Toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.4.03 and classified into symptoms during RT, acutely (0-6 months) and late (>6 months) after RT, and long-term sideeffects (>24 months). RESULTS: The main histologies were Ewing sarcoma (n = 23 [61%]) and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 5 [13%]). RT was performed with a median total dose of 54 Gy (40.5-66.0 Gy) and a single dose of 2 Gy (1.80-2.27 Gy). Twenty patients (53%) received mtRT. Median follow-up was 29.7 months (95% confidence interval 15.3-48.2 months) with a 5-year survival of 55.2% (±9.5%). The 5­year survival rate of patients with mtRT (n = 20) was 37.1 ± 13.2%, while patients who received single-target RT (n = 18) had a 5-year survival rate of 75 ± 10.8%. Severe toxicities (grade 3 and 4) emerged in 14 patients (70%) with mtRT and 7 patients (39%) with single-target RT. Two non-hematological grade 4 toxicities occurred during RT: one mucositis and one radiodermatitis. After mtRT 5 patients had grade 3 toxicities acute and after single-target RT 4 patients. One patient had acute non-hematological grade 4 toxicities (gastritis, pericarditis, and pericardial effusion) after mtRT. Severe late effects of RT occurred in 2 patients after mtRT and in none of the single-target RT patients. No severe long-term side effects appeared. CONCLUSION: Our results showed acceptable levels of acute and late toxicities, considering the highly advanced diseases and multimodal treatment. Hence, tomotherapy is a feasible treatment method for young patients with anatomically complex tumors or multiple targets. Especially mtRT is a promising and innovative treatment approach for pediatric sarcomas, delivering unexpectedly high survival rates for patients with multifocal Ewing sarcomas in this study, whereby the limited number of patients should invariably be considered in the interpretation.

4.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 536, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenal gland metastases are a common diagnostic finding in various tumor diseases. Due to the increased use of imaging methods, they are diagnosed more frequently, especially in asymptomatic patients. SBRT has emerged as a new, alternative treatment option in the field of radiation oncology. In the past, it was often used for treating inoperable lung, liver, prostate, and brain tumors. Meanwhile, it is also an established keystone in the treatment of oligometastatic diseases. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the effect of low-dose SBRT in patients with adrenal metastases. METHODS: We analyzed a group of 31 patients with 34 adrenal gland lesions treated with low-dose SBRT between July 2006 and July 2019. Treatment-planning was performed through contrast-enhanced CT, followed by image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy using cone-beam CT. The applied cumulative median dose was 35 Gy; the median single dose was 7 Gy. We focused on local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), as well as acute and late toxicity. RESULTS: Seven adrenal gland metastases (20.6%) experienced local failure, 80.6% of the patients faced a distant progression. Fourteen patients were still alive. Median follow-up for all patients was 9.8 months and for patients alive 14.4 months. No treatment-related side-effects >grade 2 occurred. Of all, 48.4% suffered from acute gastrointestinal disorders; 32.3% reported acute fatigue, throbbing pain in the renal area, and mild adrenal insufficiency. Altogether, 19.4% of the patients faced late-toxicities, which were as follows: Grade 1: 12.9% gastrointestinal disorders, 3.2% fatigue, Grade 2: 9.7% fatigue, 6.5% headache, 3.2% loss of weight. The 1-year OS and probability of LF were 64 and 25.9%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low-dose SBRT has proven as an effective and safe method with promising outcomes for treating adrenal metastases. There appeared no high-grade toxicities >grade 2, and 79.4% of treated metastases were progression-free. Thus, SBRT should be considered as a therapy option for adrenal metastases as an individual therapeutic concept in the interdisciplinary discussion as an alternative to surgical or systemic treatment.

5.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 97, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past years, several treatment regimens have been recommended for elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM), ranging from ultrahypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) over monochemotherapy (ChT) to combined radiochemotherapy (RChT). The current guidelines recommend active treatment in elderly patients in cases with a KPS of at least 60%. We established a score for selecting patients with a very poor prognosis from patients with a better prognosis. METHODS: One hundred eighty one patients ≥65 years old, histologically diagnosed with GBM, were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical characteristics were analysed for their impact on the overall survival (OS). Factors which were significant in univariate analysis (log-rank test, p < 0.05) were included in a multi-variate model (multi-variate Cox regression analysis, MVA). The 9-month OS for the significant factors after MVA (p < 0.05) was included in a prognostic score. Score sums with a median OS of < and > 6 months were summarized as Group A and B, respectively. RESULTS: Age, KPS, MGMT status, the extent of resection, aphasia after surgery and motor dysfunction after surgery were significantly associated with OS on univariate analysis (p < 0.05). On MVA age (p 0.002), MGMT promotor methylation (p 0.013) and Karnofsky performance status (p 0.005) remained significant and were included in the score. Patients were divided into two groups, group A (median OS of 2.7 months) and group B (median OS of 7.8 months). The score was of prognostic significance, independent of the adjuvant treatment regimen. CONCLUSIONS: The score distinguishes patients with a poor prognosis from patients with a better prognosis. Its inclusion in future retrospective or prospective trials could help enhance the comparability of results. Before its employment on a routine basis, external validation is recommended.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 442, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to evaluate long-term side-effects and outcomes and confirm prognostic factors after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of pulmonary lesions. This is the first work that combines the investigated data from patient charts and patient-reported outcome (PRO) up to 14 years after therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 219 patients and 316 lung metastases treated between 2004 and 2019. The pulmonary lesions received a median dose and dose per fraction of 35 Gy (range: 14-60.5 Gy) and 8 Gy (range: 3-20 Gy) to the surrounding isodose. During the last 1.5 years of monitoring, we added PRO assessment to our follow-up routine. We sent an invitation to a web-based survey questionnaire to all living patients whose last visit was more than 6 months ago. RESULTS: Median OS was 27.6 months. Univariate analysis showed a significant influence on OS for KPS ≥90%, small gross tumor volume (GTV) and planning target volume (PTV), the absence of external metastases, ≤3 pulmonary metastases, and controlled primary tumor. The number of pulmonary metastases and age influenced local control (LC) significantly. During follow-up, physicians reported severe side-effects ≥ grade 3 in only 2.9% within the first 6 months and in 2.5% after 1 year. Acute symptomatic pneumonitis grade 2 was observed in 9.7%, as grade 3 in 0.5%. During PRO assessment, 39 patients were contacted, 38 patients participated, 14 participated twice during follow-up. Patients reported 15 cases of severe side effects (grade ≥ 3) according to PROCTCAE classification. Severe dyspnea (n = 6) was reported mostly. CONCLUSION: We could confirm excellent local control and low toxicity rates. PROs improve and complement follow-up care. They are an essential measure in addition to the physician-reported outcomes. Future research must be conducted regarding the correct interpretation of PRO data.

7.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(6): 1391-1399, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758226

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Meningiomas have an excellent survival prognosis, and radiotherapy (RT) is a central component of interdisciplinary treatment. During treatment planning, the definition of the target volume remains challenging using MR and CT imaging alone. This is the first study to analyze the impact of additional PET-imaging on local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) after high-precision RT. METHODS: We analyzed 339 meningiomas treated between 2000 and 2018. For analyses, we divided the patients in low-grade (n = 276) and high-grade (n = 63) cases. We performed RT in an adjuvant setting due to subtotal resection or later due to recurrent tumor growth. The target volumes were delineated based on diagnostic CT and MRI and, if available, additional PET-imaging (low-grade: n = 164, 59.4%; high-grade: n = 39, 61.9%) with either 68Ga-Dotanoc/Dotatoc, 18F-fluoroethyltyrosine or 11C-methionine tracer. Patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic RT with a median total dose and dose per fraction of 54 Gy and 1.8 Gy, respectively. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 5.6 years. For low-grade meningiomas, mean OS was 15.6 years and mean LC was 16.9 years; for high-grade cases mean OS was 11.6 years, and mean LC was 11.1 years. In univariate analyses, PET-imaging had a significant impact on OS (p = 0.035) and LC (p = 0.041) for low-grade meningiomas and remained significant (p = 0.015) for LC in the multivariate analysis. For high-grade cases, PET did not influence both OS and LC. Further prognostic factors could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: For low-grade meningiomas, we showed that the addition of PET-imaging for target volume definition led to a significantly enhanced LC. Thus, PET improves the detection of tumor cells and helps distinguish between healthy tissue and meningioma tissue, especially during the treatment planning process.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783579

RESUMO

High-precision radiotherapy has been established as a valid and effective treatment option in patients with pituitary adenomas. We report on outcome after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in correlation with patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We analyzed 69 patients treated between 2000 and 2019. FSRT was delivered with a median total dose of 54 Gy (single fraction: 1.8 Gy). PRO questionnaires were sent to 28 patients. Median overall survival was 17.2 years; mean local control was 15.6 years (median not reached). Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Twenty (71%) patients participated in the PRO assessment. Physicians reported symptoms grade ≥3 in 6 cases (9%). Of all, 35 (51%) patients suffered from hypopituitarism at baseline, and during follow-up, new or progressive hypopituitarism was observed in 11 cases (16%). Patients reported 10 cases of severe side effects. Most of these symptoms were already graded as CTCAE (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events) grade 2 by a physician in a previous follow-up exam. PROs are an essential measure and only correlate to a certain extent with the physician-reported outcomes. For high-precision radiotherapy of pituitary adenomas, they confirm excellent overall outcomes and low toxicity. In the future, the integration of PROs paired with high-end treatment will further improve outcomes.

9.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 198, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant (ART) and salvage radiotherapy (SRT) are two common concepts to enhance biochemical relapse free survival (BCRFS) in patients with prostate cancer (PC). We analyzed differences in outcome between ART and SRT in patients with steep decline of PSA-levels after surgery to compare outcome. METHODS: We evaluated 253 patients treated with postoperative RT with a median age of 66 years (range 42-85 years) treated between 2004 and 2014. Patients with additive radiotherapy due to PSA persistence and patients in the SRT group, who did not achieve a postoperative PSA level <0.1 ng/mL were excluded. Hence, data of 179 patients was evaluated. We used propensity score matching to build homogenous groups. A Cox regression model was used to determine differences between treatment options. Median follow-up was 32.5 months (range 1.4-128.0 months). RESULTS: Early SRT at PSA levels <0.3 ng/mL was associated with significant longer BCRFS than late SRT (HR: 0.32, 95%-CI: 0.14-0.75, p = 0.009). Multiple Cox regression showed pre-RT PSA level, tumor stage, and Gleason score as predictive factors for biochemical relapse. In the overall group, patients treated with either ART or early SRT showed no significant difference in BCRFS (HR: 0.17, 95%-CI: 0.02-1.44, p = 0.1). In patients with locally advanced PC (pT3/4) BCRFS was similar in both groups as well (HR: 0.21, 95%-CI:0.02-1.79, p = 0.15). CONCLUSION: For patients with PSA-triggered follow-up, close observation is essential and early initiation of local treatment at low PSA levels (<0.3 ng/mL) is beneficial. Our data suggest, that SRT administered at early PSA rise might be equieffective to postoperative ART in patients with locally advanced PC. However, the individual treatment decision must be based on any adverse risk factors and the patients' postoperative clinical condition. STUDY REGISTRATION: The present work is approved by the Ethics Commission of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and is registered with the project number 320/14.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Período Pós-Operatório , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Phys Med ; 67: 20-26, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622876

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review scoring assessments in re-irradiation of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients and how to use scoring for patient stratification. The next aim was to investigate the different approaches employed by the scoring systems and the way they can be applied to build homogeneous patient groups for a reliable prognosis. METHODS: We searched the Medline/Pubmed and Web of science databases for relevant articles regarding scores for re-irradiation of recurrent HGG. All references were divided into the following groups: novel score establishment (n = 5), score validation (n = 6), not relevant to this evaluation (n = 26). RESULTS: We identified five scoring systems. Two are modifications of an already existing score. Calculations differ immensely from easy point addition to a more complex formula with including three up to 10 individual parameters. Six validation articles were found for three of the scores; one was validated four times. Two scores were never validated. CONCLUSION: For recurrent HGG, the clinical situation remains demanding. Due to the heterogeneity of data at re-irradiation, patient stratification is important. Several scoring systems have been developed to predict prognosis. As a digital biomarker, scores are of high value regarding quick patient assessment and therapy decision making. For the next generation of digital biomarkers, easy calculation, and inclusion of easily available parameters are crucial.


Assuntos
Glioma/radioterapia , Reirradiação/métodos , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores
11.
Acta Oncol ; 58(12): 1714-1719, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368403

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate whether an early beginning of the adjuvant stereotactic radiotherapy after macroscopic complete resection of 1-3 brain metastases is essential or whether longer intervals between surgery and radiotherapy are feasible.Material and methods: Sixty-six patients with 69 resection cavities treated with HFSRT after macroscopic complete resection of 1-3 brain metastases between 2009 and 2016 in our institution were included in this study. Overall survival, local recurrence and locoregional recurrence were evaluated depending on the time interval from surgery to the start of radiation therapy.Results: Patients that started radiotherapy within 21 days from surgery had a significantly decreased OS compared to patients treated after a longer interval from surgery (p < .01). There was no significant difference between patients treated ≥ 34 and 22-33 days from surgery (p = .210). In the univariate analysis, local control was superior for patients starting treatment 22-33 days from surgery compared to a later start (p = .049). This effect did not prevail in a multivariate model. There was no significant difference between patients treated within 21 days and patients treated more than 33 days after surgery (p = .203). Locoregional control was not influenced by RT timing (p = .508).Conclusion: A short delay in the start of radiotherapy does not seem to negatively impact the outcome in patients with resected brain metastases. We even observed an unexpected reduction in OS in patients treated within 21 days from surgery. Further studies are needed to define the optimal timing of postoperative radiotherapy to the resection cavity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Radiocirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Radiocirurgia/mortalidade , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221502, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430337

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The major stress-inducible heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is induced after different stress stimuli. In tumors, elevated intracellular Hsp70 levels were associated on the one hand with radio- and chemotherapy resistance and on the other hand with a favorable outcome for patients. This study was undertaken to investigate cytosolic Hsp70 (cHsp70) as a potential biomarker for progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with primary glioblastomas (GBM). METHODS: The cHsp70 expression in tumor tissue of 60 patients diagnosed with primary GBM was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The cHsp70 expression was correlated to the PFS and OS of the patients. RESULTS: A high cHsp70 expression was associated with a prolonged PFS (hazard ratio = 0.374, p = 0.001) and OS (hazard ratio = 0.416, p = 0.014) in GBM patients treated according to the standard Stupp protocol with surgery, radiotherapy and temozolomide. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the intracellular Hsp70 expression might serve as a prognostic marker in patients with primary GBM.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 20(9): 71, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324990

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: The treatment of malignant gliomas has undergone a significant intensification during the past decade, and the interdisciplinary treatment team has learned that all treatment opportunities, including surgery and radiotherapy (RT), also have a central role in recurrent gliomas. Throughout the decades, re-irradiation (re-RT) has achieved a prominent place in the treatment of recurrent gliomas. A solid body of evidence supports the safety and efficacy of re-RT, especially when modern techniques are used, and justifies the early use of this regimen, especially in the case when macroscopic disease is present. Additionally, a second adjuvant re-RT to the resection cavity is currently being investigated by several investigators and seems to offer promising results. Although advanced RT technologies, such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) have become available in many centers, re-RT should continue to be kept in experienced hands so that they can select the optimal regimen, the ideal treatment volume, and the appropriate techniques from their tool-boxes. Concomitant or adjuvant use of systemic treatment options should also strongly be taken into consideration, especially because temozolomide (TMZ), cyclohexyl-nitroso-urea (CCNU), and bevacizumab have shown a good safety profile; they should be considered, if available. Nonetheless, the selection of patients for re-RT remains crucial. Single factors, such as patient age or the progression-free interval (PFI), fall too short. Therefore, powerful prognostic scores have been generated and validated, and these scores should be used for patient selection and counseling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Reirradiação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/etiologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Glioma/diagnóstico , Glioma/etiologia , Glioma/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico , Reirradiação/efeitos adversos , Reirradiação/métodos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Radiat Oncol J ; 37(2): 127-133, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify volume changes and dose variations of rectum and bladder during radiation therapy in prostate cancer (PC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 20 patients with PC treated with helical tomotherapy. Daily image guidance was performed. We re-contoured the entire bladder and rectum including its contents as well as the organ walls on megavoltage computed tomography once a week. Dose variations were analyzed by means of Dmedian, Dmean, Dmax, V10 to V75, as well as the organs at risk (OAR) volume. Further, we investigated the correlation between volume changes and changes in Dmean of OAR. RESULTS: During treatment, the rectal volume ranged from 62% to 223% of its initial volume, the bladder volume from 22% to 375%. The average Dmean ranged from 87% to 118% for the rectum and 58% to 160% for the bladder. The Pearson correlation coefficients between volume changes and corresponding changes in Dmean were -0.82 for the bladder and 0.52 for the rectum. The comparison of the dose wall histogram (DWH) and the dose volume histogram (DVH) showed that the DVH underestimates the percentage of the rectal and bladder volume exposed to the high dose region. CONCLUSION: Relevant variations in the volume of OAR and corresponding dose variations can be observed. For the bladder, an increase in the volume generally leads to lower doses; for the rectum, the correlation is weaker. Having demonstrated remarkable differences in the dose distribution of the DWH and the DVH, the use of DWHs should be considered.

15.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 2, 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced radiotherapy (RT) techniques allow normal tissue to be spared in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). This work aims to evaluate toxicity and outcome after neoadjuvant image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) as helical intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with reduced margins based on MRI-based target definition in patients with STS. METHODS: Between 2010 to 2014, 41 patients with extremity STS were treated with IGRT delivered as helical IMRT on a tomotherapy machine. The tumor site was in the upper extremity in 6 patients (15%) and lower extremity in 35 patients (85%). Reduced margins of 2.5 cm in longitudinal direction and 1.0 cm in axial direction were used to expand the MRI-defined gross tumor volume, including peritumoral edema, to the clinical target volume. An additional margin of 5 mm was added to receive the planning target volume. The full total dose of 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions was sucessfully applied in 40 patients. Two patients received chemotherapy instead of surgery due to systemic progression. All patients were included into a strict follow-up program and were seen interdisciplinarily by the Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Radiation Oncology. RESULTS: Thirty eight patients that received total RT total dose and subsequent resection were analyzed for outcome. After a median follow-up of 38.5 months cumulative OS, local PFS and systemic PFS at 2 years were determined at 78.2, 85.2 and 54.5%, respectively. Two of 6 local recurrences were proximal marginal misses. Negative resection margins were achieved in 84% of patients. The rate of major wound complications was comparable to previous IMRT studies with 36.8%. RT was overall tolerable with low toxicity rates. CONCLUSIONS: IMRT-IGRT offers neoadjuvant treatment for extremity STS with reduced safety margins and thus low toxicity rates. Wound complication rates were comparable to previously reported frequencies. Two reported marginal misses suggest a word of caution for reduction of longitudinal safety margins.


Assuntos
Extremidades/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Sarcoma/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(2): 131-144, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aims to evaluate both early and late toxicity profiles of patients receiving immediate postoperative radiotherapy (RT; adjuvant RT or additive RT) compared to salvage RT. METHODS: We evaluated 253 patients with prostate cancer treated with either immediate postoperative (adjuvant RT, n = 42; additive RT, n = 39) or salvage RT (n = 137). Thirty-five patients received salvage treatment but did not achieve a postoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA) level <0.1 ng/ml and thus were excluded from analysis. RESULTS: A significantly higher rate of early grade 1/2 proctitis in the immediate postoperative RT group without additional pelvic RT was observed (p = 0.02). Patients in the immediate postoperative RT group without additional pelvic RT showed significantly more early urinary tract obstructions (p = 0.003). Toxicity rates of early (<3 months) and late (3-6 months) postoperative RT were similar (p > 0.05). Baseline recovery rate of erectile dysfunction was better in patients with immediate postoperative RT without additional pelvic RT (p = 0.02; hazard ratio (HR) = 2.22, 95%-confidence interval, 95%-CI: 1.12-4.37). Recovery rate of urinary incontinence showed no significant difference in all groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients receiving immediate postoperative RT (adjuvant or additive RT) without additional pelvic RT experience early gastrointestinal (GI) side effect proctitis and, as well as early genitourinary (GU) toxicity urinary tract obstruction more frequently than patients treated with salvage RT. Therefore, complete recovery after surgery is essential. However, we suggest basing the treatment decision on the patient's postoperative clinical condition and evaluation of any adverse risk factors, since many studies demonstrate a clear benefit for immediate postoperative RT (adjuvant or additive RT) in terms of oncological outcome.


Assuntos
Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Reto/efeitos da radiação , Terapia de Salvação , Sistema Urinário/efeitos da radiação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Terapia Combinada , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proctite/etiologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Retenção Urinária/etiologia
17.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 195(3): 207-217, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386864

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For a large or symptomatic brain metastasis, resection and adjuvant radiotherapy are recommended. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HFSRT) is increasingly applied in patients with a limited number of lesions. Exact target volume definition is critical given the small safety margins. Whilst technical advances have minimized inaccuracy due to patient positioning and radiation targeting, little is known about changes in target volume. This study sought to evaluate potential changes in the resection cavity of a brain metastasis. METHODS: In all, 57 patients treated with HFSRT after surgical resection of one brain metastasis between 2008 and 2015 in our institution were included in this study. Gross tumor volume (GTV) of the initial metastasis and the volume of the resection cavity in the post-operative, planning, and follow-up MRIs were measured and compared. RESULTS: The mean cavity size decreased after surgery with the greatest change of -23.4% (±41.5%) occurring between post-operative MRI and planning MRI (p < 0.01). During this time period, the cavity volume decreased, remained stable, and increased in 79.1, 3.5, and 17.4%, respectively. A further decrease of -20.7% (±58.1%) was perceived between planning MRI and first follow-up (p < 0.01). No significant difference in pattern of change could be observed depending on the volume of initial GTV, size of the post-operative resection cavity, initial or post-resection FLAIR (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery) hyper-intensity, postsurgical ischemia, or primary tumor. The resection cavities of patients with post-operative ischemia were significantly larger than resection cavities of patients without ischemia. CONCLUSION: The resection cavity seems to be very dynamic after surgery. Hence, it remains necessary to use very recent scans for treatment planning.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Hipofracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
18.
Cancer Med ; 8(1): 128-136, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For Glioblastoma (GBM), various prognostic nomograms have been proposed. This study aims to evaluate machine learning models to predict patients' overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) on the basis of clinical, pathological, semantic MRI-based, and FET-PET/CT-derived information. Finally, the value of adding treatment features was evaluated. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-nine patients were retrospectively analyzed. We assessed clinical, pathological, and treatment information. The VASARI set of semantic imaging features was determined on MRIs. Metabolic information was retained from preoperative FET-PET/CT images. We generated multiple random survival forest prediction models on a patient training set and performed internal validation. Single feature class models were created including "clinical," "pathological," "MRI-based," and "FET-PET/CT-based" models, as well as combinations. Treatment features were combined with all other features. RESULTS: Of all single feature class models, the MRI-based model had the highest prediction performance on the validation set for OS (C-index: 0.61 [95% confidence interval: 0.51-0.72]) and PFS (C-index: 0.61 [0.50-0.72]). The combination of all features did increase performance above all single feature class models up to C-indices of 0.70 (0.59-0.84) and 0.68 (0.57-0.78) for OS and PFS, respectively. Adding treatment information further increased prognostic performance up to C-indices of 0.73 (0.62-0.84) and 0.71 (0.60-0.81) on the validation set for OS and PFS, respectively, allowing significant stratification of patient groups for OS. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-based features were the most relevant feature class for prognostic assessment. Combining clinical, pathological, and imaging information increased predictive power for OS and PFS. A further increase was achieved by adding treatment features.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/classificação , Glioblastoma/classificação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(11)2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463322

RESUMO

Gliomas are primary brain tumors that present the majority of malignant adult brain tumors. Gliomas are subdivided into low- and high-grade tumors. Despite extensive research in recent years, the prognosis of malignant glioma patients remains poor. This is caused by naturally highly infiltrative capacities as well as high levels of radio- and chemoresistance. Additionally, it was shown that low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation enhances migration and invasion of several glioma entities which might counteract today's treatment concepts. However, this finding is discussed controversially. In the era of personalized medicine, this controversial data might be attributed to the patient-specific heterogeneity that ultimately could be used for treatment. Thus, current developments in glioma therapy should be seen in the context of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced migration and invasion. Due to the natural heterogeneity of glioma cells and different radiation responses, a personalized radiation treatment concept is suggested and alternative radiation concepts are discussed.

20.
Clin Transl Radiat Oncol ; 13: 44-49, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345398

RESUMO

Introduction: Prospective clinical trials are essential to translate new therapy concepts or rather any scientific development into the medical routine. Besides a sophisticated trial protocol, the success of clinical trials depends on patient recruitment and participation. Patient recruitment remains a challenge and depends on several factors. To get a current picture of the patients' attitude, we conducted the present survey. Methods: We designed a survey with seven questions, which was given to all oncological patients treated within a timeframe of three months between Mai and July 2017. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. The questionnaire mainly inquires patients' participation in clinical trials in a university-based setting, their attitude towards clinical trials regarding risks and benefits, and their source of information in this context. Results: 771 patients (1:1 male/female) participated with a median age of 61 years (range 18-91 years) with a response rate of 71.5%. Of all, 17.8% (137/771) were participating in a clinical trial. The most mentioned reason was to serve medical progress and cancer research. Out of the patients not currently participating in a trial, 79 (12.7%, 79/623) refusers named the following main reasons: extensive travel time to the clinic, no therapeutic advantage, and too time-consuming. Out of the patients not offered to take part in a trial, 265 (51.0%, 265/520) would participate if offered. Of all patients, 8.3% (64/771) used the clinics' homepage as a source of information, of those 79.7% (51/64) were satisfied with its content. To enhance patient recruitment strategies, we asked how patients wish to be informed about possible trials: More than half (52.0%) of the questioned patients preferred an individual medical consultation with their physician.We further analyzed the trial participation depending on age, gender, unit, and tumor entity. We could show a significant influence of age (p < 0.001) but not for gender (p = 0.724). The trial participation was also significantly associated with the treating unit (p < 0.001) and tumor entity (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Patients are willing to participate in clinical trials. Better information strategies need to be implemented. Physicians need to be aware of running trials within their department and must counseling counsel patients effectively to improve recruitment. Trial concepts should keep in mind patients' needs including an adequate number of appointments, positive risk-benefit profiles, and information material.

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